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HINC LIBRLM 

CUM ALUS 

COLLKGIO JLVENTL TIS SUAE ET JUVENTUTI COLLKGII 

DONO LEGAVIT 

AI.FREDUS GULIELMUS STRATTOX, M.A., Ph.D. 

HUJUS UNIVERSITATIS ET COLLEGII 

IX LITTERI.S GRAECIS ET LATIMS OLIM ALLM.NIS, 

INIVERSITATIS JOHNS HOPKINS SCHOLARIS ET SOCKS, 

UNIVERSITATIS CHICAGO PRAELECTOR, 

UNIVERSITATIS LAHORE APUD INDOS 

LINGUAE SANSCRITICAE PROFESSOR ET REGISTRARIUS : 

ANTE niE.M OBHT FEBRI .MELITENSI IN MONTIBUS KASHMIR 

AIGUSTO .MENSE A.D. 1902 TRIGINTA SEX ANNOS NATUS. 



" Dulces exuviae dum fata deusque sinebant." 

' Resj)iciebat nos antique flumine Gaiigi traiisito : 
respexit, flumen majus magisque antiquum transiturus. 

".After life's fitful fever he sleeps well. " 












V^-' 












:^^^.: 



y^k^r 



CTERAR Y 



SYNTAX 



THE GREEK LANGUAGE, 

ESPECIALLY OP THE ATTIC DIALECT, 

dTor tijc U^c of ^djoolsi : 



DR. Jc^^N.^-'MADVIG, 

PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVEESITY OF COPENHAGEN. 



TKA>' SLATED FROM THE GERMAN 

BY THE EEV. 

HENRY BROWNE, M.A. 

AND EDITED BY THE KEV. 

THOMAS KERCHEVER ARNOLD, M.A. 

LATE EECTOB OF LYNDON, 
AND FOEMEHLY FELLOW OF TEINITY COLLEGE, CAMBEIDGE. 

TOGETHER WITH AN 

APPENDIX ON THE GREEK PARTICLES, BY THE TRANSLATOK 



SECOND EDITION. 



l^n\Y 



RIVINGTONS, 

1873. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

PAGE 

On the Connexion of Words and Sentences ....•• 1 86 
Chapter I. On the Agreement of the Subject and Predicate ; of the Substan- 
tive and Adjective : — and on the Impersonal form of Expression 1 
II. On the Use of the Article 7 

III. The Cases. Nominative and Accusative 19 

IV. Dative 31 

V. Genitive 40 

VI. Appendix to the Doctrine of Cases : of the Prepositions, especially 

such as govern several cases ■ . . . . • • . O' 

VII. The Verb and its kinds, and the Gerundive 66 

VIII. The relations of Adjectives (and Adverbs), especially the degrees 

of Comparison . . . . . . • • • . / 

IX. Peculiarities in the Adjective construction of the Demonstrative 

and Relative Pronouns, and in their relations to the Sentence . 77 

PART II. 

The relations of Propositions one to another, especially the way of denoting 

the mode or manner of Predication, and the time of the thing predicated 87—207 
Chapter I. The Moods in general, and especially the Indicative and its 

Tenses : the Indicative with av 87 

98 
108 
126 
127 
155 



II. The Subjunctive (Conjunctive) and its Tenses 

III. The Optative and its Tenses : the Optative with av 

IV. The Imperative ....... 

V. The Infinitive and its Tenses .... 

VI. The Participle 

VII. Peculiarities in the Connexion of Co-ordinate Sentences, and of 

Principal and Accessory Sentences. Interrogative Sentences . 171 



vi Contents. 

PACE 

Chapter VIII. The Negations 189 

IX. (Aiipeudix to Parts I. and II.) Certain particular Irregularities 

of Construction ......... 202 

PART III. 
The Order and Position of Wort's and Sentences ..... 208 — 210 



APPENDIX (by the Translator). 

ON THE USE AND MEANING OF THE PARTICLES. 

§ 221. Office of Particles generally . 211 

§ 222 — 226. Kal. Ka\ yap. el kul ib. 

§227,228. re .213 

§ 229. 8e. Kal 81 ov8e, /X7?6e . . . ' . . ' . . . .214 

§ 230. /ieV 215 

S -'^l — l-o3. fiTjv. Ka\ firjp. Kal jjltjv ye. koI fj.r]v Kai. dWa fxrjv. dW ov fiifv. 

ye t^riv ib. 

§ 234— 23(j. dr). Kal 87']. ixiu8j] 216 

§ 237. 8!JTa 217 

§ 238. 8ai 218 

§ 239. —Be, —6ev. 8ijeeu ib. 

§ 240. 8r]TTOv6ev ib. 

§ 241. ei^v ■ .' .' .' .' ■ ib." 

§ 242. ^'Sr; {8{^v) jb. 

§ 243, 244. viiv. vvv, vv, end 219 

§ 245. VT]. pal. fid ib. 

§ 24G. TJ. rj fXI^V. ^ TTOV. dW TJ ib. 

§ 247. Trep {Ka'mep) 220 

§248 — 251.76. Kal ye. 8e ye. el ye, el — ye. ye pr]v. ye 8r]. ye pep 8t}. 

ye Toi. ye Toi 8t] . . . . ib. 

§ 252 — 256. rot. KuiToi. KaiToi ye. pevroi Kal pevroi. ye pePTOi. fjroi (from 

^), ^Vot (fronir;). ovTOi, pijTOC. prjTOi — ye 222 

§ 257 — 259. pa, tip. upa 224 

§ 260, 261. yap 99g 

§ 262, 263. apa ; apd ye ; itp ovp ; up ov ; apa p^ ; 227 

§ L'64— 269. oSp. aXX' oSp, S' ovp. eir ovv. yodp. ydp ovp. pS,p. o^kovv, 

ovKovp. pep oui/ ..... ib 

§ 270. Toipvp 230 



Contents. 



Vll 















PAGE 


§271. 


Toiyap. ToiydpToi. Toiyapovv . . . . 








. 230 


§ 272, 


273. TTov, cncl. drjTTOv. hrjTTOvdev 










ib. 


§274. 


TTOTe, end. (SijTTOTe) 










231 


§275- 


—282. dXKd. dXX' apa. aXX' rj ; aXXa — yap. c 
dWd, ov yap oKkd. aXX' rj (aXX' ij) . 


)i p^ 


> aXX( 


t, oil 


pevTO 


ib. 


§ 283- 


—285. rj {tJtoi, rJToi — yi) {paXXov fj ov) 










235 


§286- 


—296. ov and firj. ov pfj. pr] ov . 










236 


§ 297- 


-302. av {Keu) 










240 


§303. 


o0pa. v(j)p' av, o(f)pa Kev .... 










244 


§ 304. 


ecos. Tew? . . 










ib. 


§305. 


'icrre {pexP'-^' «XP'^) 










ib. 


§306. 


TVpLV. 77/3/1' av . . ... 










ib. 


§ 307. 


coff {as = els) ...... 










245 


§ 308. 


ws 










248 


§309. 


axTTe ........ 










ib. 


§310. 


OTTCOS {OVX OTTCOS , dXXtl) . . . . . 










249 


§311. 


iva {iv av) ....... 










250 


§ 312. 


oTi {ovx oTi — , dXXd). 8l6ti. (o, rt Taxia-ra) 










251 


§313. 


oTf. Tore. TTore; Snore 










2.52 


§314. 


OTTOV ........ 










ib. 


§315. 


eVei. eVeiSij. eTreiddv ... 










ib. 


§316. 


et. edv. etre. ei'^e ..... 










ib. 


§317. 


ft ye. etTrep. /cat et. et (fai 










253 


§318. 


elra. eneiTa ...... 










ib. 


5 319. 


en ....... . 










254 



Index 1 255 

Index II . 265 



^ 



PART I. 

ON THE CONNEXION OF WORDS IN SENTENCES. 

CHAPTER L 

On the agreement of the Subject and Predicate ; of the Substantive 
and Adjective : — and on the Impersonal form of expression. 

a) The verb of the predicate conforms to the subject in person § I- 
and number. But with a phiral subject o-f the neuter g-ender, the (^") 
verb stands in the singular. With a dual subject of the masculine or 
feminine gender, the verb not unfrequently stands in the plural, when 
no stress is laid on the fact of there being precisely two. (The first 
person of the dual is not used in prose.) To) ^evay rcoSe (TO(f)(o koI 
(f^lXo) icTTov €/jico {PL Gorg. 487). '!! Ad-)(ri<i koX 'Nlklu, etTraTOV i^fiiv, 
rlvi St] heivoTCLTw av^/'^e^ovarov irepi tt]^ twv veSiv Tpo(f)i]<; {PI. Pack. 
186). Feyo? Kul fiepo-i ov ravTov earov {PI. Pol. 203). — -'OTrXa ov 
TrdpecTTiv. Ta koXA rrjv -yjrvxw evcfipalvet,. — Aore •jrapaSeLj/xa rif^tv, o) 
Ad-^Tjq KoX ^iKia, Tiva<i m (pavXcov Ka\ov<i re Kol dyadoij^ eTTonjaare 
{PI. Pack. 187). OvTco 8idK€La6ov av re Kai 6 dSe\(p6<i, coaTrep el to) 
^etpe, a<i 6 6eo<; eVi, rw avWapuj^dveiv dWifKaiv iiroLrjaev, dcf)6/jLev(o 
rovTov rpdiT otvTO iirl to hiaKoSkveiv dWi'fKco {Xen. Mem. 2, '6, IS). 
Qepaayopa'? kol 'E^?/«:e(TTo? wkovv ev Aea/Sco {Petu. 23, 113). Ov 
')(^pdofJbeda Tovroa eycb koX 6 dhek(f)6<; {PL Putltjjd. 273). 

Rem. 1. The occurrence of a plural verb with & plural subject of the neuter 
gender is a rare exception : ^avepa rjcrav kol Itt-itwv kol avdpcaTrcov i-x^r] noXXd 
(Xen. Anah. 1, 7, 17). Ta rik-q AaKeSaifioficov (the Lacedaemonian authorities) Bpa- 
<Ti8av i^eirepL'^av (Thuc. 4, 88). 

Rem. 2. Now and then we meet with the plural of a substantive with reference 
to two objects : e. g. Avo ai^Spa? ex« {Xen. Aiiah. 4, 1, 22). Avoiu ovopaai xP'^^^'^c- 
{PI. Sop/i. 244), a/x^oTepo) TO) naldi and oi a-rpaTrj-yol d/xc^dre/joi, and then a plural 

CHAP. I.] B 



2 Agreement cf ^ 'cdicate. [§ i. 

"snti'tf^ '^ "H= F- ^ — -T -^Vo ;*5 verb eitt ^ ^ ^al or in the plnral (or. if it : r 

of rv -: Aic r^:,^r^ eWoF (Pi. Poi. 282). 'Ecrr. 

a^or - - %;^,22»«). 

Rem. 3. In the poets, the piurai oi t'ae fir^t peTSon is sometimes used instead of 
tHe ^insrulsr ; :_• r ;t *:'::'= r ":~r? onlr when a writer sp-eaks of himself as an author: 
Ot tixnle. ; 3e!en, Eur. Tr. 9«>4). 'Oaa e-»v66fu6a wept Kvpov, 

TOiTo E-E!- ^'?"- ^^- 1- 1^ 6). (In the masculine gender, 

eren of a r^i/o-ioc. iii-tc l^cIc Li - AX-nrate specmeation of the indi- 

Tidoal) : bvx ap as eamvi^mxi - = . Hecuba, Eur. Hec. oil). 

b) The adjective or participle of the predicate conforms to the 
subject ia number, gender, and case : in the same way everv adjective 
(participle) conforms to the substantive to which it is, whether atiri- 
l ' ' -'I'j. attached: Tgj avtpe rovray (Kpirta? Kai ^Wki- 

1, 2, l-kj. Hapea/j-ev &K hrihei^ovre kcll },icd^6vTe. idv rt? iOiXTj 
fiaiOdveiv (FL Euthud. 274). 'Kfyrj/xara dvev vov ^Xa^epa "/rfvercu. 
TLdirra KaXkica ji^p^aOcu d)i\ei Bepajreiof; tirfydvavTa. 

Reh. 1. With dual subjects ' ' 'r. as appofifion or predicate (hut not 

as aftributirel, sometimes star . /iral : "EycXoo-dnjF ofH^ ^Xh^aarres els 

aXXf;XaiJS (PI. Bitthyi. 273). 

R^if. 2. With a diial srihipct of the feminine gender there is sometimes found 

a participle of ": -;'".' ::^tc «u ayarre [PL PhiEd. 237 *). 

Eeii. 3. a r; r a neuter subject in the plural 

r-i-iCer, may tike a ^i-^di^j^iiic^ a>ijcxtive ia the neuter of the singular, when it 

i r~ : res, is s ^^rier^l wav, the eitenee of a certain c/«ijr? of objects : Howijpay 6 ovko- 

i<p<ijiTriS Of - ^. 242). ^ KirBfvifTTepov yurij asr^po^ {Pt- P^-p. O. 455). Ot 

' roioLTTo* c: - ^ jifiayrepov troiuCoviri j^pfTjfurra ^ d6€\(jxnts (Jte/J. Jdem. 2. 3, 1). 

RE3f. 4. "^Vlien a neuter adjectiTe with the verb eari is predicated cf an infini- 

t:v5. ir s'lnetimes (espec-iaRj in the older writers) stands in the plural : OepoiK it' 

Llvyara ^v e^nTTpareveiM rols AloXov ytiaois {Thuc. 3, 88). Also in 

L expressions, especially with the gerundives, the adje<ftive is sometiines 

u.:c^:. ii^ tie plural of the neuter gender: aoke^Tp-ea iarlp {Thuc. 1, 88). 

Koi- 5. Instead of a predicauTe nc-z ":d"L sL^t. yLyvofiai, a demonstrative or 
relative pronoun of the neuter gend-- i-ed, to indicate a prec-eding 

pre<ii<:ate : for two. afiifwrepov. oihir^ - _ IBcVepa mar also be used: 'O 

fiev Suuuoi (ppom^s re rai aya£6s. 6 C€ acmoi oloerepa {PI. Pep. 1. 349). The 
words last mentioned maj ali«j be referred to verbs: 'keyeiv ^ ypatftev if 
ati(p&Fepa {' or loth '). 

'Rex. 6. The verb ehcu is connected, not onlv with local adverbs (e. g. [uucpav 
eipxu, to be far o^ct aitay, x^P^ eimu. to he apart, hy itself), but also with the 

* 'Yxrrx ml er rdis aXXais iroXeatv ap\ovTes re koi li^fios {PL Pep. 5, 463 ; there 
are — ). S - — • - •- ,vgg co-rt, ylyverai, in the poets also ^p, before a mas- 

culine or fer. the pluraL 

- For the '^ .-. - . ..e article and certain pronouns that are common to the 

maficuline and feininine gender, see the Accidence. 

[part I. 



§ 2.] Agreement of Subject and Predicate. 3 

adverb ^rqv, e. g. fiarrjv eoTt to fiefiyrjaOai irepi Tovrcav (Isocr. Pane^. 5). CAAi? [§ ij 
cVrtV.) In the same way the impex^onal icrr'iv, it is =: if ingoing on [well, ill, «fcc.) 
is used \vith adverbs, e. g. »caXwf eo-roi, OTrore'pms earrai. With local adverbs yiyvea-6ai 
also is used. e.g. iyyvrfpov ylyvfadaij to come nearer, X'^P'-^ 7-j ^'X" yiyv^o^o-i, to 
separate (to come into the state of being fomid at two places). 

a) Tvhen tu-o or more subjects of different persons are spoken of § 2. 
together, they are connected with the first or second person of the (212, 
plural [with the frst, if any one of them is of that person] : Trjv ^^^^ 
Teyyiiv ravTTjv ijo) re Kal 6 Trartjp aaKOv/xev. Kat crv Kal 01 a^e\(hol 
Traprjcrre, except when peculiar prominence is to be given to the 
nearest subject (by making the rerb confonn to it) : Tavra kol crv koX 
TTfitTe? ol rare Trapovre^ Icracriv. (—v re 'EXX»/y el Kal rj/u-el^. Xen. 
Anab. 2, 1, 16.) 

b) When several connected subjects of the singular number are 
living creatures, especially yjer^ow-?, they usually take the predicate in 
the plural : two in the dual : if they are of different genders, the pre- 
dicate, if capable of distinction of sex, is masculine : Kpfr/a? kuX 
\WKi;3idh]^ IcoKpdret wpuXeir-qv {Xen. Jlem. 1, 2, 40). Kai 1) "/vvrf 
Kal 6 dvrjp'dyadoi elcnv {PL Men. 73). The singular, however, is also 
used when the predicate is a single verb and precede-^ the subjects, 
only the nearest subject being then regarded : ''Ia-a>9 dvaSwerai koX 
avvepel rf] jSovX.^ ^i\.i7r7ro<; Kal WxTiyei'Tj^ Kal 6 dirriypaipev^ {Pern. 
22, 8S). ^H/cey 6 Qepaayopa^ Kal E^?;/(:ecr709 eh Xe<7j3ov Kal aKovv 
€K€l {Pern. 23, 143). ('Ea: rojv "Trarpoxov Opiylrerat (6 rvpavvos) avTO^ 
re Kal ol aufiiroTac re Kal kralpot, Kal eralpai, PL Pep. S, 56^.) 

<:) If the connected subjects are things and impersonal notions, 
then the predicate may either conform only to the nearest subject (so 
that aU the subjects are conceived as one, or, it may be, the nearest 
is rendered prominent), or be placed in the plural, the pluralitj/ and 
distincfwii being both alike regarded. (For several subjects of the 
neuter gender, the verb always stands in the singular, according to 
§ 1, a.) Toil' r)/j.€TepQ)v KaKwv 1) rwv irdXiTOiv ardai<; Kal 6 TroXefio^ 
alrto^ ecrnv. Oi e/xol TrXaroi Kal za'XaLirwpiai Kal rd TToWd '<ln](hicrfULTa 
TOUTO aTreipydcraro {Pem. 18, 2 IS), —oota Kal vov^ dvev yp-in^fj^ ovk 
dv TTore yei'oladi)v {PL P/iiL oO). If, in the last case, the predicate is 
such a verb as expresses no independent notion, with an adjectiTe or 
participle, if the subjects are of different genders, the predicate is 
always neuter : if they are of the same gender (masculine or feminine) 
it is most commonly neuter (the subjects in general being regai-ded as 
things, oijects), and then the verb also stands in the sinjjulai": IldXe- 
IjLO^ Kal ordain oXetPpia rah ':7o\eaa' ecrnv. KdWo9 Arat ict^j^ BeiXa 

CHAP. I.] B 2 



■ 4 Agreement of Subject and Predicate. [§3. 

[§ 2.] KOLi KaKU) ^vvoLKovvra airpeTTr) (paiveTat (PI. 3Ieu. '^46) . ^d6vo<; Kal 
epeo? evavTia ioriv. (Less commonly : (jiOova koI €pco<; evavrLot,\) 

d) If several plural subjects of different genders are connected, 
then, with respect to the gender of the predicate, the rule given under 
h and c holds good : ElSof viov<i re Koi via<; 6jjiiXovvTa<; (l)L\o(f)p6i>(o<; 
aXkr'iXoi'; {PL Legg. 9, 835). 'Ywv Bvvarcov koX ol (})66voi koX ol 
epojTe? heivoi. TioXejJLOL kuI crTaaei^ okeOpia ral^ TroXecriv. Also, when 
the subjects are of the same gender (masculine or feminine), the pre- 
dicate ma^ be neuter (denoting things, in a general way, according to 
c] : Tapayal kol ajdaei^ oXedpia Tal<i iroXecnv [are minons things). 

Rem. 1. When of several subjects the nearest (to the verb), is in the sirigulav 
(or in the plural, but of the neuter gender), the rest in the plural, then the 
predicate may conform either to the nearest alone, or to all of them : ^AdfjPTjo-i 
Koi oi TTivrjTfs Kcu 6 STj/xos nXfov f;(et Twvyfvvaiaiv kuI toiv ttKovctiuiv (-STew. jitk. Pol. 
1, 2). ^apKfs Ka\ vevpa (^ alfj-aros yiyveTai (PI. Tim. 82). At Ta>v AaKedaifjiovioiv 
afiapTiai kcu ■jrapauKivr] xnro rr]S vKr]^ uv brika rjv Tois 'Adrjvaiois [Thuc. 4, 29). 
(is'ow and then the predicate conforms to a more remote subject, which is at the 
same time the most important one : BacrtXevs koi oi <jvv avra ela'sriTrrei ds to 
Kvpeiov aTparomdov, S^en. Anah. 1, 10, 1.) 

Eem. 2. If the subjects are connected by the disjunctive ij, the predicate, as 
a general rule, conforms only to the nearest; sometimes, however, it is referred to 
both. With rj — TJ, ovT( — ovT(, the predicate nearly always conforms only to the 
nearest subject. 

f ■> Sometimes the natural quality and character of the predicate is more regarded, 

(21") than the grammatical form of the word employed. 

a) In the case of a collective, denoting living beings, the predicate sometimes 
refers to the individuals comprehended under it, and stands in the plui-al, and in 
the natural gender (i. e. that of the objects designated) : 'Adrjvaiuiv to ttXtjOos 
'imrap^ov o'lovTai vcj)' 'App.o8iov Kol ' ApicrToyfiTovos Tvpavvov ovtu dnoSavelv (Thuc. 

1, 20). IloXi) ycvos dvBpaiTTcov toIs pip €k tijs yrjs (pvop.evois eis Tpocprjv ov -)(^p<i>VTai, 
diTO St ^ocrKrjpaTuiv yakaKTL (cut Tvpai Kai Kpiciai Tpe(f>6pevoi foxrt (^cn. Anah. 4, 3, 10). 
So also a participle, added aj:>positirelg, stands in the plural : To aTpaTfvpa fTTopi^eTo 
cr'iTov, OTTcos e^vvaTo, eK Ttav VTTo^vyicoi>, KowTOVTes tovs jSois kol ovovs (2Len. Anab. 

2, 1, 6). 

b) If persons are denoted figuratively by neuter substantives, or men by feminine 
substantives, the predicate (or a participle as apposition) is sometimes added in the 
plural: "ESo^t tois AaKebaipoviois, to. teAtj (that the authorities) KaTa{idvTas is to 
aTpaTonedov ^ovXiveiv (Thuc. 4, 15). UfVTrjKovTa Tpirjpds toiv 'ABTjvaimv TrXeova-ai 
fls A'lyvTTTov 'iaxov (landed) KUTa to Mevbrjaiov Kepas, ovk tlSoTes Tav yey€vi]pfV(t)V 
ovbiv (Thuc. 1, 1 LO). ('AX/cij3iafij;s ecopa ttjv jroXiv eavTW tvvovv ovaav Kai aTpaTijyov 
avTov r)pTjp.ivovs, Xen. Hell. 1, 4, 12, — and that //iej/, namely, the Athenians, — .) 

c) A subject in the singular, to which another personal name is attached by 
avv or ptTa, is sometimes considered as a 2^tural subject, when stress is to be laid 

' 'H koXX/cttt; 77oXiTfia Te Ka\ 6 KaWiUTOi dvijp Xoijra icrrtv Tjpiv 8u\6elv, PL Sep. 
8, 562 (a non-personal notion and a person). 
, [part I. 



§ 4 — 6-] Agreement of Subject aiid Predicate. 5 

on the community of action: Arjuocrdevris /xera tS)V ^vcrrpaTrj-ymv (nvivhovrai [§ 3.] 
'MavTivevaiv [Thuc. 3, 109). 

AVheu the predicate consists of a substantive (or a word used sub- § 4. 
stantively); with elfjui, 'yi'yvofiaL, or any of the other verbs that cannot (216) 
express a complete predicate, the verb nearly always conforms to 
the substantive, and is o-enerally placed close by it : Ot crojiiaraX 
(pavepd icTTL \a)^rj re koX hia(f)6opa rwv avyyi'yvojjbevcov {PI. Me)i. 91).j 
KItlov ijeveTO t?)9 aTroaroXy^ rcov vecov ol iroXkol twv Xt'coi' ovic\ 
elhore'i ra irpaaao/jieva {T/nic. 8, 9, the rea.w)i of the ships leinj senv 
teas — ). To ■)((iipLov rovTo vpoTepov evvea ohol eKaXovvTO [Thuc. 4, 102). 
TldvTa, ocra inro ttohjtcop XeyeraL, Siijjrio-L'; ova a rv'y')(aveL rj yeyovoTcov 
rj ovTcov rj /jieWovTcov {PI. Rej). 3, 392). Tr)y rjhovrjv SccoKere &)? 
djadov 6v {PI. Prot. 354). 

A more special distinction by means of the words SXkos, aXKo {aWodep, &c.), § 5* 
6 fxev — 6 8e, €Ka(TTos (of two, eKarepos) is often attached to a plural subject (217, 
■without exerting any influence upon the predicate ; sometimes, however, the R. 2) 
predicate conforms to this apposition (only, however, when it follows it) : 'Os 
flSovfi elcriovra, evdvs, noppadeu 7]cnTd^ovTo aXkos (iXXodev [PI. Charm. 153). Eyco 
Tf KOI o-y pctKpbv \6yov efccirfpoy aTreTeivapev (PL Prot. 361). — UeXoTTovvija-ioi Travrts 
ij'6\lrrj(poi ovres Koi oi^ 6p6(f)vKoi ro ecf)' favTuv eKucTTos cnrevdet {Thuc. 1, 141). Ovroi 
ciWos uXXa Aeyf t [Xen. Analj. 2, 1, 15). (Cf. on the partitive gen. § 50, a. Eem. 3.) 

IJeji. When one subject is appended to another b}' the comparatire particle 7, 
tlie predicate often conforms to the appended subject : Twi' koivcov aider (tv paXXov 
rj ris aWos e'xet {PL Thecet. 209). 

a) The subject is usually omitted in Greek, when it would be § 6. 
the personal pronoun of the first or second person, without any (20S, 
peculiar emphasis or opposition to other notions (but : a>9 koi rj/j-el^ ^' ^' 
Xeyop.ev koI v/x€l<i ofioXoyelre ') ; so also always, when it is that 
third person, who has hitherto been the subject of discourse, and is 
sufficiently known from the context (whereas, by the use of a demon- 
strative pronoun, the subject is rendered prominent, and distinguished 
from other notions in a marked way, or even opposed to them). 

Rem. Sometimes, by a less careful mode of expression, the third person of a 
verb without a pronoun is so placed, that we must understand it to be spoken of 
some other subject (sufficiently implied by the context), than that of another verb 
in the third person, which preceded it : AlaOopevoL ot ^ABrjvaloi tovs AaKedaipo- 
vLovs 8ia KaTiiyvuxTLv dcrdevetai a-(^wv {Jjecause tlici) considered the Athenians weak) 
7rapaa-K€va(opevnvi, drjXwaai, (iovXopfvoi, on ovk 6pd<os iyvuxaa-iv (namely, ot AaKe- 
baipovioi), aXX' otot re eio-t (namely, ol ^AdTjvmoi), pr) Kivovvrts ro eVi AeV^cp vavriKov, 
KUL TO drro neXoTTovvi^aov fniov pa8ia>s dpvvfaOai, eTrXijpcocrav vavs eKarov {Thuc. 
3, 16). 'A<pavri Tov Tvyrjv yfviadui (j}aa-\v Toty napaKadrjpevois koi diaXiyeaOai, 
(namely, avrovs, tovs ■KapaKaBrjpivovs) wy TrepX oix^ipivov [PL Hep. 306). Some- 

^ Ol aXXoi (rKT]vovpev vnaiOpioi {Xen. Anab. 5, 5, 21, — we others : the rest of us). 
QepLaTOKXrji; rJKco irapa ere {Thuc. 1, 137). 
CHAP. I.J 



6 Agreement of Subject ajid Predieate. [§ 7. 

[§ 6.] times, by an inaccuracy, the expression passes over from a whole class, denoted by 

a plural substantive, to the singular, denoting one of the individuals contained in 

the class: 01 ri^pawot, and then riVfoj/ •yap eVt ap^ei; namely, 6 rvpauvos {^en, 

Hier. 6, 14). 

(20S, (^) The third person of a verb in the plural is sometimes found 

3) Avithout a subject expressed, when it is to be understood of men in 

general ; especially when the thing spoken of is the common opinion 

or common talk of men ; or when particular men are intended, who 

are easily known from the context : Tou? ev 7ra66vra<;, orav 8vvd/j,evot 

-y^dpiv aTToSovvuL /M7J dTToScoaiv, d'^^aplaTOvq KaXovaiv [Xeii. Me))!.. 'Z, 2. 1). 

'O Ni/c/a? {oirep •rrdo'^ovcnv ev toI^ /xeyaXoLi; dyooac) iravra re ep'yco ert 

evoed elvat ivopi^e Kal Xojw oviroi iKavd elprjcrdai, [T/tuc. 7 , 69). (Otten 

<^aai, they say , people say ; it is said.) Too iroTapitp yecpvpat ovk eTreiaiv, 

Sia/3aLvouaL Be eirl a')(ehiwv (namely, the inhabitants of the country). 

^t'!-^' ^^^^ second person of the verb is used, in some kinds of 

^' ^' ' sentences, to denote an assumed indehnite subject : OuSe ^ov\o/x6vo<; 

av evpe<i padi(i)<i rov vvKTcop 'Tropevo/xevov (Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 0, ivould you 

have found, i. e. %voidd a person, anybody, have found). 

Rem. The second person stands in this way only in hypothetical sentences 
with av, of what would have shown itself to be the case in a certain- assumed state 
of things ; and, in subjunctive subordinate sentences, with iav or a relative word 
with av. 'Opwv ravra rjyrjcraio av AaKeSai/xovLOvs novovs tu> ovri r€)(VLTas tu>v 
•nokefxiKuiv dvai {^en. Put. Lac. 13, 5). Oi avor]Tois (f)oj:ioviJ.evoi, ocria uv ixaXXuv 
avTols Bapjjclv irapaKeXdi], ToaovTca ev 8eivoTfpots TjyovvTai elvai (J^e)i. CjjT. 5, 2, 
31). (In Herodotus and tlie poets also the second person of the future in the 
indicative, e. g. Herod. 1, 139.) 

§ 7. ci) The third person plural of several active verbs stands without 
(207. any substantive (or substantivized word) as subject {impersonally) , 

e. t;'. uei, it rains, e^ean (levai), it is permitted, = one {you, &c.) may 

(licet), iS)]Xa>ae, it ivas plain. 

In this way are used in Greek : 
1) Verbs that denote a state of the weather, or certain natural phenomena : as 
vet, vi<pfi, fipovra, dcrrpaTrret, ;(f i/xa^et, crucrKora^et {it is growing dark), eaetae {there 
was an eartliquaJce : a shoe li: was felt). With these verbs some indetiuite being is 
regarded as tlie agent who causes the event (6 ^eos vei, Herod. 2, 13 ; eVf to-ev 6 6)(dj, 
Xtn. Hell. 4, 7, 4; Zei? ^puvra). 

t 2) The verbs which denote gencrall}- the propriety or possibility of an action, 
Bind have for their subject an infinitive, or ace. cum infin., as hii, xpr], Tvpoarjuei., 
jTrpfTTfi, i'^ea-Ti, ey^cope'i, fVd<';^eTat, and also cru/i/3cuVei, it haj^pens. In certain phrases, 
(e;(ft stands in the same way, as : (pvaiv €;^ei, ii is natural, dUrjv i'x^h it is just. 

(3) The verbs fio/cft (/7 .leems; and Avith an infinitive; it seems good, it is resolved), 
eoiKe, and in some connexions 8i]\ol and deiKwai {edrjXuicre, SjjXcotrti, it was manifest, 
will be manifest, bd^ei), with which the thing intended must be mentally supplied. 

1 4) Verbs which (in certain connexions) denote generally the state and progress 
I of circumstances, as eu {koKods, ovtws, oXKods) e\(i., 8e'i (ttoXXov, uXiyov), Trpoxcopel 

[part I. 



§8.] The Article. 7 

(\iQi), it is going on (successfully^), I am succeeding (in any thing): jls tovt1[§ 7.] 
rfKdev, it has come to this, and a few others. (Of relations of time: ^Hj/ d/i^il 
dyopav n\r]6ovaav, it was about the time ichen the market-place fills.) Further! 
^eXei {ciircB est) and ^erafxeXei [fioi, 2^ainitet me). 

5) Some verbs which denote the action of persons appointed to perform it, whenj 
the occurrence of the action is the thing contemplated, without any thought of 
the personal agent: especially, arffialvei, a signal is gicen {eneidav a-T]p.r]vr]), aa'X- 
TTi'^ei {the trumpet sounds), KrjpvTTei {proclamation is made) : {eKrjpv^e). (Avayvai- 
aerai, he shall read, in the orators, of the clerk who was present for the purpose.) 

d) 111 other instances, the action is denoted impersonally by thej 
third person sino-ular of intransitive or intransitively-used verbs :| 
AeyeTai, TOv<i 6eovi; iuro ^io<i /SacTiXeveaOac {Isocr. Nic. 26). I^vpa- 
Kovaiot rov<i Meyapel^ tou? iv rfj 2tKeA,/a dvearrjaav, coaTrep Kal irporepov 
fjbOi etprjTat [Thuc. Q, 94) . Ovk aXXw? avToi^ ireirov'qrai [PL PhfJid. 232) . 
'EvretS^ irapeaKevaaro toI'^ Kopiv6toi<;, av')]yovro ox? i-rrl vavfMa-)(^Lav 
{Time. 1, 48). '"Oy av Kara-^ri^iaQri^ airoKTeiveiv herjaei [PL Pol. 299). 
(AeSo/trat, it is resolved) . 

Rem. 1. This use is, however, for the most part, restricted to verbs that 
denote to say {Xeyeiv, ofioXoyelv), and to the perfect and pluperfect of other verbs, 
with an apiDcnded dative of the agent (see on Dat. § 38, g), of the completed 
action, and what has been effected. (On the other hand, the Latin practice, of 
using impersonalltj in the passive voice verbs which govern the dat., e.g. invidetur, 
invidebatur niihi, is not customary in Greek.) 

Rem. 2. Now and then we m.eet with a general impersonal expression (without 
a sentence for its subject), with a neuter adjective (sometimes in tlie plural, 
§ 1, b. R. 4), to denote a relation that exists, and a certain state of afl'airs, 
e. g. eToijxa icrrLv, yiyvfrai {Thuc. 2, 3 ; it is ready = things are in readiness, or all 
is ready) ; (Sdaifj-a jjv, a^ara rju {Xen. Anab. 3, 4, 49) ; ev eiTLderov rjv ivravBa 
{Xen. Anab. 3, 4, 20 ; here it was easy to attack = here was a convenient 
opportunity for attacking). On the Gerundive, see Chap. VII. 

Rem. 3. Observe, that the Greeks occasionally use a personal expression with a 
definite substantive (or substantivized) subject, where in English we use a neuter 
adjective with it is, &c., having a sentence for its subject: as in the case of the 
adjectives cf^avepos, S^Xos (see on the Participle, § 177, b. R. 2), and 8ikuios (see 
on Infiu. § IGo, a. R.). 

CHAPTER 11. 

On IJlc use of the A rticlc. 

The Greek article (like the Eng-lish definite article, the) represents § 8. 
the substantive before which it is placed, as the name or designa- 
tion of a certain definite and known object (as opposed to a repre- 
sentation of some one or other indefinite object amongst several 
of the same kind). It stands, therefore, 1) before the generic names 
CHAP. \\.\ 



. 8 The Article. [§ 8. 

[§ 8-3 of objects which are, in their own nature, isolated and definite^; 2) 
before substantives which denote the whole class designated by the 
substantive (or substantive with its adjective), not any individual 
object; 3) before the names of persons or things, a) which are 
sufficiently distinguished from others by some appended specification 
(adjective, participle, genitive, preposition with its case), or V) which 
have been already mentioned, or follow immediately from what has 
been said, or c) of which it is easily understood, from the circum- 
stances under which they are spoken of, that they, and no others, are 
the objects intended : 'O ovpavo'^, rj ryrj, 6 i]ki,o<i, rj daXaaoa. — 01 
i7r7rei<i. Ta Orjpia. Ot Ittttol KaXklovi rcHyv 6v(ov elaiv. 'O avKOcfyavTr/^ 
{the sycophant, as a class"). Ot aocpol dvSp6<i. Ai Kokal <yvvaiKe<i. 
Ot aXXoL avdpcoTTOt. (^AyaOol dvSpe'i, good men, aXKoi dvdpcoTroc, 
oilier men.) — 'O Trpea/SvTepo^ dSeXc/jo?. OiTrpoTeray/jiii/oi iTTTret?. 'H eTTt 
Tco TTora/xM 7ro'A,t9. H rov irarpo^; oIkiu. — 'O uvyp ovttco rjKeL. Tlov 
01 'ittttol {the horses^ which have been spoken of, and are here meant). 
Ki}po9 dva^d^ evrt rbu Xttttqv to. TTcCkra ei? ra'i ')(elpa'i eXajBev i^Xen. 
Anab. 1, 8, 3, 2^//e javelins =: Ms javelins, it being supposed a hioion 
thing, that javelins made a part of his equipment). Oifo? ev tw ttIQw 
ovK icJTcv (in t/ie cask, t/ie cask in use). Sep^rj'i ayelpa^ rrjv avapi- 
6fX7]Tov arpariav rfk.6ev eTTt rrjv 'EWaSa [Xeu. A)iah. 3, 2, 13, the well- 
known, numerous arwy). 

Keji. 1. The article stands more frequently than in English, to denote an object 
that is defined by its relation to another (subject, object, or relational-object in the 
sentence) : in such cases we generally use a possessive pronoun in English : 
• Oi ifKovcnoi Tot? ;^/3rj/Lia<Tii' i^avoivrai rovs KLvbvvovs (Lys. 24, 17). Touy toiovtovs 
TTarepas ovde ol Trmdes alSeltrdai diivavrai. "lanev iifxas eWLcrfievovs TOis evepyerais 
fieyiarrji' X"/^'" nT7o8i86viu {Isocr, Flat. 1). 

Kkm. 2. With certain words in certain connexions (without an adjective) the 
article is occasionally/ omitted in Greek (as in some similar instances in English), 
although a definite notion is denoted, some peculiarity in the nature or conception 
of the notion having caused, in particular instances, the retention of the old 
manijer of expression, when the use of the article was not yet become general, 
and firmly established. Such words are : 

^a) The names of the large and peculiar portions of external nature {ovpavos, 
yrj, 6a\aa-(Ta, toKfavof, ijXios), especially when a particular point or particular 
manifcstatiou oj them is contemplated : 'EttI BaXciTTrj, on the sea. Ydwp e| j 
ovpavov Tiokv. "HXios avaTeWd, ^Xios idvero, Trepi tjXlov dv(rp.ds {at sunset = the | 
setting of the sun) ; further, sometimes Oeoi and (iudpcaTToi, when it is precisely ihe 
[generic term, that is to be made prominent : Ta iv dvOpanois (Xen. Cyr, 2, 2, 7), 
^ human affairs and institutions. Twv omcov ayadtov kuI KaXav ovdiv avev novov kuI 



~J Bp. Middlcton's 'monadic nouns.' — T. K. A.] 

' a sycophant,' takinj 

[part I. 



[^ "\Vlu>re, however, our idiom allows us to say 'a sycophant,' taking one as the 
type of the class. — T. K. A.] 



§8.] The Article. 9 

eVt^fXe/as ^eol hihoainv dvdpaTroLS {Xen. Mem. 2, 1, 28), and the names of [§ 8.] 
naturally-defined times {a^a eat, at day-break; with the dawn; at the break of 
day ; even when a particular day is meant ; but also a^t-a t^ ecp). 

b) The^term ^acriXevs, when the Persian king is intended (/3ao-iXevj 6 /xeyas).| 
Oi TTpdyoi/oi 01 jSao-tXscos. (Here the article is nearly always omitted.) 

c) The names of virtues^, vices, sciences^ arts, and occupations, when they are 
considered as general conceptions, which may he exhibited in a different form^in 
different persons : Uavra ra Ka\a kol dyada da-Krjrd ecrnv. ovx ■^KLcrra 8e a(.)4>po(rvvT} 
{Xeu. Mem. 1, 2, 23, moderation, or temperance). OvUttot cipa Xvo-ireXeVrepov 
aStKi'a diKuioavvrjs {PL Rep. 1, 354, but also Avo-tTfAeorepoi/ 17 dhiKia Tr]^ biKaioavvps,) ■ 
PL ih. as a single definite notion). 'h.vhp\ kuXm n Kuyada ipyavia Ka\ (Trc(TTT]p.r]\ 
KpaTicrTTj yfcopyla {Xen. CEc. 6, 8). 

d) IloXts, lidTv, dypos, dyopd, relxoy, TreSt'ov, and other local designations, when 
they denote oppositions between the parts of a given and presupposed principal 
locality, and are governed by prepositions ^ : 'Ea-ntpas yevopeinis tj 8ia8oxn ^11 
npoadev (pv'KaKrj i'pxfTai (K iroKeas: {Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 17). AoKeiTe ^ot Trpo? aarv 
wpp^jaBai {PL Pep. 1, 327. to the city, Athens, from the Piran^s ; but shortly before 
drrfjpev irpoi to ckttv). "E^ca "ladpov {Thnc. 1, 62, beyond the Isthmus^ of Corinth, 
but in the same chap, iv tm ''ladpm). 'Ektos ret'xous- and €kt6s tov reixovs (of the 
wall of the city). In the same way sometimes also a-Tparo^, arpaTid. a-rpdTevfxa, 
o-TpaToiredov (and with adjectives as one word, be^iov Kepas, fvavvpov Kepas, the 
right, the left winrj .- Kopivd'iois to piv he^ibv Kepa^ al MfyapiSe? vrjes et'xo" »««' «« 
^ApTTpaKiaTides, ivcovvpov 8e Kipas avTol ol Kopivdioi eixov, Thuc. 1, 48). ( Atto 
Sextos, &c.) 

e) . Na,mes of relationship in certain connexions with an emphatic proniinence 
givei? to the generic term of the relationship : Oi/'rf Trarpos oiire prjTpos ^f I'Serat. 
Ol KapSoiixoi exovres yvvdiKas Koi nalbas^ e(^evyov iirl ra oprj {Xen. Anab. 4, 18, 
with their \\dves and children). 

/) And in general, the article is sometimes omitted when, by the combination 
of two or more opposed members, the expression of the whole is brought out with 
acertain emphasis - : Ava-t? Ka\ xcopto-fto? "^vx^^ diro aapuTos {PL Phad. 07, as in 
English, hodi/ and soul ; but, 64: r] tijs ^vxi^ ""■" ^°^ o-wparoj dTraWayij. ^Ilav- 
aaviai avyKciXtcTas TroXepdpxovs Koi TrevTijKoa-Tripas e'/SouXeiiero {Xen-, Sell. 3, 5, IL). 
'Atto TeXeurijs eV dpxrjv^ [cf. note 1].) 

Rem. 3. A superlative (or other adjective) with a predicative noun, or a 
superlative standine; alone as the predicate, never takes the article in Greek :\ 
nor does it stand with a substantive and the 'superlative of eminence' (denoting' 
only a very high degree, and therefore not distinguishing any particular object as- 
belonging to the highest degree of all) : 'Kvbp\ KaXio Kuyada ipyaaia Kparia-Tr] eWij 
yeapyia {Xen. CEc. 6, 8).. {Ovtoi cf)avepd i(TTi 8iac})fiopa rav^ avyyiyvopfvav, are] 
evidently the ruin of — : PL Men. 91, c.) lidvTCxiv ({)i\opa6€crTaTos Kvpos ^v. Ol\ 
^aa-qXlTUL elcn TTovripoTaToi dvOptoTcav Ka\ dSi/ccorarot {Dem. 35, 2). (Tolito ^apV'^ 



\} Bp. Middleton considers government by a preposition to favour the omission 

of the article generallv. — T. K. A.] 

[- This belongs to Bp. Middleton's head of enumeration,— 'I. K. A.] 

» 'O oTrXtTrjs 8paxp^v tXdp^ave t?)s rjpepas {Thuc. 3, 17, received a drachma a day 

= every day) ; but also BUa, ds dno (pvX^s {Xen. RelL 2, 4, 24, ten, one from each 

Pliyle), eis dno noXfcos {ib. 4, 2, 8). 



CHAP. II.] 



lO 



The Article. [§ 9. 



TaTov icTTi rov (TrpaTev^aTo^, Xen. Cyr. 5, 3, 37, tlie most heavilij-armed division. 
Aid ^paxvTaTOiv, in the shortest way I can.) 

Eem. 4. Tlie Attic poets often omit the article where it must have stood in 
prose, as well before substantives midefined by any added specification, as before 
such as have a genitive or adjective (possessive pronoun) with tbem : e. g. QiipaTo^ 
iTTL(TTaTr)i eiTt(TTr] Tov8e nals 'A)(iX\ea>s {Eur. Hec. 224). IldlSa arjv Krevoiia-iv. 
JJf iMTTovai fj.€ 8i(Taol 'ArpeiSai {Eur. Hec. 510). 'Ekci^tj Kelrai kovu c}){ipov(ra SvcrTrjvou 
Kapa (Eur. Kec. 496). In the old poets (Homer, Hesiod) the usage is still more 
fluctuating. 

a) The adjective or participle by which the substantive is defined, 
stands, with any appended notion dependent on it, either between 
the article and its substantive, oi', with the article repeated, after the 
substantive : 'O ayaQo'i dvi]p. 'O Trdvrcov KoXXiaro^i koX Trdcri (piXTaro^; 
dvrjp. 01 (xrparriyiKoi vofii^ofMevoi dvhpe<;. Ai dpiaTai SoKOvaat eivai 
^ucrei? {Xen. Mem. ■!•, 1,3) . — Ai rifial al TrokiTLKat. Ol arpar^jyol olravra 
^€^ov\€VK6Te<;. (Ta.9 /jue'yu.Xa'; ■y'jSovd'; fcal ra dyaOd rd /jueydXa 7) 
7r€L$(o Kol 7] Kaprepla ical ol iv Kaipat irovoi rrape-)(0VTaL. Xe)i. Cyr. 3, 3, 8.) 

The latter position, that with the article repeated, is, however, the more rare, espe- 
cially in the Attic writers, and is usually emploj-ed only when the object is first 
mentioned, as a notion sufficiently defined in and by itself, and then has a nearer 
specification added to it besides : To retxos -KeptfCkov to Kaivov [Thuc. 4, 51). 'EttI 
r^s veas TTjs diafjiBapeia-rjs {Dem. 34, 2). 

Eem. 1. When the participle has itself a specification (by means of dependent 
words), it not uncommonly happens, that only this nearer specification, or only the 
participle itself, is placed between the article and its sul)srantive : At 7rp6 rod 
(TToparos {he/ore the mouth of the harbour) vrjes vavpaxovaai [Thuc. 7, 23). Ai vn 
Alaxivov ^\ucr(j}r]p[aL elprjpevai {Dem. 18, 126). 'O KaTeLXrjCJias KivBvvos rrjv ttoXlv 
{Uem. 18,220^). 

Eem. 2. The adjective may stand as an apposition, either before the article or 
after the substantive, without repetition of the article, see § 12. Otherwise 'O 
dvjjp KoKos or koKos 6 dvrjp signifies (with eVrtV omitted) the man is hatidsome. 

Eem. 3. Sometimes the article makes its first appearance before the following 
adjective (participle) or prepositional expression, the object being first placed as 
an undefined notion, and then more closely defined: 'ApeTrj? eVt/ca /cat TrpoBvplas 
Tr]s (v (Keivois rot? KivBvvoa yevnpevqs {Thuc. 2, 71). ^KfTtreov, ttcos norf 77 
uKpaTos hiKaioavvT] Tvpbs dhiKiav rrjv aKparov e'xfi {PI. Sep. 8, 535, is related tu). 

b) A preposition with its case is connected atirihidlvely with a sub- 
stantive by means of an article, in the same way as an adjective : 
'H eVl Tft) TTOTa/xw TToXi?. At diTo ^Adrjvcov vr]e<^. Ol a-rpartwrai ol iv 

• Merd tov vcTTfpov ivoXfpov rrji KaOaipiarews tu>v 'A0rjvr]cn rsix^y {Xen. Hell. 5, 1, 
35. _ The specification of an adjective^ appended to it after tlie substantive). The 
placing of a secondary specification before the article is a rare and poetical construc- 
tion : Tovrav tci ivavrla fnL(j)r]pi(rpaTa {Thuc. 7, 75 = rd eV. tovtcov iivi'prjp.) ('OoTtj 
yap rjv eKe'ivov 6 Krurcoz/, Soph. (Ed. T. 139.) 

[part I. 



§ 10.] The Article. Ii 

TV] TToXet. To Te2x,o<; rb irapci tov irorafx.ov. This is also the case with [§ 9-] 
adverbs of flfj/e nndplcice, of what manifests itself at the ii/ne or place 
expressed: 01 irdXai, duOpcoTroi, ihe men qf former daijs ; of ill e olden 
time. 'H Tore Tapa;^?/. (Completely: 'H Tore rapa^j; 7ei^o/Liet'?7.) 'H 
KlcT'^ivov Tore /xiadapvia {Dem. 18, 50). 'H civco TroXt?. 'H irporepov 
airpay/xoa-vvT] {j/our former ^ or j:)revious, inactivitj/ ; t] irpoTepa, ike 
former, oi i wo). Ol ap-^ovre'; ol ^A6)']V7]cri. 'H 7roX,t<? rj vtto tu> opei. 
In this way ayav and Xt'ai/ are also used (17 ayav eVi^u/xta, Time. 6, 24) with navv (6 
iravv IlfpiK\r]i. tJie celebrated Pericles) : as are also a few otlier isolated adverbs, when 
no corresponding adjective exists, or with a peculiar meaning: Ta KciTa.\oyddT]v avy- 
ypdfXfiaTa (Inocr. ap. Nic. 7, j^rose writings). To akr^Oas 0ws {PI. Phced. 109, tlie 
light which is truly light). (Also 'O y6v(o TTaTTjp, Lj/s. 13, 91, the natural father.) 

REii. Now and then a specification which would be properly attached to the 
substantive by an article, is referred less accurately to the verb : ocrot tcov irpa- 
ypiaTciv TTpos Toiis 'Adrj^aiovs p-aXiara peretj)(ov {Thuc. 4, /4). 

, The article stands iu Greek with substantives that are defined b j § lO. 
an appended genitive, either of a generic term with the article, or of a 
proper name : 'H rov irarpo'i ol/cia, t) tov vrrep 'twv 'HA-etwf opov<i 
Kopv(f)t] (Xe?t. Hell. 7, 4, 15), {ol SoA-Wfo? vo/jloc), rj oltcia tov TraTpo<i, ?; 
oUia 1) tov TraTpo^. Of these forms the first (that of the genitive in 
the middle) is the most common ; the second (the genitive following 
the substantive) is also common : the third (the genitive following the 
substantive with its article repeated, by means of which the specifica- 
tion is, as it were, returned for and appended with emphasis) is less 
common. Fourthly, the genitive may also precede, when it stands with 
emphasis on account of an opposition, or in a transition : Taiy Tra- 
XaiwvTj (f)iXoao(f)ia [Fl. Prot. 343). ToO ')(0)piovrj airopla [Thuc, 4, 29). 
(To r^r TOV ^aivovros re^vrji e'pyov, PL Rep. 381, after the first form. Ilepl tov 
fiiadov TTJs a.TTo86afa>s, Thw. 8, 80. after the fourth ^) 

Eem. 1. The partitive genitive very frequently precedes, and with this genitive 
the article can never be repeated : cf. § 50, Rem. 1. 

Re jr. 2. A substantive which governs a genitive with the article, itself stands 
without the article, when, in spite of the appended genitive, the object is undefined 
(especially in the case of the partitive and objective genitives -, e. g. p-ipos ttjs 
TToXeos eVi iSXai^?/ ttjs TroXecos {Thuc. 8, 72, for injury to the city [though we should 
say, to the injury of the city~\ peyakai dandvai tcov re Tpirjpdpxfov kui t^? ndXeas 
{Thuc. 6, 31), great outlays on the part of the trierarchs and the state) : some- 
times also, when it is wished to express a notion that in itself is definite, in a general 
and indefinite way: iv dp)(f] rov Xoyov {Dem. 37, 28), vtto ttXtjOovs twp eiriKeipivcov 
veav {Thuc. 8, 105). The article is always omitted, when the governing substan- 
tive is the predicate with ilp.i or yiyvop-ai, or belongs to the predicate as an appo- 

1 But ai I'Siat fjpoyv eKdaToiu noXeis {Isocr. Plat. 8), and v SoKOvaa ijpcbv TvpoTtpov 
craxjipoavvr] {Thuc. 1, 32), where the genitive attaches itself to another specification 
(Rem. 6). 

CHAP. II.] 



12 The Article. [§ ii« 

'§ 10.] sition^: 'H ruiv TroXeiJiiuiv (^XdlSr) Ke'pSoy t^s 7t6\(u<s yiyverai. 2coTr]p yfvov r^s 
7raTpl8os. Meycikcov KaKoiv ayyeXoc r]KOfxev. {JSojxol TTokfus, laws of a state ; nfpi 
apiarov apav, Thuc. 7, 81.) 

Rem. 3. Now and then the article does not stand witli the suhstantive itself, but 
is not placed till before the following genitive^: 'EttI a-K-qvrjv fj^crav ttjv Sevo(f}ci)v- 
T09 {2^671. j^nab. 9, 2, 19). "Ttcrcracpepi'rjs //Set roif Mikrjaiovs es ttjv AaKeSaifiova 
TTopevop.evovs eVi KaTajSofj ttj avToii fidXiara {Thuc. 8, 85). 

Rem. 4. With respect to the position of the article with the governing sub- 
stantive, the genitive of a personal or possessive pronoun has the same effect as 
the genitive of a substantive with the article. The genitive of the personal pro- 
noun stands either before the article or after the substantive (enclitically). 'Hp-wv 
T] TTciXtf, T] TrdXtf Tjpav. TovTO aoi 8i8o>pi on p.ov ttjv pTjrtpa {ttjv fxrjrepa fiov) Ti/xay. 
The genitive of a demonstrative or reflexive pronoun either stands in the middle, 
or follows with the article repeated : 6 tovtov aSeXc^o's, 6 aSeX^os 6 tovtov {Dem. 
35, 15). Trji' eavrSiV avKoC^avriav Srjkovcriv. Uapci tov rpoTTOv rov eavroyv {Time. 5, 
63). (Partitively also: 'EavrStv tovs ^eXri'o-Toi;? alpoiivrni, and roits /SeXr/oTovy 
aipovvrai eavrcov.) 

Rem. 5. In the case of substantives with possessive pronouns, the article stands 
as in the case of substantives with adjectives: 'O vfxsTfpos iraTijp, 6 ira-rrjp 6 <t6s. 
Tovs o'lKovs TOVS vfieTepovs avrmv, or tovs vfieTepovs aiiTav o'ikovs dacpaXais KeKTrjaSai 
jSouXeo-^e. (But dovXos vjieTfpos, one of your slaves; a slave of yours. 2o( 
bovKoi i(jp.ev.) 

Rem. 6. When two specifications are appended to a substantive (adjective, par- 
ticiple, pi'eposition, adverb, or genitive), the one of which bears such a relation to 
the other, that the two are blended into one (complex) specification, they are 
usually comprehended under one article : when, however, the}' are taken, each by 
itself, as two co-ordinated specifications, the article is used with each : and this is 
sometimes done even in the first case, especially if both are adjectives, particularly 
in the instance of ct'XXoy: Tu eV ttj rjneipco AIoXiku ■KoKla-fxaTa [Thuc. 4, 52). 'O 
'AXKtjStaSov TOVTOV vecoTipos d8e\(})6s {PI. Prot. 320). Mepvr]a6f ttjs iv 2a\ap.lvi 
TTpos TOV neparjv vavpax'ias {JEach. 2, 74). Eiy Tas uXXas 'ApKa8iKas TioXetj 
{J^en. Hell. 7, 4, 38). Ai dno ttjs SiKfXi'ar IleXoTroi'i'r/cricoi' fKKaiSeKa vrjss {Thuc, 
8, 13). T(i e'/c TTjs Idaov iJLfydXa ^prjfiaTa diapvaadevTo {Thuc. 8, 36; the par- 
ticiple removed according to § 9, a. Rem. 1). — 'H a-ep-vrj avTrj, rj ttjs rpaycodias 
TTOLTjo'is {PL Gorg. 502). H av<a r] npos tm T€i)(fi dn6Xrj-\l/-is tcov ottXitoiv {Thuc. 7, 
54). At TTfVTe Kal e'lKoai vrjes tcov Kopivdicov al toIs 'Adrjvaiois dvdoppovarai {Thuc, 
7, 31). To iv 'ApKabla to tov Alos tov Avkuiov Up6v{Pl. Pep. 8, 565). Kara rfiv 
ATTLKiqv TTjv TTciXaLuv (}j<avt]v {PI. Crat. 398). TeKpaipopxti tK tov ciXXov tov vpeTepov 
rponov {PI. Pep. 2, 368). (Also where the other adjective or participle stands 
substantively : Ot ciXXot oi TrapdvTfs twi/ aTpariajTcov, ^en. Anah. 6, 4, 7.) (It is 
seldom that one of the specifications i'oUows without the repeated article : ij ttjs 
TToXecos aviiXuxTis drjfioaia, Thuc. 6, 31. Mera ttjv tcov Tvpdvvcov KaToXvcriv ck ttjs 
'EXXdSos, Thuc. 1, 18. Tov npeo-l^vTaTov viov eavTov, S.en. 3Iem. 2, 2, 1.) 

§11. The article stands with substantives (appellatives), that are con- 
nected with a demonsti'ative pronoun, ovro<;, 6Se, or iKclvo^. The 

' [So, often, airtos, a'lTLov, &c., used substantively in ihe predicate, = the cause.^ 
* [Observe that in both the instances substantives are under the government ot 
jorepositions.J 

[part I. 



§11.] TJic Article. 13 

demonstrative stands before the article or after the substantive : [§ n-] 
05to? 6 din]p. ' HSe fj TroA-t?. Kara tou? vo/jlou<; eKetvov^. 'E/crwyro 
rr/i^ Ti/jiiju ravrrjv [Isocr. Phil. 107). If, however, besides the pronoun, 
an adjective or the like is also added, the pronoun may either attach 
itself to this (the more usual case), or retain its own peculiar position : 
'H aTevi] avrrj ohoi^ [Xen. A7iab. 4, 2, 6). At nrph^ tou? Tvpdvvov<i 
avrat \iav oiiCKiai [Dem. 6, 21). — Ot dXall,6ve<i Xoyot eKetvot [PI. Pep. 
8, 560). ^YiKeivrj 17 v->^rfKoTdrri ir\dravo<i [PI. Phad. 229). (Auto?, 
selff has no influence on the use of the article '.) 

Eem. 1. The article is omitted, when the substantive is properly a predica- / 
tive noun, or an apposition (connected with the predicate) to the i:)ronoun, which/ 
last, instead of standing independent I3', conforms in gender, according to the 
Greek practice, to the substantive (is attracted by it) : Avr-q iuTiv av^poi dperq 
{PI. Men. 71, this is the virtue of a maii). Kimja-ts avrrj jxeyiaTt} To'is''&<Xrj(Tiv 
iyevero {Time. 1, 1). TavTtjv Te)(^vr]v exei {Li/s. 6, 7). Tavrj] dnoXoyia ;(p^T-at 
{Dem. 49, 63, /le uses this as an excuse). 'i2? oi nepl KXeoufSporov eKparovv ttj 
ficiXfj, (Tacpel TovTcc TfKprjpia yvoirj au tis (-Xera. Sell. 6, 4, 13 ; from this as from a 
certain indication, or proof) ; and in the same way, where the pronoun refers to 
something following, by which the notion is defined for the first time : Ovtol, ovs 
opare, ^dpfiapoi, iroKepioi r)p.iv eaovrai (JTe/?. Anab. 1, 5, 16). Mei/e/cX^j efieiro 
vp.o)V hovvai X^P'" TavTqi' aiira, eKdoivai aXKo) ttjv ddeXffirjv {Is(B. 1, 14; to have 
the kindness to — ). (In the poets, the article is omitted with demonstratives in 
other cases; especially in the case of oSe, a thing of rare occurrence in prose, with 
a definite ^o?«</?(^ out of the object, ' here' : ^epe Xu/3cbi/ xi-'''^v(^s tovtov(t\ rolj rav 
dopv(p6pcov Tjyepoo'i, Kucras 8e rovs8e roiis e(pnnreLovs rois tcov 'nvrrecov Tjyep.6(TL, Koi 
ritv appLUTcov rois fjyepoai aXXovs roiisde ;(ir<i)i'as, 21en. Ci/r. 8, 3, 6.) 

Rem. 2. In the same way, eKarepos, apcpco, dp^orepoi are always accompanied by 
the article : 'Apcpulv tolv x^poiii. With eKaaroi it may be either expressed or 
omitted: Kara rfjv rjiUpai/ iKua-TTjv and Ka6' rjp.tpai' eKaar-qv. 'Ej/ eKaaTi] rrf 
ToKfL and iv eKaoTj] TruXei. 

Rem. 3. With the adjectives toiovtos, roiosSe, toctovtos {rrjXiKovTOi, rr/AtKosSe) 
the article ma_>/ stand (before them, as in the case of other adjectives), when the 
notion of a definite class of such a kind is to be rendered prominent : Tt ovk av 
Trpd^euv 6 toiovtoh dv)]p ; (Dem. 34, 29, suck a man = the man who acts in, this 
toay.) (To Toiovhe Xiyca, PL Gorg. 476, I mean the following relation.) 

Rem. 4. lias, every, stands without the article {Hacra TroXiy. lias dvrjp) ; but 
7ratT-6s, all. usually with the article (of a definite class) : Ylavra tu dyadd. (Hdv 
TO KaXas e')(ov, PL Rep. 2, 381, all that is good.) 'H 2iTupTr] iraaav rav Troketnv 
d.p€TT) 8ia(pepft (^en. Pol. Dae. 10, 4). Ilciaui al Kokal npa^eis (not after the 
article), but also without it: Udvra dyadd, all good things. Ilaaa>u TroAecof 
^Adjjvai paXicrra TTfcfivKaa-iv iv etprjvr] av^eadai (JCew. de Pect. 5, 2). (Ilairfs deal, 
navres audpcorroi.) Has, whole, stands with the article, usually 07i the outside 
of the article and its substantive ; that is to say, either before the article or after 
the substantive (as apposition, cf. § 12) : naaa ij ttoXis, fj ttoXcs naaa (the whole 

^ 'HjjLfls ol crparqyoi. 'Eyu) 17 rdXatJ'a. 
CHAP, II.] 



14 The Article. [§12,13. 

[§ II.] city, tlie latter properly, tlie city, all of it), so also oAoj (0X77 17 T:okis, i; ttoXis 0X17). 
(Without the article oXrj TidXts, ttoXls 0X7, seldom TrdXts Trutra, «« entire city, the 
whole of a city.) nay, however, and especially oKoi, also stands after the article, 
like other adjectives: 'H Tiaaa ^miKia {T/iuc. 4, 61, t/ie whole of Sicily, Sicily as 
a whole). 'H crvfiTvaaa 'EXXay {Isoc. Paneg. 8, 3). To nav irXijdos rmv oTrXtTOJi/ 
{Thtcc. 8, 93). To oXou np6(rodTrov{Pl. Prot. 329). To oXoy yevos (PI. Crat. 392). 
In the same way we also meet with in tlie plural : Ta irnvra fj-epr], all the portions 
toqether, o'l. wavTes avOpconoi {IKen. Atiah, 5, 6, 7), p.6vrj rcuf naaaiv TroXeoiv [Dem. 
8^64), and always ol ndvTfs, = in all, e.g. SeVa tols ndaais vavalv. (Svpnavrts 
inraKoaiot, oTrXiTai, in all; together, Thiic. 4, 129.) 

Rem. 5. The article also stands with the interrogative pronominal adjective 
TTotos, to denote that the inquiry is made about the property of an object named 
or otherwise indicated: Tr]v iroiav KaraaTaaiv TroXirelas oXiyapx^a" Xeyen ; {PI. 
Pep. 8, 550). QeXw trot irdw fieyaXofppova ttjs yvvaiKos tpya SiTjyi'jaacrdai. Ta 
TTola; {Xen. (Ee. 10, 1.) 

Eem. 6. "Where parts of a whole are stated in numbers, the article is sometimes 
prefixed to the numeral (to denote the definiteness of the relation) : At eKxaideKa 
Tcov veav [Thuc. 1, 116). Ta bvo p-fprj. In like manner it is said: 'Ap(pi revs 
eiKoo-t, about twenty. (But on the other hand: inep jj^to-u' tov aTparfvp-aTos, 
Xen. Anah. 5, 10, 10, above half or the half) 

§12. The article stands in Greek with substantives to which an adjective is added aa 

an ajoposition [outside of the article) and belonging to the predicate, to intimate that 
'the notion of the substantive follows of itself, and is assumed (as something ^u^e;* 
and existing), so that the only question is about the property. (In English we 
(Usually put the substantive with the adjective indefinitely: but if we wish to express 
• the defiuiteness of the substantive, we give the words a different turn, or have 
recourse to a periphrasis.) Ot livQpanrot. vno tov riXiov KaTaXapiropevoi ra ;;^pd)jLiaTa 
p.eXdvT€pa e;(ouo-ii' (Xen. Mem. 4, 7, 7, acquire a darker hue, or, come to have their 
hue darker, or, their hue becomes darker). Hua-ov ayet to aTpuTevpa ; (Xen. Cyr. 
2, 1, 2, how great is the army tvhich he leads /) To aapa dfrjTov anavTes '4)(op.ev 
(Isocr. Phil. 134). 'Att' opdrjs kuI StKaias ti]s ^v)(rjs Ta navTa p.01 rrenpaKTai {Dem. 
18, 298, with an upright and honest mind ; in the uprightness and integrity of my 
miind). {Avtos dyuBos avv dyaOols Tois ivap ipoi, Xen. Cyr. 8, 6, 12, with those 
\about me good, with good people about me.) Ol Trap' ipoi, substantively, cf. § 14, b". 
i('0 Xip.r]v TO (jTop-a eix^f oKTa arublav, Thuc. 7, 59, with the descriptive genitive.) 

Rem. The same position (outside the article) is also taken by the adjective 
and participle in other cases, when they are in apposition (i. e. used, not attri- 
butively, but appositively) : Ot KepKvpaloi ivinprjaav tus a-Kr]vds epr'jpovs {Thuc. 
1, 49, left with none to defend them). 'O noTapos Sia pfarjs Ttjs iroXews pel (Xen. 
Cyr. 7, 5, 8). "AKpais tuIs \epjti'. "Apa tco rjpi dp)(opeu(o. On the adjective, see 
§ 86, and on the participle, § 181, R. 7. 

§13. a) Proper names do not require the article (which is accordingly 
omitted even where a demonstrative is annexed : ovroal ^Aira- 
Tovpio<i, this A. here) ; but they ma^ take it, if the person or 

P Cf. note 1, p. 9.— T. K. A.] 

^ TtVas Xtyfis, tus Teaaapas rroXtrei'aj ; {PI. Pep. 8, 544, tvhat are the four 
jiolities you are speaking of!) 

[part I. 



§ 14-] The Article. 1 5 

object is made prominent, as having- been previously named, and as [§ n-] 
being" essential to the matter in hand, or as being so generally known 
and presupposed, that the scope of the discourse naturally leads one 
to expect the mention ; sometimes without any particular emphasis : 
TaOra- Xa/Scbi' 6 Yiavaavia'^ ra ypd/jbfiaTa iroWco fxaXkov r/pro {IV/uc. 1, 
180, in the continuation of an account of Pausanias.) — Kal eV tov 
^v^avTiou jSia iK'wo\LopicrjdeL<^ {YlavcravLa<i) e? ixev rrjv ^nrdprriv ouK 
dve'^Mpei. e? Se }s.o\covd<; rd'i TpwtaSa? IZpvO-q {Thuc. 1, 131 ; Byzan- 
tiiim, mentioned before as the place where Pausanias was residing ; 
Sparta, his well-known home. But shortly afterwards : dve-xcopei, e? 
^Trdprrjv). 'Ey he rrj Uvko) — iv 8e Tai<i AdtjvaK; {Time. 4, 26, 27, 
the narrative now passing on to these before-mentioned cities), 'h 

Qilii(TroKklov<; dperrj, rj dpfrr) fj G^jotto-ro/cAeoi;? (by § 10), but not 17 dperr] 6e/xt- 
o-rojcXf'ciu? (though it may be r] dptTT] roii Qep-iaTOKXeovs with the article, and rj dpeTn 
Tj TOV 0e/i.). EvpTjfxa Q(jj.i(rTOKkfovi, an invention of Themistocles. 

Rem. 'O peyas 'AXe^avdpo'!, G^/Sat ai iv Botaria, 'AXe^avdpos 6 MaKfSaiv, for 
distinction fronr others of the same name. 'O StAai/os 6 'Ap^paKiairris (Jew. Anab. 
6, 4, 13), (the before-mentioned) 8. the Amhraciote (who is recalled to one's 
thousfhts here ; otherwise 2tX. 6 ^Ap[3p.). When, to describe a person more 
exactly, the name of the father is added in the genitive, the governing woi*d may 
take an article after it before the genitive, which makes the addition more 
prominent : KXe'coi/ 6 KXeaiverov, Ilepifioia t) AXkiWov, but also mthout the article : 
KX/cov KXiaiverov (in the business-style). (AVith appended designation of birth- 
place and district : KdWimros 6 ^iXavos 6 Al^utvevs, or KaWiKXfjs 'EniTpecpovs 
Qpida-Los, Bern. 50, 47 ^) 

b) For names of nations, the same rule holds good, when they are 
used of the whole nation. (But always ol "RWrjve'i, in contradis- 
tinction to 01 ^dp^apoi ^.) 'O 'AdT]vaia>v 8^pos, 6 8^pos 6 ^ABrjvaiccv (iu public 
transactions this is the most usual) and 6 S. rav ^ Adrjvaiuiv. (Earely 'O Srjpos 6 tcov 
^Adr]vai(ov.) When some of a nation are spoken of, it is 01 'Adrjvaioi, 01 "EXXi^ves, 
and 'Adrjvaloc, "EXXrjves, according to the general rules for tiie article. "EXXrjves 
ifTfiiv. So ^Adr]vaios and 6 Adrjvalos. 

a) In the same manner as with substantives, the article stands with § 14- 
adjectives or participles when they are used sujjstantively of persons 
or things (definite individuals or classes) : 'O «aXo9, to dyaOov. Ot 
KaXoij'rd dyaOd. Td iv dvOpoiTToi'^ dyadd. {OittoWol, t//e many ; the 
multitude, the pojndar party : ol oXlyoi, the ol'ujarchi.cal party). Ot 
TTokeixovvre'^. O ^ov\6p.evo<i, whoever wilt. Ol Trpcoroi ip^o/xevot. 
'O UKcov u/jLaprdvcov. Udv to /caXco? e^of (P/. JRep. 381). Ol KivhvveueLv 



* 'O Malai'Spos Trorapos (with different genders : eVi rrj AItvt] tco opti, or eVt tS> 
opei rfj AiTVT]), more rarely pe^pi Maidv8pov Ttorapov. 

* Mows 'EXXi]voiv Kai ldapi:idpiou, of GreeJcs and barbarians, § 8, R. 2, f. 
CHAP. II.] 



1 6 The Article. [§ 14. 

[§ 14] iOeXovTCf; or ol i9e\ovr£<; KLvBvvevetv. 'O to Tel)(o<; ekcav. 'O kXwv to 

Rem. 1. Where such a participle has a predicate nominative, this is usually 
placed between the article and the participle (6 (PavXos pofj.i(6fi.evos), more rarely 
after the participle (6 voixi.(6iJ.evos (pavXos). A case governed hy the participle is 
rarely (hy reason of special emphasis) placed before the article : Kal rrjv a-o(fiiav 
uxravTOis rovs dpyvpiov naiXovvTas (To(}ii.(TTas dnoKaXoiiaiv {2^en. Mem. 1, 6, 12). 

Eem. 2. The Greeks sometimes put a participle substantively with the article, 
where we say indefinitely jf)eop^e who ov people to — , see § 186, b. R. 1. 

Rem. 3, Some such substantative expressions foraied of the article with a 
neuter adjective, and denoting a relation of time, or an extent or amount, are 
used (in the accusative) as adverbs, e. g. to dpxalov, to naXaiov, of old, to TrpSiTov 
(to bevTfpov, irep-TTTov, etc.), for the first time, to TeXfVToiov, lastly, at last, ro okov, to 
^vpnav, on the whole, to p.iy l<ttov, for the greatest part, to. TroXXd, mostly, to 
TtXeov, TO. n\fi(o,for the mo)-e part (in Thucyd. sometimes to nXeov for the mere 
adverb wXeov), to Xomov, to. Xoitto, for the future, TaXXa,for the rest, to. reXei;- 
xaia (Thuc. 1, 24), lastly. 

b) In the same way, the article without a substantive is prefixed to 
a preposition and its ease, or to an adverb of time or place (§ 9 b), to 
denote persons or thing-s (definite individuals or classes), which are in 
the situation or relation assigned by the preposition or adverb : Ot 
ev rfi TToXei, ilie people in the city, ol irapa Nlklov [ilie persons sent 
from N.), ol i(f rjfxcov, ifiov {o?cr, my, contemporaries, people in our 
times), ol iirl roiv Trpayfidrcov [Dem., those over the affairs, i. e. tlwse- 
who are at the head of them) . 'O ev roi irXolw {the men in the ship, of a 
person lately mentioned). Ot vvv, ol evddSe, ol e/ceZ. 01 eyyvTaro) 
{yevov'i), the next of kin. Ta eh top Troke^iov, what belongs to war,, 
the preparatio7is for war. Ta e^ rjfilv, what is in our power. Ta 
Ka-xa '%iKeh.lav, the Sicilian affairs. Ta evddSe, the affairs here \ 

Rem. 1. In the singular of the neuter gender, some such expressions, governed' 
by a preposition, serve to mark time and place. 'Ej/ tm rdre, at that time, ev tw 
jrpo Tov, in tlie time preceding, Ik tov eVt dare pa, ex tov in api(TTepa,from the 
opposite side, from the left side, ra ev r<u eneKeiva Ttjs I'lKpas yiyvofieva (Thuc. 8,. 
104), tvhat was doing on the other side of t/te promontory. 

Rem. 2. Some such expressions, formed with the neuter article and a prepo* 
sition, are used (in the accusative) as adverbs to denote a certain compass or 
extent, thus : to dno Tovhe,fro7n this time forth, to en epoi, as far as it depends on 
me, for my part, to Kaff eavT6v,for Ids own part, as regards oneself, to npo tovtov, 
informer times. The article stands in this way even before adverbs of time, to 
denote a certain extent of time : to npiv, of yore, to Trjfiepov, to vvv, to. vvv 



* Rarely to (T(f)6bpa, t6 (^avepws, and the like, with an infinitive understood : tlie 
putting it strongly, the vehement form, the speaking openly. 

[part . 



§15.] TJie Article. 17 

{tovxiv, Tavvv), now {to vvp raSe), to re TrapavTiKa Kn\ to eneira (JViuc), both [§ 14.] 
jfor the instant and for the future. (Ta iniXLcxTa, in the hijhetit degree.) 

c) The article in the pl uraj masculine is put.mth the g-enitivei)f 1 
th e nam e of a person to denote that person's ])eople, trainj troops^ &c. : 
K\ea/3%09 i]'Kavvev eTrl rov<i Meya)i/o9 (At'y^. A/i. 1, 5, 18). But espe- 
cially the article is put in the neuter with the genitive^ and_convejs 
a general substantive notion of that which belongs to^ or arises from^ 
or co ncerns a person or thing : To. tcov TroXefxlcov. Tci t?}? TroXea??, f//e 
concerns or affairs of the clii/. 'H AtV?; nrawa ra tmv dvOpcoTrcov e(f)opa 
{Beni. Ih, 11). To t?}? eTrtrpoTrr}? eXeXyro [Dem. 33, 19, iJie affair of the 
guardianship). Ta ri}? TvxV^y il^& dispemaVions, dealings, of fortune. 
Ta -rwv 'KdT}valo3v <^povelv, to think that tvhicit is for the' interest of the 
Athenians, i. e. to take ftOy^i'i with the Athenians. To tov ©e/utcrro/cXeou? 
{PI. Rep. \, 3;i9, the expression of Th., tvhat Th. said). AoK€L<i /j,ol to 
TOV T/3u/ce/ou Lirrou ireirovOevai, {PL Farm. 136, what befell the horse of 
Ibi/cus). (Sometimes little more than a mere periphrasis : 'Hi/ tiSiyXa ra r^? (twti)- 
plas Xapi8r]fj.o), Dem. 23, 163. To twu npecrlBvTepcoi' i]ij.wv. Pt. Legg. 2, 657, ive elders, 
as for us elders. Td ^ap^iapav yap BovXa nuvra ttXijv ipus, Eur. Hel. 276.) 

a) The article is put with infinitives to mark that the notion of the § I5- 
action is conceived as a substantive (to Xeyetv, the speaking, to KoXd- 
t,€a6at, the being punished); see on the Infinitive, § 154 f. Further, 

it is put with any other not substantive word which is used mate- 
rialiter as substantive; and so, with a set of connected words. To 
v/jbel<;, the word v. To XeyeTat. To <yva)6i aavTov. 'TTrepe/Si] to " koI 
idv dXo) (j)6vov" {Dem. 23, 3"20 ; he left out the words — ). 'Icrp^0;aa;Y09 
ejeXaaev e-rrl too '" Tt ttoicov KoXof; KcfyaOo^ KeKXrjcraL ;" {Xen. lEc. 7, 3). 

b) The article stands before a whole proposition in indefinite form 
(ace. with inf.), to denote that the matter of the proposition is con- 
ceived as a substantive ; the- circumstance that — , the fact of — , &c. 
See under Inf. § 170. 

Rem. 1. Even the suhstance of a dependent proposition is sometimes put 
detinitety by the article, and therebj^ brought into connexion with the primar}^ sen- 
tence, especial!}^ in dependent interrogative propositions : Oh -mpX tov (ttituxovtos 
6 \6yos, aXXa TVfp\ tov, ovTiva Tponov xp'] C^" {-Pf- Rep. 1, 3-52, Ijut about the 
question, liow — ). To yap ms to. lipicrTa re fTvpaTTov Ka\ dianavTos evvovs elp-i, Ikuvto^ 
c<c Twy flprjuevcov 8edr]Xu>a6ai p.01 vofxl^u) {Dem. 18, 110). 

Rem. 2. A short relative expres-sion may be attached to a substantive bv the 
article, even so as to obtain an adjective sense : Ov ti)v wsnep fnl tov 8i(ppov ebpav 
i'lraLvovp.iv {Xen. Hipp. 7, 5, of a rider : a wag of sitting upon- a horse, as one 
would upon a chair). 'AvBpoTicov r^s onov^ovkeaBe oXiyapxias daeXyeaTtpos yeyouev' 
{Dem. 22, 52, more ins<jhlli than an oligarchy he it lofiere gau will ; — ttian angi 

CHAP. JI.] C- 



1 8 The Article. [§ i6— 18. 

oligarchy). SoXcoi' iiila-a roi-s olos ovtos: {iaTiv) dvOpaiTovs {Dem. 19, 254. Cf. 
§ 106, E. 2). 

§ l6. a) Where the same substantive (or word put substantively) with 
the article ought to be put twice (or oftener) with clifFerent adjuncts, 
it is sufficient merely to repeat the article : 'O rdv Ihioorevovrcov j^io^ 
aipeTC0T€po<; i) 6 rwv Tvpavvevovrwv {Isocr. ad Nic. 4). "E%o/iey Mov- 
aav Tr}<i rcov %opwi^ KaXkico Kal rri<; ev roh kolvoU dedrpot<i [PL Legg. 
2, 667). 'Ttto twi^ izerTeveiv SecvMV ol fj,?] (viz. ireTrevetv Seivol) reXev- 
rcovT€<i airoKkeiovrai {PL Pep. 6, 487). Kal irapaiwv vjxerkpwv arpa-^ 
TLcoTCOv Kal irapa rcov ivddSe. UoXv KpelrTwv earlv 6 Trj<i '^^vxn^ V o tov 
cr&JyaaTO? €pco<i {Xe7i. Symp. 8, 12) ^ In like manner: 'Ai'i7p hoKi^ioi o}j.o\a 
Tco /idXto-ra, viz. SoKt'/iw, Hdt. 7, 118. ^e^ofiai tl ojioia t« [idXi(TTa, viz. cre^o^sVoj, 

mit. 3, 8. 

l>) When two notions coupled by ' and ' so closely cohere that they together make 
one notion, or may be comprised under one head, the article is sometimes put only 
once : Oi crTpaTrjyol Kal 'Koxayoi {Xen. An. 3, 1, 29, {the chief officers, to wit) generals 
and captains : in other passages oi o-rp. kgi ol \ox-). 'O r;Xtos Ka\ a-fXijvr] Kai^ aa-rpa 
{PL Pha>d. Ill, the hea.venly bodies, to wit). To re blKiuov kiu to cibiKov Ka\ koXov 
Kai alaxpov km ayadov Ka\ kukov {PLEiithyph. 7, these moral conceptions, one and all). 
"Ei/ re Tois 'Apyfi'ots Ka\ roTr ^uppaxois {Ihuc. 5, 61). (T^s re 'iraXias Ka\ 2iKeXias, 
Thuc. 1, 36, with two proper names, the west, viz. It. and Sic.) 

§ 17. In certain expressions, the article is put elliptically with an ad- 
jective or similar defining- adjunct, a particular substantive being 
understood, from which the article takes its gender. (Usually in the 
feminine, because the masculine article suggests only the general notion of a person ,-^ 
the neuter, that of a //^%.) 'H rj/neripa {yrj), e.v rrj tmv 'jToXe/xLwv, ev rp 
(3aaiX€G)<; {PL Alcib. i. 421). 'H avpcov {r)fi€pa). Kara rrjv efxr]v {yvco- 
ixr]v). Tr)v 67rl Ba^v\a)vo<; levau {ohov). Tr]v evrt Oavdrtp dyeLVTwd {to 
lead one to execution), and similar expressions denoting the direction 
of a motion. (Of the Adjectives see the further § 87 b.) 



^ ^^' (Appendix to Chap. 2".) a) The Greeks are more regular than we in their 

^5'^ use of the plural of substantives, in speaking of a number of individuals and of 

things which each of these individuals possesses (e. g. ^vxai, aap-aTo). 

Rem. Sometimes however the singular is used, so that the notion is given in a 
merely general way : Tbv tttJKov eTrt tov varov ecpepov {Thuc. 4, 4). Tas irpa>pas 
Ka\ TTJs veo3s (ivco eVi ttoXi/ {a good bit) KaTf^vpaauav {Thuc. 7, 65); especially 



1 



' Me-ydXTj tis 8vuap.is tj tcov ev \ey6vTu>v, with the substantive drawn over to the 
predicate. 

- Strictly speaking this does not come under the Syntax. 

[part l 



.§19.] Nominative mid Accusative, I9 

without the article, distributivelv : Awfif/ca \//-tXot ^vv ^i0tS/w (cal 6o}paKt {Tkitc. [§ iS.] 
3,22). 

d) Even substantives denoting abstract and other general conceptions to which 
• the notion of number does not apply, are put in the plural to mark the occurrence 
of the condition, atrection, or the like, in different forms, with different subjects or 
at different times, or with some special modification, e. g. "i^vxn *««'' daXnr], avxfiol, 
TrXovroi, Svvacrrdai, evbeini, roTTf ti/orr/res, ye'XcoTfr (ye'Xtores i^aiaioi), fxecrai vvKTeg, 
midnight, Kpea (conceived as pieces), Trvpoi, Kpi6ai {wheat, barley, as masses), aXey. 

c) Conversely, certain words, denoting individual objects which admit of being 
numbered, sometimes stand in the singular, to denote the genus and a multitude, 
e.g. ttXIvBos, hricks, or tile.t. Note especially the figurative use of d(nris, to signify 
a ho.^t uf heavy-armed (poetically, Xdyxi), and of iTTTror (17) for the cavalry, with the 
numerals xi-^^n and p-vpia in the singular : Herodotus has even fj Kap,r]\os, denoting 
a tty?oj) of' camels. 



CHAPTER III. 

T/t^ Cases. Nominative and Accusative. 

In ^reek, an apposition is often attached to the subject or object § 19. 
of a proposition, sometimes even to a case governed by a preposition, 
to denote in what quality, to what end, the person or thing appears 
in the action : "H/cei? /not acoTrjp. TiVo? StSacr/caX.01 7]ic6T€ ; {PI. Eathyd. 
287). Ou ')(eipov<i l3o7)6ol aoi 'rrapaa-TrjcrofMeda 7) el TraZSa? tKeKTrjao 
{Xeii. Cyr. 5, 3, 19). Tou? <^'CKov<^ fidpTvpa^ irapkyjji. Ta irepiTTo. 
y^prjixara Trpdy/juaTa e-^ovaiv {Xeit. Cyr. S, 2, 21 ; as a harden, i. e. 
in their superfiwus tvealth fliey have only an incumbrance). "lo-w? 
Td')(a rov<i (drj/Salov} dWov; AaKeSai/jLOvlovi evpr^aere [Xen. Hell. 7, 1, 
.24) . "Xvv (Tol (j^lXo) Koi ravra ZiaTrpd^ofiai, ' . 

Rem. 1. Such an apposition is rarely found with objects which are not in the, 
accusative, except with xP^y-^*- (dative : XpS>p.ai rots qf)tXo« ^otjOqI^) aiid Tuyp^ai/co 
(genitive: 'Epcoi-are toxjs TpaTrefoDvriov?, onoicov tivcov rjpiiav ervxov, Xen. An. 
5,5, 15, xvhat sort of people they found us). (Qpaavpi}8r]s ov8eu jjdei, olon drjpiois 
enXTjo-iaCf rots dvdpanois tovtois, Dem. 35, 8, tvith what monsters he usioclated, in 
having to do toith these men.) 

Rem. 2. In a numerical statement of breadth, length, height, weight, or value, 
the general term is often put as an apposition (lUO feet as length, i. e. in length) : 
and so, in speaking of a sum of money, the more special description of the way in . 
which it is applied (30 talents as reward ■=-for reward, as we also sa}', 30 t. 



^ On the other hand a relation of time is never denoted (as it is in Latin) by the 
apposition of a substantive or adjective (without the participle wv). When, or, as 
consul, is vTrardov, as a child, irals aiv. See § 174 b. R. 

CHAP. III.] C 2 



20 Nominative and Accusative. [§20. 

reu'ard). To ayaX/na TeacrapaKovTa raXavra (TTaO^hv elxe xpvo"'Of uTrecjidov {Thuc. 
2, 13). 'Apxei^'o? <<«' Avcridfldrii e'xovcn XPW^'''"- ^avKpariKa, Tinrjfia rdXavTa evvfci 
KM TpicLKovTu fxvcis {Dciii. 24, 11). 'EttI (jLiada TpLUKOvra ToXdvrois {Ildt. 8, 4). 
'E;xoi o 7rar)7p KartXiTre Tpidnovra fivas cltto tov epyaarqpiov Ti]u irpocrobov {JDem. 
27, 18, as t/ie 2)''oduce, the ;proJits, of the workshop). 

Rem. 3. An entire proposition may have a description of its purport.or of its 
predicate, annexed vo it in the form of an apposition. In an active proposition, tliis 
apposition attaches itself to the object ; in a passive one,_to the subject ; but in prose 
it consists only of an adjective or a similar expression in the neuter: To 6e ttuvtuiv 
fieyLarov Koi KaWLaTOv, rrjv fiev arjv )(a>pav av^avofX€vr]v opas, Trjv de twv TroXe^i'coi/ 
fxeLovpevrjv {Xcn. Ci/r. 5, 5, 24). napfj.€VLdi]S fxoL (jinlveTiu, to tov O/xijpov, al8ol6s 
re cipa bfivos re {PL Thea4. 183, P. seems to me. Homer's expression, both—, \. e. 
as Humer has it). liavoXiOpia brj, to XeyofXfvpv, koi neCos nal vijes koi ovbev o.tc 
oiiK. dnuXeTO {Thiu\ 7, 87, as the saying is). In like manner the nature of the 
predicate is premised in the form of an apposition by such expressions as ^vu'iv 
BiiTepov, one or other of these two : {Toiavra epovpev, e^ tov, bvolv ddrepov, tj p.eTa- 
aTr]aoiJ.ev -^cis yvuipas avTcov rj Tas KaTrjyopias eXey^opei' \j/-ev8e'is ovaas, Isocr. Antid. 
197), dp(f)6Tepa [tovs a/x^ortpa ruDrd, /cat evvovs ttj noXfL koi 7tXov(tlovs, Dem. 18, 
171), ov8trepov, tuvtov tovto, nav rovvavTiov, &c. (Hence tuvtov tovtc, in the 
same %ouy, likewise, tovvuvtiov, on the contrary, as adverbs.) 

Rem. 4. "With the verbXeyw, I mean, either the foregoing case is repeated, or 
the more exact specification is attached, as object, to Xe'yco : UdvTes ol a-Tpaj-qyoX 
Trap lov av l/caoroi bvvuiVTai, tovtcov tSu' ttjv 'Acriai' oIkovvtwv Xtyco, x.P^]p.aTa 
Xafx^dvuvcnv (Pern. 8. 24). UpoaeKpoiKra dvOpcarro) irovrjpa, a TiXevToxra 0X7 
TrpoaeKpovaeu t] 770X1?, 'AvdpoTioiva Xeyw {Dem. 24, (3). 

In the nominative stands (1) the subject; the predicate; and (3) 




2, S, 6). "Ovo/jia TO) fiELpaKtoy A<yc 

Rem. 1. [Ver7\:S of imperfect predication.'} The verbs which in themselves do not 
form a complete predicate, and therefore require a predicate noun, are in Greek 
(besides dp.i) vTrdpxa, y'lyvop-at. and certain passives (see § 24), ne<pvKa, I am hy 
nature. {Xayxdvfn, become by lot : AripoaBiviri ovt eXa^f t(ixottoi6^ ovt exeipoTo- 
vijOr], JEsch. 3, 28. AoKw with duai omitted.) 

Rem. 2. When &partici2:)le has a, predicative-noun or an apposition, the predicate 
or apposition follows the case of the subject and of the participle: 'O 4>(^vXos 
vofitCdpevoi, Toiv (j)avXoiv vopcCopfvcov {of those who are accounted vile). Tols uKovaiu 
apiipTuvovcn fitTfiTTi a-vyyvoip.r]s (Dem. 24, 49). "AvTiadivrjv ' ABrjvaioL elXovTo crTpa- 
Ti}y6v, Tou ovSe ottX/tt;!/ TTunroTf aTpuTfvadpfi'oi' (J^en. ALem. 3, 4, \,who had never 
even served as a hoplite). Twj/ AaKedmpovitov npoTtpcov fXdovTwv, ol 'Adijuaioi 
drreTpaTrovTo. 

Rem. 3. In comparisons with Cas, wa-rrfp, and KaOdirep, there is often a nominative 
to which we must supply a verb in the indicative, which stands in ^he principal 

1 In Latin, " Damno magisquam utilitati;" and most frequently, "Nomen adoles- 

ctuti Agatl.oui est." ■ ^ 

[part I. 



§21, 22.] Nominative and Accnsaird'e. 



2t 



member of the sentence either as participle in a different case, or as infinitive [§ 20.] 
(accusative with infinitive) : "A^lov KoXd^fiv tovs irapa^aiveiv roX^iaivTas ras 
(TVv6r]Kas, aXAw? re Koi rovi uxrnep KaWip.axos (SefSioiKOTas [Isoer. Call. 47). 
H€TTfi(Tfj.a'L ere fiaWov aTrodavelv av fKecrdai rj {"r/f cojTrep f'yco {Jlcii. jMem. 1, 6, 4). 
'Ey avhpa(Tiv ourcay dvoijrois aanep ol TraiSes {PI. Gore/. 464, where eicrtV is under- 
stood from the adjective). But the noun after the coa-rrep may also pass, by 
attraction, into the case of the preceding noun, although the verb by which that 
case is governed, has nothing to do with the comparative clause: 'Aoruay?;? tw 
Kvpa T]8fTn ov tvvapevo) crt-yaj/ vno rrjs rjSoviji, aW manep aKvXaKi yevvaiM ava- 
KXdCovTi {Xe?i. Cj/i\ 1, 4, 15). (Cf. § 98 on the Comparative.) 

Rem. 4. In the vague infinitive sentence, subject and predicate stand in the 
accusative : "Hkovo-u Svofia avra etVat ^Ayddcova {PL Prot. 315). See under 
Infinitive. 

The accusative is the case of the object of transitive verhs (whether § 2 1, 
in the active, middle, or passive-deponent form) : Ot "EXA.f^i'ef tov^ (222) 
Uipa-a^ ivUtjaav. (In the passive: OlTlepaai iviKi]6iqaai> vTTorwv EA.- 
Xr'jvcov.) Tijv aaririha Trpo^aXkofiat. Ni/c/a? tov^ dWov; arpanjyovfi 
fjLereTre/jiylraro {sent for ; in the passive : Jlapijaav /xeroTre/J^cfiOivTe'; vtto 
'Nl/clov). 01 'KOrivalot tov<; roiv ^vpaKOvaicov [■mrea'i icpo/S/jOi^aav. 
(On the forms of the verb see chap. 7.) 

Rem. 1. The active subject is usually expressed in the passive by yno. Of the 
use of the dative and of tlie prepositions npos, e'^, otto, under certain cii'cumstances, 
see under Dative (§ 38, g) and the Prepositions. 

Rem. 2. In the transitive verbs which take the accusative,^ the relation of the 
action to the object is so conceived, that the object is the passive recipient or the 
result of the action. Distinct from these are the verbs in which the action or 
state is conceived, as having merely a reference to an object which is expressed by 
the datii-e ; and also those in which the relation is conceived as a connexion with or a 
proceeding from an object which is denoted by the genitive. These latter come 
nearest to the properly transitive verbs. 

a) In many verbs the view of the relation of the action to the § 22. 
object is somewhat different in the Greek from that which underlies (223) 
the corresponding- Eng-lish and Latin words by which they are com- 
monly rendered, w^hence they are construed in a different way, viz., 
transitively. This must be learnt in detail by practice, and from the 
Lexicon. For example, these verbs in Greek are transitive : evKa- 
l3ov/j,ai (tl), evepyero) {tivu), KaKovpyS), eTTirpoTreva), hopv^opoi [rtva), 
XavOavw {escape the otjservatlon of some one), rtficopovfiat {nva, avenge 
myself on some one, and punis/i him), alcryyv p-ai (feel 7nij self ashamed, 
or awed, before some one, e. g". tov? aTparL(OTa<; ) . 



1 The learner must especially be on his guard against supposing that the particular 
mode of conception which appears in certain Latin verbs, and the (dative) coustruc- 
CHAP. III.] 



22 Nominative and Acmsative. [§-3' 

[§22.] li) Sundry usually intransitive verbs sometimes obtain a transitive 

siq-nification in certain connexions, e. g". Oap'pw (^a^j^a?, Odvarov) , Sucr- 
yepaivo) [jrjv uSLKtav), o/xvvfMC (rous" Oeovs:) , irXew [r^-jv ddXaaaav), utto- 
OiSpdaKCO [rov heaTroTi-jv) , el/Ltt, iropeuofxaL {686v), elaep-^o/jiat [ypacpjjv, 

.as ive say, euter a complaint before the judges), elaecfxi [Tvpdvvov^, act 
[the part of] sovereigns on the stage), irpecr^euo) {elprjvr^v, negotiate a 

\peace as ambassador^). 

Eem. 1. The passive, however, of such verhs, is, for the most part^ neverjised. 

Ekm. 2. The poets often go much greater lengths in ascribing transitive 
signification to intransitive verbs : such poetical expressions are, e. g. x'^pevoi 
6f6u {celehrate icith dancing), ata-a-u> X^'pa, Trapa(Baiv<oT6veTfpov7r68a.T]fj.ai [Ki'ip.ai, 
6d(7cro}. 7TT]8u>) TOTTOV Tiva, 8i(j)pT]kuT0) Tou ovpavou. Toi'9 (vcre^t'is deo\ OvrjaKovras ov 
Xnipovaiv {Eur. Hijjp. 1339). (In the passive : liav p.tka6pov nvXelrai, Eur. I])h. 
3(J7, is filled with the music of the flute.) 

§ 23. a) In particular it must be remarked, that many intransitive verbs, 
(224) which denote a motion, on composition with a preposition (especially 
hid, fxerd, irapd, irepi, virep, viro) assume a transitive sig-nitication, 
partly proper, partly metaphorical, e.g. 5tu/3aiVw {norapov), 8upxopai, Bieipi, 
hie'^eipL, di€^epxopuL.goth}'oug/t (in discourse and'writing),8ian\f(i),p(T{px<^pai;J}>'ose' 
cute in revenge and j)U7iis/iinenf, TTapnjSaivco. transgress, Trdpupi. '!Tapepxopai,j)ass bg, 
TTfpUipi {tj]v' EX\d8a) , nepucTTapai (Xocfiov, civSpoSTTov rtva), inrepfiaiva), overstep, exceed, 
transgress, vuepxapal (riva, flatter j we say, come over), vcpiaTapai {Kipbvvovs), 
vnoSvopat {navov, submit to a labour). 

Rem. 1. In some verbs, not metaphorically used, the preposition is occasionally 
repeated, e. g. SisTropdopaL 8ia x^js ;(copay. 

Rem. 2. In verbs compounded with other prepositions, the transitive significa- 
tion is more rare, and usually is found only in the metaphorical sense, e. g. in 
f'ia-fipi {ela/iei pe (Xeos, PI. Phced. 58; but also (loripxfTai poi ^eos, PI. Sep. 1, 330), 
eK^aivco, exceed (ra TpuiKoura err]), t^ia-Tapai, vin^iffTapai (Klvbvvav, evade: = de- 
clinare) ; or poetical, e. g. eijjriTj-TO) avpcpopdv. (Cf. § 36, b. R. 1.) 

d) Kara forms from intransitive verbs transitives expressive of 
destruction, annihilation, as brought about by the action assigned by 
the simple verb, e. g. KaTavav/xa^cb, KUTaTroXeixM, KaraTToXiTevo/xat, 
Ttva — KaToylro<pa'yci}, KaOiirTTOTpo^oi rr/i^ ovalav [waste my propertij bij 
keeping horses). 

tion thence resulting, holds also in the Greek. Tiiese verbs, for instance, in Greek, 
are simple transitives : 

dSiKoJ, jSXaTrro), Treidco, KoXaKfvcn, 

olKTeipo), e\ea>, diCpeXw, (ve^peva. 
^ Tedvdvai tw ^iS<o roiis Qrj^aiovs {Deni. 19, 81), e^npvou fluai {y'lyveadai) Trjv 
tiaiTuv (Isocr. Call. 13, the award of the umpires). 'Actvoxos ttjv ;(copai' kutu- 
dpopdis Xdav eTroteiro [Thuc. 8, 41). 

[part I, 



§24,25.] Nominative and Acaisativc. 23 

Some verbs govern, besides the object itself, the accusative of a § 24.: 
substantive or adjective, which, as apposition or predicate-noun to (227) 
the object, serves to complete the notion of the verb. In the passive, 
these verbs usually take a predicate-noun in the nominative by § 20. 
Such verbs are : 

a) Those which denote : to make (to be) something* (elect, nomi- 
nate, appoint) ; to have (take, give) as something ; to sJioiv and exhibit 
somewhat in a certain way, as something. Aap€io<i K.vpov a-arpdrrr^v 
iirOLTjcre koI (Trparrj'ybv aTreSet^e Trdvrwv, oaoi eU ^aarciykov irehiov 
adpoi^ovrai [Xe)i. A)i. \, 1, 2). &pa<Jvj3ovko<i vjxa^ jxev Treve(Trepov<; 
airehet^e, tov<; he KoXaica'i rovi avrov 7r\ovcncoTdTOv<; tmv iroXirwv eiroLr)- 
crev {L>/s. 28, 4). Of arpajLoiTai \\.\Kt/3idSrjv aTpaTrjjbv eiXovro [Thiic. 
8, 82). ^ Kpialov rjdiXofxev ^aatXea KaOicndvab [Xen. An. 3, 2, 5). Tc3 
^AXKi/3id8r] Ilepi/cX,?}? eTrecmjae TraLSwycoybv twv olKeroiv rbv dy^peiora- 
Tov virb 7?7p&)9 [PI. Ale. P. 122). Ta irepirra ')^7]fiaTa Trpdy/bLara 
€')(ov(TLV {Xeti. Cijr. 8, 2, 21). AvaavSpo<; (ne(^dvov<i irapd rwv TVoXecov 
ekdp,^av€ hwpa [Xe)i. Hell. 3, 3, 8. See § 19). Tbv i8i(i)T7]v y^pr] 
eavrbv irapej^eiv evrreiOrj rot? ap')(ovcnv [Xen. Cijr. 2, 1, 22). Kr\pov 
diToheiKvvaaiv ^Kv8v/xl(ova {PI. Phad. 72 ; thej/ make Eiidymion a 

farce; surjMss him so much that he becomes mere child' s-jda?/ in com- 
parison). OySei? e^et yjrevSr] d'7ro<prjvat, a elprjKajiev {PI-)' 

Rem. The Greeks even say \_prolepticaUy], av^dveiv riva fxiynv, a'ipfiv ri [xeya, 
and the like ; where the notion expressed in the apposition is already involved in 
the verb, and SiddaKeada!. riva a-KVTea, to set a j^erson to learn to he a sJioemaker. 

b) The verbs which denote to name, call {Xiyco, koXw, diroKaXo), 
ovofid^co, TTpoaayopevo), irpoael'TTov), and to regard, {hold, account, de- 
clare) as somethivg {vofML^o), rjyovfiat,, Kplvu)). 01 "JLX\,T]V€<i toi/? dWov<; 
Trdurat; ^ap^dpovi oivbiia^ov. <Pl\ov ae rjyov/jiai {PI. Gorg. 473). 
^AdXtcordTrjv ravrrjv tcov TroXecov Kplvco {PI. Jiej). 9, 578). 

Rem. 1. Instead of the name, title, or denomination itself, a pronoun may stand 
in the neuter: Tt ae KoXafjifv ; Tovto KaXovfJMi. 'AvtI (jiDiuv Kal ^evoiv, a rore 

• wvoixd^ovTO, viiv KokaKfs uKovovaiv (Dem. 18, 46). Also, KoXe'iv rtva ovofxa tl. 

. ^ AvaKoXovcn ravra to. 6v6[j.aTa iavrovs, a8e\(f)ovs, irarepas, vUls {PI. Sej). 5, 471). 
KaXeli', Ti6{(r6ac, TrpocrfiTif'iv tivi ouofid ri, to give a j^erson a name ; TiQeadal tlvi. 
ovofia Soicriav (Dem. 43, 74). ('ETTCdvu/Litai/ e)(a) rvpavvos.) 

Rem. 2. rj-yovfim, vojjll^w, Kplva, often take an accusative with infinitive {elvai), 
sometimes even uvopd^o) : locpicrTrjv dvopd^ovai. rbv av8pa ilvai (PI. Prat. 311). 

c) The verbs which denote, to distribute into (to make into somewhat by parting, 
biaipci), diavepcj, KUTavepci)) : 'O Kvpos ro arpdrevpa Kareveipf 8a}8fKa fJifpr] (Xen, Cyr. 
7, 5, ]3), (In the passive: 'H yr] to. avra pLeprj Stai/e/ieTat, PI. Legg. 5, 737.) Also 
Ilepaaii' ScoSc/ca (pvXas biaipelv (JCen. Cgr. 1, 2, 5). 

A double accusative; to express a nearer and a more remote object § 25. 

, CHAP. III.] 



24 Nominative and Accusative. [§ 25« 

[§ 25.] (the former a person^ or something' conceived as person) is taken by 
verbs which denote^ to demand [alroi, arrrano), -TrpaTTOfiac, more rarely 
TrpaTTO), eUnrpaTTO)), to deprive, bereave, make to lose {a4>aipovpbaL, 
airoaTepo), also cryXco). clothe and strij), invest and divest [evhixo, eKSvco, 
du(f)ievvvfMt,^), teack (ScBdaKco, BiSda-KO/xai, set to learn, have a person 
taiitjht to he somewhat), admonish, make to remember {avap.i\ivriaKw, 
vTTOfiilJLvrjaKU)), conceal [KpvTTTWjd'TTOKpv'mw). In the passive construc- 
tion, the nearer object becomes the nominative, while the accusative of 
the more remote object remains : TloXkoi fxe crcrov alrovcn, ttoWoI Se 
i/j-CLTia (Xen. Cj/r. 8, 3, 41). '2t(i)KpdTrj<; ovSeva rf/? a-vvovcrla<i dpyvpiov 
iirpdrTeTO {Xen. Mem. 1, 6, 11). ^leaarjvrjv vfj,d<; 01 Sr]/3aXoi, eVi^ei- 
povatv dTroarepeiv {Isocr. Arch. 16). 'O fM6ja<; iral'i rov p-iKpov TralSa 
Tov eavrov ')(LTO)va i^/jucpUaev {Xen, Cyr. \, 3, 17). YioQev Aiovva-6Swpo<: 
yp^aro ae 8tSdaK6Lv rrjv aTpaTij'ylav ; {Xen. Mem. 3, 1, 5). AvapLvrjcroi 
vfxdf; Kal Tou? rwt' irpcyovcov KivBuvov<i {Xen. An. 3, 2, 11). Aio- 
jeLTcop Ti-jv Bvyarepa eKpvine tov Odvarov rod dvSpo<i {Lj/s. 33, 7). — 
Tiaaa(f)6pv7]^ vtto ySacrtXew? irv'^/j^ave 7re7rpay/j-evo<i tou? ck Tri<; eavrov 
dp')(f]<i (f)6pov^ {Thuc. 8, 5). "Oaoi re rwy iroXepicov oirXa dcji^prjvrai, 
ra^ii dWa 'iTonqaovrai,, oaoL re l'7nrov<; uTreareprjvrat, ra')(y iraXiv dXXov<; 
Krrjdovrat, {Xen. Cijr. 6, 1, 12). 'Hpa/cA.?}? ra? /3oO<? vtto 'N7JXe(0<i Koi 
Twy -jraihoiv €av\i]67] {Isocr. Arch. 19). ^ASvvaroi elal ri.ve<; ravrrjv rr]v 
eTTLfiiXeiav Ztha-)(6rivai, {Xen. (Ec. 12, 12). 

Eem. 1. Some of these verbs also admit a different construction, especially 
aiToa-Tepfiv, viz., riva Tivos, to deprive a person of a thiiig : a-noaTffjdv rivn twi- 
Trnrpcdcov (Dem. 29, 3), anoa-Tfpela-dai fieyaXcov {PI. Sep. 1, 329). [^ A(f)aipe't(T6ai 
TL TLvas, to tal'e sometJiing froin some one; and so ■jrapaipflaBai : Ta oirXa tov 
T7'ki)6ovs TraprjpovvTo, XeJi. Mell. 2, 3, 41 . ^A(paipf~Lv in the active has rivi ti, to take 
something from some one. Alrdv ti Trapd tivos. 'ApafiiixvijaKetv two. tivos, e. g. 
Topyiov.) 

Eem. 2. Now and then, such a substantive accusative of the remoter object 
is found with some other verbs, which otherwise have instead of it a preposi- 
tion, e. rr, in 7rpoKa\ovpai and epccTco : AaKf8aipovLoi v^d? Tr]v elprjvrjv irpoKa- 
XnvvTai {Arist. Ac//. 652. Usually it is : TrpoKciKda-Bai Tiva tls flpi]V7]v. Tai'Tci ae 
TvpoKciXovpai, with the pronoun in the neuter by § 27). KCpoj rjpaiTa tovs avTo- 
/loXovs Tu fK Tu>v TToXf/it'cov (A'cw. Ci/v. 3, 3, 48). 'Epmrdo-^fu to ovop.a {PI. Legg. 
10, S95. Usually Ttept tivos). With others {avayKci^at, ajroKcciXva)) we find, as 
accusative of tbe tiling, only a neuter adjective or pronoun (see § 27) : To{;ro pf^ 
dvdyKa^e p.e {PI. Rep. 5, 473). ^Anipxop.at ivpXv vnu crov ti p.flCov dvayKacr6rjvat 
{PL Phced. 242). 

Rem. 3. The verbs, to make {iroiw, dvriTroico, Spw, ipyd(opai, poetically, cpSw), 
and say. speak (Xeyw, dnov, dyopevo)) in the sense, to speak to, or address a person 
in a certain manner (especially in an evil manner), sometimes also to make 



* fpbvofiai, eveSvv, (Kbiopai, e^ebvv, dp.<f)i€Vi/Vfiai, x'-T^va, put on, put off. 

[part I. 



§26.] Nominative and Accusative. 25 

mention of, take the accusative of the person with another accusative, mostly a [§ 25.] 
neuter adjective or pronoun, denoting that which is done to or said of or to the 
person : 'Ek rovraiv twu dvSpcov Koi ol to. fieyicTTa koko. ipya^o^ievoi ras ttoXcij 
ylyvovrai Koi ol dyadd' aixiKpd Se (pxKTis ovSev fieya ovSeTvare ov8eva 8pa (PI. Itep. 
6, 495). Ol vTroKpiToi iv raTy rpaycoSims dXKrjXovs ra eaxnTa \eyovcnv (JTf re. Mem. 

2. 2, 9). Instead of the second accusative we may also have merely the adverbs 
eu and kokuis : Kokws Xfyova-iv ol dyadol rovs KaKovs {PL Eiithyd. 284) ^ 

a) Verbs in themselves incapable of an object-accusative have § 26. 
nevertheless not unfrequently the accusative of a substantive derived (223, 
from t he same root or, of correjponding- meaning-, usually connected " ^' 
witli an adjective or pronoun or similar adjunct serving- to define and 
characterize the action more closely. (In English^ we usually employ 
a verb of o-eneral sigrnification. which can take the substantive as its 

— • • •• 1*1 

reg-ular object^ in place of the special and intransitive verb m the 
Greek.) "HSoyuat ra^ fie'y[ara<^ rjSovd'i [PI. Thil. 21; I feel, expe- 
rience, enjoy'). Xaipe(f)MV ^vvecpvye rr^v (pvyrjv ravTTjv {PI. Apol. 21 ; 
took part in; fill a red). Ol 0paKe(;,i'7rel €vTv-)(r)cra,v rovro to evTv^rjixa, 
a-vveXeyovTO tt}? vvKT6<i {Xen. An. 6, 1, 6). AaKeSatfjLovtot (xera ravra 
70V lepov KoXovfievov iroXeixov ecrrpdrevaav [Thnc. \, 112). ^ kmTipa\xev 
Tr]v Trporepav Trpea/Betav (l)em. I'd, 163 ; we set out on the frst emhas-v/). 
"NiKav vUtjv KaWicrT7]v. AaK€SatfiovLOu<; (f)acrlv ev UXaraiaU irponov 
fiev (pevjeiv., eirena 8e dvaarpe^ojjbevovi w^irep LTnrea^ /jbd)(^6a6at Kai ovrui 
viKrjcrai T7]V eVet fidxW [P^- Loch. 191) . Ta? fxev veviKt^Kare vavp,a'^la<i, 
rrjv S" e/c Tov elKoro's vvv viKi'^aere {Thnc. 7, 66) '. Y\.daa<i v6(Jov<; Kaixvco 
{PI. Hep. 3, 408). Nocroz^ voaov/jbev rriv ivavriav {Ari.st. Arcs, 31). 
"HSr/ rjaOevet ravTrjv rrjv voaov {Isa. 1, 14). IIpo? to auToi<i a-v/J,4>epou 
Kal Tou<i vo/jLovf: rlOevrat kuI tou<? e7raivov<; eiraivovcri /cat tou? y^oyov^ 
^eyovaiv {PL Gorg. 483 ; praise, when they praise, and Maine, when 
they blame). Hence sometimes a passive is formed: 'O ^e/3Lco/jb6vo<i 
aoi /Sto<? {Bern. 19, 200, the life you have led [so we: the life you have 
lived]). 01 'rroXe/j.ot ol eVl Qrjaeo)^; 7To\e/i'T]6evT6<i {Xen. 3Iem. 3, 5, 10). 

Rem. 1. The poets employ even holder constructions, e.g. Ttj S^r' av ('It] ttjvS' 
6 npoa-duKoov edpav ; {Sopti. QSd. C. 1166, tliat sits here in this sort ?). 

Rem. 2. In the same manner, some phrases are formed of a verb with a sub- 
stantive, related in signification, but more special, without adjective or pronoun : 
viKdv''l(j6pi.a [tu c/ain an Isttimian victory ^= vikuv tovs arf^aviras dyuvas), Bveiu • 

(vayyt'Kia, dvtiv rd Au/cata, ioTidv ydpovs. {'Earidu Beapocpdpia rdi yvpu'iKas, Isce. 

3, 10, see h.) 

^ "'E^icrTiv vpiv tivfv 8andvrjs rd diKaia Trnirjrrai rn'is evepyfrais (Dem. 20, 12). 

- Ntfcai/, KpuTflv T'j pax;], to conquer in tlie Jight (17 «'? tovs XaKihaipovlovs So^a, ^w 
hid T(> alaxpov 8t] liorj$T)(reiv vp'iv nia-Tfverf avrovi. Ttinc. 5, 105, ttie confidence yan 
hare in tlie Lacedamonians, ttiat tttey of very s/iame, etc.). 

CHAP. III.] 



26" Nominative and Accusative. [§ 27. 

[§ 26.] Rem. 3. This accusative may also stand with verbs which govern a genitive or 

dative : Ar^fioadevqs Serjcriv riva Icrxvpav e/ioO eSfTjdrj firj nafjaXinflv tovto {JEsch. 
2, 43). {Adva eTTT) Karriyopeiv Tivos, Soph. CEd. Ji. 513.) 

/;) Such an accusative of the notion contained in the verb, or of 
one nearly related to it, together with a defining and characterizing 
adjunct, may also stand with a verb which governs a proper object- 
accusative : Spaau/SovXoi; koI SpdavWo<; wpKwcrav 7rdvTa<; toi)? arpa- 
Tt(ora<i TOV<i fM€'yL(7Tov<{ '6pKov<i, rj fii]u hrifioicpaTi]aea6at Kol ofjbouo7](TeLV 
{Thuc. 8, 75). Tou? TToX-iVa? /neTaSiBovaL a\X,7;Xot9 y^pt] r?'}? ct)0eX,eta9, 
t]u dv efcaaroL to koivov hvvarol ayatv oicpeXeiv [PL Rej). 7, 519). MtX- 
rLdhr}<i 6 Ti-jv iv ^lapaOwvi f^d-yrjv Tov<i ^ap^dpov; vLKr]aa<i {yEscJi. 3, 
181) '. Alo-^lvr]<i K.Tr]accf)o)VTa 'ypa(f)r)v lepoiv 'xprj^'droiv ehmKev {Dem, 
19, 293). Ti/xcopia vpuv ij^et evOix; /j^erd top ifxov Odvarov ttoXv ya- 
XeTTojTepa rj oiav ifie direiCTovaTe {PL Apol. 39). This accusative may 
remain, when the proposition is expressed passively, and conse- 
quently the proper object becomes subject : ^oiovrov Tixr^ia re/jiveTat, 
TO Tefivofievov, olov to TejjLvov Tefivet (PI. Gorg. 470 ; is cut with such a 
Ciit). OvSev opveov ahet, OTav iretvfj rj piyol i'j Tiva dXkrjv XvTrrjv 
XvTrrJTat (PI. Phad. 85). Ta? dXK.a<i yita^a.?, 6cra.<? Ilepcrai 7]TT7'j6riaav, 
iSi (Isocr. Paneg. 145). %paav^ov\o<^ iSedrj koL iKpidrj dfi(j)OTepa<; Td<i 
Kplaeiff ii> T<x> S^fjLw (Dem. 24, 134). TunTeadai, ttj Srj/xoaia /ndaTlji 
irevT^'jicovTa irXrjyd'i (yEsch. 1, 139). 

§ 27. a) Verbs which in themselves cannot govern an object-accusative, 
(229) may take the neuter accusative of a pronoun or of a nunieraL adjec- 
tive, to denote the contents and compass of the action ; and in like 
I manner sometimes another description of adjective which serves to 
I characterize the measure and extent of the action. (The pronoun 
or adjective belongs, properly speaking, to the substantive notion 
I involved in the verb.) "YiV aoi (tovto, ttoXXu) ov-^ ofioXoyci). Tl 
Bt.a(f>epei TuvTa ; }^vpo<i AvcrdvSpw dXXa t 6(j)iXo(f)povelTO Kal tov iv ^ap- 
Secrt TrapdSetaov eVeSet^e (Xen. (Ec. 24) . S/it/^pof tl diropw (PI. Thcat. 
145). Tai/ra Xyrtovp-ai Kal TavTa yalpa) rot? iroXXol'i (Pew. 18, 292). 
'O 6pyc<jdet<; ovfc iXdaaco irTalec i) 6 €uopyi']TOi<i TOL<i Trpdyfiaaiv ofxcXr]aa<i 
(77iuc. 1, 122). Aeofiac fieTpca Kal BiKaia vfiwv (Dem. 37, 3 ; m>/ reque^it 
does not exceed the hoimds of moderatiofi and justice). Aio/iuL vfMMv, 
O) dvSpei; oiKucrTal, ^orjdrjaaL rjpZv Ta SUaia (Dem. 27, 68). Teyvrj ecrd 
6,1 L -Trpo'iSetTai Tivo<i dp€Tr]<; ; (PL Rep. 1, 342; is there any resjjcct in 
which Art requires any additional virtue 1'). — "Ocra hiaycovlt^ovTai ttoX- 
XdKi<i yXiKfi 7rp6<; dXX7]Xov<i (Xen. Ci/r. 1, 4, 4; what they contend, i. e. 



Usually viKav riva ^axu l^^y^I}- 

[part I. 



§ 28.] No^ninativc and Accusative. 27 

the contests tliejj mafce). Ovk a^lccx; eKeivcov wv (for a by attraction, [§ 27.] 
seech. 9) ivaufj^axvcra/juev [Arist. Ares, 677; tv/iat we fought, i.e. the 
toaj/ we fought in the naval engagement) . Hence sometimes the pas- 
sive is formed, especially in the participle : Ta aoL Treirpea^evixeva 
{Bern. 19, 24-0 ; yo%ir acts as ambassador = a aii TreTrpea^euKa'i) . Ta 
iv 07rXoL<i KoX Kara rrjv crrparrj'^iav aTf^i^^eyra [Bern. 18, 212 ; the 
mishaps sustained). 

Rem. 1. Especially we must remark the use of a pronoun in the accusative neuter 




{PL Tliewt. 157). Ovk e;(co, o,ti xPW'^y-'^^'- tovtoi rw dvdpinru) {PI- Sj/j)ip. 216; 
2L'/iat I sJiall do with tiim : u'hat tu do with him). {XfjfjcrOai tivi eVi Tjpay^d ri, 
XprjaBai rols vfvpois els ras a(pev86vas). 

Rem. 2. Sometimes an adjective thus accompanj'ing the verb acquires almost 
the force of an adverb ; see Adjectives, ch. 8. Ti {somemhat, in a certain degree) 
and {(jpiKpov Ti) and ovhkv are used as complete adverbs even with adjectives (ot 
dperris TL pfTUTToiovpej/oi. T/iuc. 2, 51, ov8ev opoios, ap-iKpovrt 6/Lioto?), and with adverbs 
{axf86v ri, Trdvv ti). Tavra acquires sometimes the »ense for t/tis reason, therefore : 
Avrd Tavra Kal vvv ^Kto rrapd ere {PI. Prot. 310, this is the very reason of my noio 
coming). Tavr lipa Kal eVecopas fj-oi ; {JCen. Cyr. 1, 4, 27). (In the poets also 
raSe, roiavra = oilrcos.) 

b) Such an accusative may also stand with a transitive verb which 
governs an object- accusative (the adjectives almost always in the 
plural) : 'Eay e/xe aTroKrelvijTe, ovk i/xe fiel^o) |3Xd^p'er€ i) vfxd<i avrou'i 
{PL Apol. 30; will bring greater hurts, = io ill harm more). TaOra KaX 
dXXa TOLavTa eyKw/xid^ovaL ttjv hi.KaioavvrjV {PI. Hep. 2, 363). Aa«:e- 
BaifMOvioL iroXXd rrjv rroXcv rj/xayv rjSiK7]Kacn Kal /xeydXa {Pern. 18, i)8). 
This accusative may remain with the passive : IT oWa kuI Seivd rjSi- 
KTjOrjv {Isa. 8, 4). Ou ^Xay\rovrai d^ia Xojov {Time. 6, 61.; they will 
suffer no loss worth mentionin,g). {Qavpal;^e(j6ai ra elKora, Thuc. 1, 38, to, enjoy 
heco7mng honours. Toiavr enj] KXvav, a vvv aii Tr]v8' aTipd^tis nokiv, Soph. (Ed. R. 
340, = rauTa, d — , the affront tJiou pattest upon the city.) 

a) The accusative stands with the prepositions dvd, np along some- § 28. 
thing, along through something (of space and time), up to {dvd to opo^;), (230) 
and et?, to, into something, together with &)?, to, and with djjbc^i,, hid, e-rrl^ 
Kara, ^lerd, irapd, irepl, Trpo'?, virep, vtto, in certain significations (those 
which start from the conception of a motion to something, a spreading 
round or over something. 

Rem. 1. Els (agreeably with its sig nification, into) is never Jin Attic, rarely in 
Ionic writers) applied to individual persons ( -rrpos, ws). Toj)ersons in the plural 
it is ap2)]i«l, when these persons denote_au assembl}^ {tls tovs 8iKacrTds, fls vpds, 
into t/ie assembly ofthepeop>le), a def inite place {(Is tovs noXtp-iovs, els tovs varaTovs. 
CHAP. III.] 



^8 Nominative a7id Accusative. [§29,30. 

t§ 28.] ffiliciWeiv), oran extepsion {land and peojole) and expansion: CEnopevdrjcrav eh 
Taoxovs, 2Ieii. An. 4, 7, 1. fleXo\|/' eK rrjs 'Aa-'ias xphp-o^^°- '^X^^ rjXBev els dvOpanovs 
dnopovs, Thuc. 1.9. Hupa ^aaiXea Ka\('iXXo(Te fS roiis [^np^apnvs, Thuc. 1, 9. Aial^e- 
(SXrjvTai ds Tovs ciXkovs, PL Scj}. 7, 539. in the minds of. Tr)j ■nokeas 17 8yvap.is els 
dnavras dvOpanovs diacjiaviis eyevero, PI. Tim. 25). In speaking of disposition 
and behaviour towards any one, ds is also applied to individuals (fvvoia f iV tlvo, v^pl- 
feti/ e'is TLva, Xeyetv Ti tXs riva, of and against him), 'fly is used only oi persons ^ 

Rem. 2. The poets use with verbs of motion an accusative without ds or Trpo? : 
AopLovs a-Tfixoy ep^ovs {Soph. Q^d. C. 643). ndpetjut (= jytcw) AipKr]s vapar 'lo-^7;i/oG 
6' v8o}p {Eur. Bacch. 5). In prose we find instead of eis, onlv some names of cities 
in the form Se (fe, cf. the Accidence) : i^ekBelv ^EXevaiuade, OXvp-nia^e. 

Rem. 3. Transitive verbs compounded with the prepositions 8id and vjrtp, in 
their proper local signification, sometimes take besides their object-accusative, the 
accusative of the name of the place through or over which the motion takes place : 
'YTvepr]veyKav roi' AfvKah'iav ladpLov rcis vavs {Thuc. 3, 81). (lu Herodotus also 
relx^^ TTfptjSaXXeo-^at tt]v ivokiv, Sdt. 1, 163.) 

b) Likewise with the particle ixd in asseverations : Nal ^la rov A.ia. 
Gv fia Ata. (In the poets sometimes oi without ptd: Ov, rov Travrav 6fmv 6eov 
'iTp6pLov''AXiov. Soph. CEd. C. 666.) 

§ 29. Verbs denoting- an extension, motion, or distance, take the name of 
'^^'^^ the measure in the accusative, so yiryova, am — old, the specification of 
the age. KGpo? e^ekavvet Sta tt)? AfS/a? aTa0/xov<; rpeh, Trapao-dryya'; 
eUoat Kol hvo [Xen. J>i. 1, 2, 5). Bao-tXeu? re koL 01 "EW-qve^ 
hie(7')(ov dXkrjXcov co? rpiaKovra crrdSia {Xen. An. 1, 2, 4). (IToXXwy 
rjfjbepoiv 680V cnTej(eiv.) %paav^ov\o<; edero rd ottXu ocrov rpia (XTaoia 
diTo Tb)v 4)povpo}v {Xen. Hell. 2, 4, 5 ; took up a position at a distance 
of — ). OvTTQ) eLKO(Tty6rj2^<yejovu)^ {Xe^i. Mem. 3, 6, 1). 

I Rem. In adjectives denoting an extent {long, &c.) the accusative of the mea- 
I sure is not usual in Greek. It says : p,f;<cog eycjy rpi ayy nqbSiv {rpe'is TrdSag), rdf^Qos, 

' TpLCOV TTodaiv TO piliKOS. 

§ 30. In statements of duration and extent of time {Aow long), the measure 
(235) of time is put in the accusative : 'EvravOa Kvpo? e/xetvev rifiepa<; Trevre 
{TavTrjv TTjv rjfjbepav) {Xen. An. 1, 2, 6). Ot tmv Hepcrcov e(f)'t]l3oc 
BeKa errj, a</)' ov dv eK iraiBcov i^eXOwai, KOijJimnai irepl rd dp^^ela {Xen, 
Cijr. 1, 2, 9). TevecrOe /xol [xiKpov y^povov ri^v hidvoiav {in imagina- 
tion, ^qq § 31) eV Ty Bedrpw {yEsch. 3, 153). TloXkoh Kal fi€'yd\ot<} 
KaKot<i Kal TTpdjfiaaL rrjv dirohrjiJblav irdcrav crui^et^o/LtT/i' {Dem. 19, 177. 
Also irapd irdcrav rrjv aTToS., during the whole journey. A<a iravTO'i 
Tov -x^povov, Lijs. 7, 8 ; ihrovghout the whole time). XttovSt] 6fj.olco<t 
Kal vvicra KoX rj/xipav earat t% 68ov {Thuc. 7, 77; through the night 



* 'Am in Epic and lyric poetry with the dative, on, upon, not implying motion. 

[part I. 



§31-] Noniinativc and Accusative. 29 

and the dai/ : night and da 1/ alike. 'Nvkto^; koX rj/u,epa<;, I )/ night and\Mo.\ 

Eem. The accusative of a denorainatiou of time with an ordinal number denotes 
Tiow long ago (properl}^ what time it is now, since the thing happened : 'H dvyarjip 
avTa^l:i8oiJ.r]u i]jx(pav fTereXevTTjKec (JEsch. 3, 77). TpLTrjv rjjjiepav 'Acrrvo;(ov 
rjKovTos, al 'Arrt/cai vrjes enXeov es Aea-^ov {Thitc. 8, 23, (on) the third day after A. 
icas come). Tj}u fxrjrfpa rpe<^a>v Tvenavfxai rplrov eras tovto {Lys. 24, 6. now (is 
it) the third year {that) — ). (More rarely : 'AXklos ri6vr}Ke ravra rpla err], Lys. 
■ 7, 10, with the cardinal number.) 

CI) Where a quality or state is mentioned, expressed either by a § 3^- 
passive or intransitive verb, or by an attributive adjective, or by a ^"-^T, 
predicate-noun, the accusative is often added, to denote to what part 2^-) 
of the subject, or to what side of it, or to what general conce2>tion 
(e. g. size, number, name, &c.) any thing predicated of the subject 
refers (in, in respect of) : Ta aaiyuara irpo^ oipav Kal ra? "^jrv^a^ Trpo? 
apeTrjv €v TretbvKore'i {Xen. Mem. 4, 1, 2). Oi arpaTLMTac ev fiev el-^ov 
ra aMfiara Trpo'i to hvvaadau arpaTicoriKOV^i 7r6vov<; (fiipeiv, ev 8s ra? 
'\jrv')^a<; Trpo? to Kara(f)popeLV tmv iroXepiLoyv [Xen. Cgr. 3, 'd, U). ^AX^eiv 
rov SuKTuXov, ra o^ijuara, Kci/jiveiv tou? 7r68a<;, TepeaOi ixoh ixiKpov 
^ovov r vvhuivoiav firj ip tm SiKacrTijplcp, aA.A,' iv rw Bedrpw [j-Esch. 6, 
163), H Trevia rov irXovrov /BeXrLova'i av8pa<; Trapi^ei Kal rr]v jvco/jltjv 
Kdi rifv ISeav [Arist. PI. 558). To_yoa-77jaa tolovtov rjv errl irav [in its 
general n ature) r ijv_lSeav [Thzcc. 2, 51) . UdvTa^ ^p; Kal tou? evcfivea-re- 
povi Kal Tov<i djx^XvTepov^ ttjv (f)U(nv, iv ot<i dv u^toXo'yoi ^ovXwvrai 
vfeveadat, ravra Kal pavddvetv Kal /jt,e\erciv [Xen. Mem. 3, 9, 3). AiKaLo<i 
rov rpoTTOv [Dem. 56, 2). Ata-^^lXioi, aTrecpoi rb 7r\)]do<i. 'Ei^aKoatoi 
lov dpiOfiov [Anst. Aves, 1251). HeVof dyo/xev, rb /xev 76^09 i^ 
EA,€a9, kralpov he roiv d/uu(jil Tiapfievlhr]v Kal 7ji]va>va [PL Sojyh. 216). 
-2,Kvdrj<; rb <yevo<i. Aio. /x6aT]<i rrj'i ttoXcw? pet TTorafxb^ KvSi^o? ovofia, 
evpo<i Suo rrXiOpoiV [Xen. An. 1, 2, 23). Avaavhpo'^ TrpoaejBaXe 
TToXet, roov ^XOi-jvaicov ^vfxp,d-\^a') ovofia KeSpetaf? [Xe?i. Hell. 2, 1, 15). 
E£-l%5LIHJ£5J'A_To_£^^.<^^ <^sjar as the bodg is concerned. 

Eeji. 1. Sometimes /cara is used to denote the part of the subject: Kadapos 
. Kal Kara to crw/ta /cat Kara rrjv '^vxi)v [PI. Crat. 405). In certain connexions we 
■ have the dative ihy), e. g. (pvo-fi, yivei. See § 40. 

Rem. 2. The poets add to the object-accusative of a person the accusative of a 
part of the body (also (ppevas), to which the exercise of the action refers: Medes 
fie, irpos BeSav, X^^P'^f (fiiXraTov tskvov [Soph. Phil. 1301). 

OvK ajjhks Kara to vSaTiov uvai uWws re kol TTjv8e Trjv a>pav tov stovs t€ koI ttjs 
■fjpepas [PL Pha;dr. 229). Herodotus uses tovtov tov xP°''ov quite in place of 
fif TovTco TO) xp^^^^y '^"■'"" TOVTOV TOV xpoj/oj/, and vvktu (tus vvktus), instead of 

VVKTOS. 

CHAP. III.] 



30 Nominative and Accusative. [§ 31- 

l§ 3I-] b) Adjectives denoting cleverness, skilfulness, or knowledge often 
take an accusative of the object in which the knowledge or skill is 
ascribed to a ^^erson, but for the most part only a neuter ad jective (in 
the plural) or a jpronqun (also re-)(y7]v, aperi'^v) . O iravra ao4>o<i 
•7roirjTi]<; {PI. Thecal. 19-i). ^Avrjp ayadb<; (Seti/o?) ra TroXiTiKa. 'Eay 
Tt9 (j)fj a'yado^ ai)XT]T7]<; elvat rj aXkrjv rjVTivovv Te-)(yriv, rjv /j,7) eVriy, 
KarajeXooaiv {PL Prof. 323). 01 (TTparLOJTaL iinarijiuiove^ rjcrav to. 
7rpo<;r]KovTa rfj eavro)v eKacrro<; oirXla-et [Xen. Cyr. 3, 3^ 9 ') . (Also, 
"Qua IU.OC '^yjcrtfMoi iare, olSa, Xen. An. 2, 5^ 23.) 

Rem. KaKoj naaav KaKiav {PL Rep. 6, 490), with a substantive of tlie same 
origin ; as in verbs, § 26. 

c) In certain cases an accusative is used to denote something 
external to the subject (a certain extent, range, sphere) to which the 
predicate refers {as regards). In this manner are used the substantive 
fiepo'i {to ifiov fie po<;, t o ao v ^., etc.) ; some adjectives with the article 
injthe neuter, which then for the most part have quite the significa- 
tion of adverbs of extent and time; and the neuter article with a pre- 
position or an adverb (in like manner forming adverbial expressions). 
Ot TratSe?, to o\)V fiepo<i, 6 tl clv Tv-)(U)ai, tovto irpd^ovcn, {PI. Crilon. 
45). To AJroiXLKov irddo^ Sia ttjv v\r]u ixepo<i tl iyeveTo {Time. 4, 30 ; 
the defeat in jEt.). Ov p-ovov tcl /jueydXa, dWd kol tu puKpd ireipM/uuic 
del drro OeSiv dp')(ea9aL {Xen. Cyr. \, 5, 14). ^d^_ji\v TjapehBovra^ 
{hitherto) vp,eL<; fiev Kvpov rjv^^craTe, KOpo? 8' eu/cXeet? vp.d'i i'TToiiqaev 
{Xen. Cyr. 8, 5, 23). To XoiTrov, To^^vjj^av, etc. (see The Article, 
§ 14 a. Rem. 2). To KaT ijjbe ovhev iXXeiyjrec {on my pari). Tojtt^Ivj 
etc. (see ib. § 14 b. Rem. 2). 'H 7r6Xi9 elpi'ivrjv djet tu irepl ttjv ')((jipav 
{Isocr. Areoj). 1). Ot (TTpaT7]yot <x'rrovhd<i eiroirjaavTo tu irepl IluXoy 
{Thuc. 4, 15 ; on account of P., as regarded matters at P.). 

d) The accusative Tporrov is put adverbially, and so likewise 6S6v, 
in certain expressions (as ^manner' 'way' in English). Touroi; toi* 
TpoTTOv irpd^a^ oXov tov 'Trpdyp,aTo^ diraXXd^o/jiat {Pern. 30, 22). 
{IldvTa TpoTTov, eTepov Tpoirov, ov Tpoirov, etc. Also tlvl TpoTroy, TovTro 
r(o TpoTTw. See Pative, ^ 41.) K.vpo<iTrjv }^lXcaaav el<i}^tXcKiav diro' 
7re/i7ret t7]u Ta'^laTriv ohov {Xen. An. 1, 2, 20). 

Rem. In this manner several adverbial expressions are formed elliptically by 
I omission of 6b6v, e. g. Tr]v Ta-)(L(Trr}v, ttjv Trparrjv. Tlie accusative of some par- 
I ticular substantives is used adverbially without an adjective or pronoun annexed : 
I dpxrjv, Tr]v apx^v, at all, re\os, to reXo?, nepas, at last, np6<pa(Tiv, in pretence, 
\ rtfiaiKa, gratis ; blKj]v, after the manner of, and X'^P^^^fi'' ^'^^ sake of, have the force 

* ^poi^itTT^f ra pteTeoipa {PI. Apol. 18), as adjective. 

[part I. 



§32—34-] The Dative. 31 

of a preposition with the genitive, thus: dyyctou 8ikt]v rren'krjpaxTdai {PL Phced. [§ 31.! 
235), TiVof x^ip'" '■ ''■o^ Xdyov x^P'-^ (-P^-)j the latter also accompanied by a posses- 
sive pronoun : efirjv X"P"'' ""'?'' X'*P'*'* -^^ the same way ocrov, oaa (otroi/ ye, oaa ye) 
are used as adverbs. 

e) Of the accusative absolute of a participle {i^ov) to denote a cir- § S^' 
cumstance, see under Participles, § 182. 

The accusative is put elliptically in the phrase /xy f^ot — . come not 
to me with — , do n't talk to une of— : /xy ^ol Trpo^aaiv [Arist. Ach. 345 ; 
no sliuffiing), and in calling" a person: Duto?, w o-e toi {Arist. Aves 
'^14i ; hark ye, there ! you there !). 

Rem. 1. In later wi-iters, we sometimes find the article followed by an accusative 
in the sense, he with, he that has, e. g. 'O ttjv T7op(j)vpi8a {Liician). In Hero- 
dotus sometimes the name of a part of the object is put with a participle as appo- 
sition to the object : Tovs ^ovs Kuropvcraovai ev rois wpnacrTeLois, to Kepas to erepov 
^ (cat dfxfpoTepa vnepexovTU, 2, 41, the one horn projecting, i. e. so that — , oi', 
with — . 

Hem. 2. On the particular use of the accusative with the gerundive, see § 85 : 
on the accusative of a relative changed into the dative or genitive, see Relative, 
§ 103 : on the subject of a dependent proposition drawn into the primary pro- 
position as accusative, § 191. 



CHAPTER IV. ^ 

Dative. 

The Dative in Greek denotes generally the relation of a person or § '^Z' 
thing" to and in a state or action, in which however it is not the pas- (241, 
sive object, and indi cates, first^ that person or thing" /J>r which some-I^^^^ 
thing" has interest, and to which it refers; secondly, that which, asj 
an appurtenance or circumstance, belo ng-s to_jirid forms^part of^thel 
Medicate *. ~~ I 

Under the first of these heads the dative marks the person, or the § -i ^ 
thing conceived of as ^ev&ow, for which something takes place, or has (241)' 
the predicated quality : SoX&)v ^ K6r]vaL0L'^ v6/xov<i e$T]Kev. At j^dXavoL 
TOt? hecnroTai'i airoKeivrai [Xen. An. 2, 3, 15; are reserved for the 
masters). Ov rut irarpl koI ry fxrjTpl fiovov yeyevrj/xeda, dXKa kol ttj 
irarpiSi {I)e?n. IS, "ZQo). ^AvdyKi] /j,oi,d7neuac. ^66vo<i ^efjiarov kukov 
rol'i e-xpvaiv avrov {Isocr. Euarj. 6). Me^T; (f)v\a^iv dirpeiricrTarov 
{PI. lieji. 3, 398). 'Zw KpcuT'q^ d^io<; day drov earl rfjirokei {Xen. 
Mem. 1, 1, 1; has desermd deatJi from_the city, owes death as his 
deserts to the city) . Ola eicaara ifxol (f)alveTaL, roLavra koX ecrriv ifiol 

^ The Greek dative, therefore, corresponds not only with the Latin dative, but 
also, to a great extent, with the Latin ablative. 
CHAP. IV.] 



32 TJie Dative. [§35- 

[§ 34'] (P(?. TherBt. 152). A^o/9o9 ra? eis(f)opa^ ejnol Xoyd^erai (Deni. 27, 46; 
debits the taxes to me as e.vjJeiuUture). (Dat. eommodi et iucom- 
modi.) 

Rem. 1. Sometimes the dative has directly the meaninsf in Jwnour of, to the ad- 
vantage of: crTe<pavovcT6ai ra Sea {^Len. A(/es. 2, 15), Xa-yyai^ti/rou kXtjpo v {to cia/m 
the inher itanc e) ra yw atiiiLis^- 3, 32, = iinep TrisyvvaiK6s,i}iJiehalj[of;^or; ib. 30). 

Rem. 2. Such a dative is sometimes, in speaking of somethino' that one has, or 
needs, or must bring about, immediately attached to a substantive, to denote for 
whom it is had or wanted, etc. : XprjfxdTcov 'Apicrrocpdvei npoaihti npo^ ruv fxiardov 
Tols TreXraaTais [Lys. 19, 22). 'Eo-n-dj/t^ov Tpofppjs toIs ttoWoIs (Thuc. 4, 6). 
Heiaavbpos rjpcora eva eKaarov, rjuTiva eXTTtSa e;(e(. aooTrjpias rfj jroXet [Thuc. 8, 63). 

§ 35. a) The dative stands with transitive verbs, which either usually (like 

(242) hlhw^ii), or in certain phrases (e. g*. troKefiov avaipelaOai, to declare war), 
denote an action in reference to another person or thing" besides the 
proper object, as object of reference (both with the active and with 
the passive), e.g. fxiaOhv SiSovac {v7ri(T')^v€Ladai.rdrT€Lv) roi? aTpaTLooTai,<;, 
hiavkfieiv "-^pi^jJiaTa rot? TroX/rat?, daipciXeiav irapey^eiv rol^; (f)i\oi<i, eVt- 
Tpkrreiv to. irpd'yp.aTa toI<; ifiTreipoTUTOL';, ')(^p7]/j,aTa ttoWol^ o^eiXetv, 
j3oi]6eiav ireixireiv tlvl, Xe^eiv (hiTi<yela6ai, dyjeXXeip) tcvI tu ireTrpaj- 
fjLeva, ovechi^etu rivl Beikiav, BcaXXdrTeLV rtvd rivi [to reconcile a per- 
son with, to, some one), Suctju Xaj^dvetv rivl {to commence a la lo - suit 
ajiamslji jjei\son) , ■)(eipa<; dv€'x^6iv Oecp. ^orjdeiai7reiJL^6't]^oiWTol<i. 'H 
'yejeurjfievr] P'd'^ to3 ^aacXel djiyeXXeraL, 

(243) d) Such a reference to something else besides the proper obj ect is. 
ofteu_d^noi»d_byLth{j composition of the verb with one of the pre.- 
positions dvrl, iv, eiri, Trepi, •jrpo'i, crvv, viro. For example, avTcrdrrecv 
TOv<i tTTTrea? rot? 7roXeyu,t'ot9, €fjil3dXXetv rivl epcora, e/nrroietv [evep'yd- 
'^eaOac, ifKpueiv) irfriOv/xiav rfj '^vyfj, iy^etpi^eiv tlvI ra Trpdyjaara, 
{evTpecjieiv, evrpa^ea rfj (^aaiXeia) , evopav KaKovoidv rcvd tivl, iirdjeci/ 
alrlav ^IrevBrj tlvl, TeA,09 iTnOelvaL Trpdy/naTL, iirLcfyepeiv ottXol ciW/^Xot?, 
eTTLareXXeLV tlvl tl, eVtTaTTetf (f)6pov Toh a-v/jLfid')^0L<;, TrepLdirTeiv t^ 
TToXeL alcryyvrjv [tl/jL'^v, oVetSos', ho^av ala'^pdv), irepLTLdevaL tlvl 
a7£(pavov {aTLixlav) , TrepL^dXXeaOaL rat? TroXecrLv epv/xaTa^), irpoaTiOevaL 
TL TM vojxcp, irpocre'y^eLV tov vovv tm Xoyw, irpoaTdTTeLV toI<^ 8ovXoL<i 
epya, Trpocr'cfiepeiv too o-cofiaTC Tpo(f)ijv, avvLaTavat tlvcl SLSaaxdXa), 
VTTo^dXXeLv TLVL X6<yov, viroTaTTea-OaL tlvl. The reference, however, is 
denoted bj a repetition of the preposition, whenever the conception of 
place or of a motion is prominent : HepLdelvai TrtXtSia Trepl r^y 
Ke<^aXrjv {PI. Rep. t5, 406). To ev M.lXti)tw ivMKoSofjbrj/jievov (ppovpiov 

' But also nepi^aXXecrdai rfjv injaop Telxei, with a tvall. 

[part I. 



§ 36.] The Dative. 33 

{Thuc. o, 4). (In some cases the usage of the language somewhat varies : this [§35.] 
must be learnt from the Lexicon.) 

Eem. 1. Transitive compounds with Tvapa are fond of repeating the preposition. 
(Also TrapalBaXXeiv ti nfjos ri.) {Yiapajxiyvvvai. tI tlvl, to mix sometJdng tvith a 
thing ; also simply fiiyvvvai ti tivi.) 

Rem. 2. An object of reference in the dative may also stand with verbs which 
govern the genitive, e. g. djLi^itr/Sj/reij/ nvi tov a-lrov, dirrnroielcrdai rm /SacrtXel rrjs 
dp)(ris, fieradidovai ripl tcov dyaOav, perfxeiv rivl tu>v kukuiv, ^vWapfidveiv rivt tov 
irovov. 

E.EM. 3. With an inaccuracy, peculiar to themselves, some such verbs in the 
passive, instead of being predicated of the proper (accusative) object, take for their 
subject the object of reference, e.g. those which denote transferring and c/iving in 
charge. The proper object then remains in the accusative, as in the verbs which 
have a double accusative in the active (§ 25) : Oi iniTeTpappivoi, Tr]v (f)vXaKrjv 
{Thuc. 1, 126). "aAAo ti pel^ov iiriTax6r](T€(Td€ Thuc. 1, 140, == vfuv iTviTaxQrjaiTai). 
So in the passive : dnoTeixvecrdai ttjv KefpaXrjv, (KKaiecrBai or (KKonTecrdai ToicpOaXpo) 
of the person to whom this is done. (Ot dnocreariTTOTes tovs SuktiiXovs tcov ttoScoi/, 
JEere. ^n. 4, 5, 12, = iKeivoi, hv dTroae(TT]TTa(ni> oi BaKTvXoi.) 

a) The dative stands as object of reference with intransitive verbs >$ 36. 
which denote an action, disposition of mind, or situation in reference (204) 
to a person or thing-, but, in the view of the Greeks, do not imply a 
passive attitude on the part of the ol^ject, e. g". nreiOeaOat rol<; 
ap')(ov(nv, irokeixelv AaKeSai-iJiovlot,'^, ev^eadac T0i9 deol<i, ofiiXelv roc'i 
ar/aOoL<;, airavTav tol^ aTnovcriv. "Eot/ca? iraihi. So likewise in 
phrases which have the signification of such a verb, e. g. ^ -^^^Jivalqi^ 
SiajrgXe^ov Ikvai, ojtoae y^copeiv rivi. 

Of such verbs the most important are : those which denote an unfavourable state of 
mind, blame, threatening, resistance, strife, together with those which denote ohe^ 
dience and compliance : opyi^ofiai, dvfiovpai, ;;^aAe7raii'a), dnexdavopai, (pdovco, XotSo- 
povpaL \ eTTiTtpa, sTnTrXrjTTU), fjKaXS), oKeiXo), evavTiovpai, noXepw, irapaTaTTopai, ipi^at, 
(TTaatd^u), dpcf)icr^r]Ta), weidopai, dTTeidS), Tretdap)(S},VTrr]pfTS>, inrovpya, SovXevco, XaTpevco, 
('lkco, vire'iKw, vnox(opS}, ;;(npt'^Ojaat, avyyiyvuxTKO) : further, those which denote kelp 
and assistance, counsel, cheering, and confidence : ^orjQw, dpiivco, fTriKovpo), Tipcapo) 
(poet, dprjyo)), cvpjiovXeva), irapaivco, vnoTiBfpai, irapaKiXivopai, TneTTevo), aTricrroi : 
and those which denote meeting, approaching, following, and communing or com- 
pjanionship : aTravrw, ivTvyxdva, TvXr](Tid^a)", aKoXovBoi, eVo/xai, opXai, Koivoiuco : lastly, 
some which do not belong to the foregoing classes, viz. i'oiKu {am like), diaXeyopai 
{converse with; es Xoyovs i'pxopai), iv)(opai, XvaiTeXu), and the impersonals boKel, 
avp.<pepfi, irpiirei, TTpoarjKei, peXei ^. 

Rem. 1. As in some verbs the mode of viewing the relation wavers between 

the notion of a mere reference, and that of a transitive working upon the object, 

^ Xoibopai in the active with the accusative. 

^ The poetical words neXd^opai, epneXd^opai, 7rpo(nrfXd(opai have also the genitive. 
Active : TTeXd^eiv Tivd tivi. 

^ Ael poi {tivo^, I have need of, something is needful to me, Dat. commodi), 
poetically also 6ei pi (and \pri pe) tivos. Aei pe, xpr] pe ttouIv (rarely Sei poi ttohIv, 
I mtcst do). 

CHAP. IV.] D 



54 



The Dative. [§ 36. 



56.] 



they occur both with the dative and with the accusative, especially upiaKU), please, 
cnrapi(TKii3, displease (kvfiaivoiJ.cu. 4>i-^o(pfjovovp.ai, eVoxXco), sometimes with a some- 
Avhat altered meaning, thus ^jid^in^uu. hhiinc. with the accusative, /xe><^o/iui tivL 
TL, cast uj) something to a person as ;( reproach- ('YTraKovett/ tiv'i and riyoj.) 

Eem. 2. In some of these verbs, the reference may also be expressed by a pre- 
position, e. g. hiakky^aQai npos nva, TTokejxfiv, fidxea-dai Trpos riva, eTrecrdai ^erq 

TIVOS, (TVV riVl, ClKokovOfiv p-fTO. TlVOi. 

KEii. 3. Some of these verbs may also have an object-accusative, either merely 
of a neuter pronoun or adjective, e.g. xa/Jt'CoM"'' o^' also of substantives, e.g. ni- 
areva, entrust. 

Rem. 4. Occasionally the passive of a verb of this sort also is (less accurately) 
predicated of an object of reference as its subject, e.g. Oi Ke/JKupmoi ovk elKoras 
TToXepoiivrai vno Kopivdlav {Thuc. 1, 37, are warred njjon). Svpirnvres oi Ttjs 
2iK€Xiai evoiKoi ini^ovXfvopeda (Thuc. 4, 61), especially in the participle or infinitive, 
for the sake of conciseness : IlaXapi]hrjs 8ia cro4>iav (pBovqBds vtvo rov Obvaaeas 
cnroWvTai {2^en. 3Iem. 4, 2, 33). KpfiTTov earn incrTfveaQai vno rrjs 7TaTpi8os rj 
aniaTfladai [Xen. Si/mp. 4, 29). (In Thucydides, even verbs in which the con- 
struction with the dative rests on the composition (h) : At e'lKoai vrjes rav IleXo- 
TTOvvqiriav, ecpoppovpevoL iVw apidpa vno 'ABrjvaioov, eneKTiKovv enon](ravTo, 8, 20.) 

/;) The dative is often put in this manner with intransitive verbs, 
which by composition with one of the prepositions avrt, iv, e-rrC, irapa, 
Treat, irpo'i, crvv, viro, or with the particle ofMov, come to denote a 
reference to something- else, especially in a figurative sense, e. g. avrexeiv 

[to hold out against), avTifSkimtv rols TvoXepiois, ippeveiv rats arvvdrjKais {toIs opKois, 
rals dfdoypevois), enupai TOis ottXitcus, iniKela-dai rols (pevyova-iu, e(poppelv rw Xiixevi, 
ed>7^8€a6ai, errfyyeXav rivi (rotj kukoIs tlvos), iina-TpaTeveiv (ema-rpaTeveardai) toIs EA- 
X-qaiv, Tvapap-iveLv toIs (Tvppdxois, irapaKadrjadai ^coKpciTfi, TvepLTiLnreiv (rvp.<popa (cfivyfi), 
TrepiTvyyaviiv KpiTi] dyvwpovi, npoaoiKflv Tiorapols Ka\ QaXaanrj, TTpnarjKetv rivi [to be 
related to a p)erson), avvelvai, avCrjv rivi {dwdvai, avvexfcrdai, (rv^evyvvcrdai, avaTrjvai 
KUKols, vocTO), TTOVw), (Twepyelv rivi, awoiKe'iv yvvaiKt [avyxaipetv rois evrvxovaiv), 
inTOKe'iadaL ra (ipxovTi, opoXoyilv, Ofxoyvcopove'iv, 6p.ovoeiu tlvi. llOAA, eueCTTl Tft) 

yvpa KUKo. \Arist. Sj)/i. 441). "E/aw? <^iKoao^ia<i ifnTLirret TOt? avSpdaiv 
[PL Hej). Q>, 499). 'E7rep;i^eTat {eireicrl) (jlol Xeyeiv. Trj ^la TrpocreLcriv 
ex^pat' {Xen. Mem. 1, 2, 10). Ta ep'ya rol'i \6joi<i ov avfxcpoovei. 
'E/cacTTft) TMi' ovofidroiv tovtwv viroKeLral rL<i t'SiO'? ovaia {PL Prot. 349). 
When the literal sig"nification, and, in general, the notion of space 
and motion, is prominent, the preposition is usually repeated : 
iixfjuiveiv iv rfj rd^ec, i/JbTrl'TrTeiv ek (ppeap, el<; dvd'yKrjV. "A\(f)iT ovk 
evecTTLv ev tco 6v\.dKcp {Arisf. PL 763). In this point, however, the 
individual verbs somewhat vary \ 

Kem. 1. The compounds of verbs of motion with rrapd, irepl, vno are transitive, 



1 The compounds of rjpai and Kelpai, even in their literal signification, have, for 
the most part, the dative without prepositions ; on the other hand, Trpoo-^epecr^ai 
TTpui Tiva peru npaoTrjTos, to deal ^vith, bear oneself tov/Sirds, a person. 

[part 1. 



^37-] TJic Dative. 35 

and have the accusative (§ 23). (More rarelj^ and chiefly in poetry, certain [§ 36.] 
others : ima-TpaTeveiv riva, Trpocnrai^eiv rivd : in Thucydid. npoaoiKflv, Trpocr- 
KuSf^fcrdai TToXiv instead of TroAet.) 

Eem. 2. In some compounds with avi', the dative denotes another suhject who 
takes part in the action, e.g. avyKaTayrjpda-Keiv tlvL Oi avvava^avres rw Kvpta 
(also avv ra Kvpco). 

Besides the usage assig-ned to the dat. in § 34 of denoting the person § 37- 
for wJiom something has a certain quality, the dative stands as object of ^^47 ^) 
reference {ci) with the adjectives which denote likeness {corresjwndency) 
and vnUheness, friendly and hostile disposition, as also (^) with the ad- 
jectives which, by composition with iv, avv, or oixov, denote a refer- 
ence to something, and a community or comjjanionsliij}, or which [c) are 
derived from verbs governing the dative, and express the action of the 
verb, {d) also with the adverbs derived from these adjectives, and with 
the verbs which signify, to make like, e.g/'O/xoto? ^LXiTriTM, dvo/xoio^ 
Tot? dSe\(f)oi<i. TvvatKa kocvcovov dya6r]v oIkov ovaav avTippoiTov 
ecvat. T&5 dvSpl vo/xl^o) {Xen. (Ec. 3, 15). Td-^o^; kuI 0/577) ev^ovXla 
ivavTia [Thuc. 3, 42). YJovov^ "" KQr]va[oi<^, ix^po^ AaKehaifxovLoi<;. 
'^vjyev7]'i, avvTpo(f)6<i rivL. 'AavfX(j)u)voi> eavrw. "Et-o^o? rat? fxeyl- 
arai^ aiTiai^. "Ofxopoi rot? ^ KpfxeviOi<^. ' O piMvv/xo'i efioL Kwe? eVt- 
OeriKal rot? drjploci [Xen. Mem. 4, 1, 3). • — 'A/coXou^co? toZ? elpjifxevoi^,. 
^vvoiKco^ €-)(eiv TtvL %vfx<f)ep6vTco<i havTol<i. — 'O/jLoiovadai tcZ 6ea>. 

Eem. 1. The adjectives which denote a correspondency, even when they are 
compounded with div or SpoiJ (e. g. aKokovdos, civricrTpocpos, laopponos, 6pu)vvp.os, 
(Tvpcfxovos), together with evavrlos, often also take the genitive, e. g. avppaxta 
TovTcov uvTippoTTos {Dem. 1. 10, evenly bala?ici'iir/, counteyjyoising, tliis). TevKpos 
'2a\apiva KaraKiafv iv Kvirpa, 6pa>vvpov 7Tot.i]aas rf/s Tvporepov avra •jraTpi^os 
ov(Tr]s {Isocr. Euag. 18). To evavrla twv avpcfxpovrcov avp^ovXiveiv. (Rarely 
opoios.) 'Pl\os, ixdpos, TToXepwi, opopos, as substantives are used with the genitive 
(even in the superlative : ol eKeivov exdicTToi, J^en. An. 3, 2, 5). 

Rem. 2. When it is denoted by ojxotojgj^^og^7rapa7rX)7(rtoy, or the adverbs 
formed from them, that two subjects (or objects) have something equally or 
similarly, that something in them is equal or alike, the regular construction is, 
that the subjects are cou23led b}^ Kal (Opoiav yv(j)p.T]v e'xco kui crv), or by a relative 
wordlTo-o? o(Toj7rep, TTapaTv\r}(Tios otosTrep) ; but by a less exact way of putting it, 
the Greeks often have the second subject (or object) in the dative, as governed 
by the adjective (or adverb) : ' Opoiav yvaprjv aoi i'yo). Tovs kokovs ev noicov 
opoia TTfidii rols ras dWorpius Kvvas a-iTL^ovcriv {Isocr. Dem. 29). Ov kui cri) rvirret 
Tus 'icrai TrX-qyas ipoi; {Arist. Han. 636. On the accusative, see § 26, b.). 'Etti- 
6vpoi 7rapa7TXi](TLCos (TOi{Pl. P/kfcI. 255). Medrjv Kai vtivov opoicos evedpa (f)vXdTTopai 
{JLen. Hier. 6, 3, ^ opoicos koL eve8pav). In the same manner, 6 uvtos, the same, 
is constructed: Ta avrd (ppovo) ArjpoadiveL {Dem. 18, 304, = a Arjpoa-devTjs). Tov 
SoiiXoi- rot? avTols xa'pf" ko^i ax^eoBai rw dearroTr) xpi] {PL Gorg. 510, = ols 6 
becnroTTjs xaipa). 'Ev rw avra ki,v8vv<o toIs (jiavXoTaTOis alupovpai {Thuc. 7, 77). 

CHAP. IV.] D 2 



36 The Dative. [§ 38. 

[5 37-] (Sometiines even where the same verb cannot be repeated: 'Anedave SithAktjs 
ino ras avras rjixepas rols eVt AjjXio), Thuc. 4, 101, = ais iyevero to. erri A.) 

Eem. 3. (To § 34 — 37.) Sometimes the dative is used even Avith a substantive, 
when it is derived from a verb or adjective which has an object of reference in 
the dative : M17 i^aixdpTTjTe Trepi ttjv tov deov 8oai.v iifxiv {PI. A2)ol. 30). Avpjxa-)(oi, 
eyfv6fxe6a ovk eVi Karadovkaafi tcov 'EWtjvuv rois ^Adrjvaiois {Thuc. 3, lOj. Trjv 
avTois 6fioi6rr]Ta rrjs Siayay^ji ael e^ovcnv {PI. Thecet. 177). 'O tovtovs rovs vopovs 
XiKov Tovs Ta> yrjpa ^or]6ovs XvpaiveraL {Dem. 24, 107, usually roii yrjpoos). 

§38, The dative of reference serves in Greek^ in some special cases, to 
denote a certain particular way and manner, and a certain sense, in 
which the thing- predicated takes place for, and in reference to, some 
person or some thing-. 

(246) «) The dative with et/xt', vTrdp'^co, 'yi'yvofxai, denotes the person for 
whom something- is or comes to be, i, e. who has it or comes to Aqve, 
it : N7}e9 OVK elaiv rj/xLV. ToLuvTa rj/xlv ei? (pCklav V7rdp')(^ec {Xen.). 
(Ylapvaari'i 7) fMi]rr]p virrip'xe tco Kupo), (f)i\ovaa avrov [xaXkov i) 'Ap- 
Ta^ep^rjv [Xoi. An. 1, 1, ■\:,'iras devotedlij affached to). 'E/c twv hovkoiv 
ocoSeKa fxvac eKacrrov tov iviavTOV rw irarpl e^i^vovro (JJem. 27, 24). 
TloOev al Sca/SoXal aoi avTut 'yejovaatv ; [PL Apol. 20.) {Qv8ev_ Jjxol 
Kal ^iXLTTTra), I and Ph. h ave nothing to do with eacji other. Tt e'/iol 

Kol (JOL ;) 

\ 

b) The dative stands in statements of the time that has elapsed since a person 

has been in a certain state, or since a certain action : 'Hpepa rjv TrfpnTrj eTn-nXeovaiv 
'Adrjuaioii {Xen. Hell. 2, 1, 27, it teas ihe fifili day on U'hich the Athenians ; the 
Athenians had been Jibe days — ). 'Hpepai. pakidra ^crav rrj MiTvXrjvr] eaXtoKvia 
eTTrd, or is to "E/i/3aroi/ oi AaK(8aip6vioi KaTfTrXevaav {Thuc. 3, 29). (Rarely with- 
out a participle subjoined : "Ettj ravTTj ttj vavpLa^^ia f^i^novra kol Biuicocnd fan /xfXP' 
TTji TfXevrrjs Tov8f tov noKepLOV, T/nic. 1, 13.) 

c) The dative of a participle is used to denote when, or in what situation, some- 
thing shows itself (especially when a relation of place is assigned) : To pev e^mdev 
ciTVTopfvo (Tapu OVK ciyav 6epp6v rjv, to. 8' ivrbs eKaUro {Thuc. 2, 49). (H8ia^dvTC 
t6v_ noTajibv Trpos ia-Trepav 686s fn\ Av8iav ^epei, Xen. An. 3, 5, 15, the road to 
tJie tcest, ivhen you have crossed the river.) Ilpos ev8o^iav Ka\ wcpeXeiav a-KOTrovpevco 
6 pep iiraivirrjs tov 8i.Kaiov d\r]6evfL, 6 6e yj/eicTr]? ovSev vyus Xeyei, PL Pe]). 9, 589. 
Hence awiXovTL {awTtpvovTi) eltiflv, to speak it hriejty, and simj^ly a-ufeXot-rtjjwith-^ 
out the infinitive, in brief; in short. (On elTvelv, see § 151, R. 1.) 

(246, d) The dative of a noun with a participle is used with icrTLV, to denote a person's 

R. 2) state of mind upon something (especiallj' of /«c?/«a^/w? or aversion, jBovXopiva) : Tw 

TrXij^ft Toiiv Il\aTaua>i> ov jSouXc/xeVu rjv tu>u ^AdTjvaiaiv d^iicrTacrBai {Thuc. 2, 3). 

'EnaveXdcopev, oBev dTrekiTTopev, ft (tol rjSopeva iariv {PL Phced. 78). 

e) Often a dative ot reference denotes the person in whom, and in 
whose a fairs, and, at the same time, in w^hose interest, something- takes 
place; so that, instead of the dative referred to the predicate, we 

[part I. 



< 



§ 39-] '^^^^ Dative. 37 

might have, with only a shght modification of the way of conceiving- [§ 3S.] 
the rehation, a genitive referred to the subject : Ot ^K6i]vatoL avrelyov, 
/Ltevpi ol To^orai el')(ov re ra ^eXrj avroU /cal olol re rjaav '^pr^crOai [Thuc. 
3; 98). Ot Ylepaoyv vojjlol Sokovo-ov apx^adat, rod kolvov ayaOou iin/xe- 
\ovjjLevoL [heg'ni nnili ihe care for the common good) ovk evdev rah 
irXeLo-Tai.'i iroXeatv apxovTac {Xen. Cj/r. I, '2, 2; tliose of most states, in 
most states) . ('O avToevrrjs rifuv Trarpos, Soph. PI. 272, he that steio^ our father.) 
With a participle added, approximating now and then to the signification of a 
double genitive : Sevo(pa)irri 8ia Trjs fifcroyaias Tropeuojuej/w ol iTTTTfls TrpoKaradeovTes 
evTvyxavovai npea-l^vrais TTopfvofievots noi (JK^e?2. An. 6, 3 (1) 10 ; on S^enojmon s 
march, his horsemen fall in with — ). Elpyofxevois ovv avro'is {toIs Xlois) n;? 
6a\a(T(rr)s Kal Kara yiju nopdovp.ei'ois evexeiprjcrdv TLves npos 'Adi]vaiovs dyaye'iv rijv 
■jvoXiv {Thuc. 8, 24). 

/) The dative of the personal pronouns, especially of the first (24S) 
person, is added in expressions of surprise and of blame, in demands, 
expostulations, and the like, to denote a certain participation, and an 
interest in the person speaking, spoken to, or spoken of: 'S.cocfipocrvvrj'i 
apa ov hej]a-ei rjfilv roc'^ veavluL^ ; [PI. liep. 3, 389.) Tovtm irdvv fxoL 
irpo'ik-xe-Te tov vovv {Bern. ]8, 178). [This dat. is called the Bativus 
Eihicus.'] 

g) Sometimes the dative of the agent stands with passive verbs (250) 
instead of vivo with the genitive ; but in prose, for the most part, only 
with the perfect and pluperfect (to denote what one has complete and 
ready) : '^A viricT^vov Trotijcreiv ayaOa rjfjia<;, airoTerekearal aoi 7]8r] [Xen. 
Ci/r. 3, 2, 16). Ta aol Treirpayfieva [Bem. 19, 291). (TfVe? av vfiwv 
hiKatorepov iraai roW^Wrjai, [XLaotvTo ; Thuc. 3, 64.) 

As the case which denotes circumstance and appurtenance (Lat. § 39. 
ablative), the dative stands, partly by itself, used in different ways, (^252, 
partly with the prepositions eV and (jvv, together with a/xa (which in "^ 
proseJs_used, Jor the most part, only in definitions of time, a\ia rj} ew, n^a TM^amp 
djs4idCQVTs), and with other prepositions {a/x^l, eiri [/xera], irapa, irepi, 
Trpo?, vTTo) in certain significations which arise out of the signification 
on, at, hy: BaWeiV Tiva XlQoi'^, ^[(pet, oodecv riva Tal<; X^P^''^ (^'^ %^'P''' 
Sia x^^P^^ ^X^''^ '''O5 (f>apfJ'cifC(p aTTodvija-fceLv, yiyvuxTKeiv riva rfj cfKevf] 
[Thuc. 1, 8), 7roXe/ji(p %ft)pay Trpo^KTaaOat, KaraTrX/jTreiV rov<; aX\ov<i 
Tc5 a^uo/jbart,, eKirerrkrixdaL raiq o-v/ji(f)opaU, rip,dv (Koa/j^elv) riva 
aTe^dvoi<;, ^rjfMiovu TLva BavaTM, (jivyfj, xPW^^^^ i^'^ moncf), dvqKecnw 
•jrovi^pla voaelv {Xen. Mem. 3, 5, 18, (f, with), oiKiai KaTerrKeuaajievat 
ya\K(i)fxaat 7ra/A7r6\X,oi? {provided with) , Kephet koX ttXovtm Kplvetv n 
[Fl. Bep. 9, b'6'l, judge hy, according to). Lkx^crBal riva iroXei, in the 
city (usually eh iroXtv, into the city) . 

Rem. Aia with the genitive denotes the more remote means, hy means of: 

GHAP. IV.] 



38 The Dative. [§ 40 — 42. 

[§ 39.] JJorepa opdorepa cnroKpiais, (o opcopev, rovr dvai 6(f)6a\povs, *] St' ov opapev ; {PI, 
ThecBt. 184.) In certain connexions cltto is nsecl of orio:in, beginning, starting- 
point {OvK airo ^rvxrji iyevero, Lys. 21, 10, otto twi/ avroiv \6ycov anorpeTreiv rov 
brjp.ov, Thuc. 6, 19, OTTO TOiv i'pycov Kplveiv, dno (rrjpeiov ej^dy, ad\' erbially : airb 
aTOfiaroi), especially of resoiu'ces (of money, and the like, /row, hy,ifitli, by means 
of, ^rjv anu Xet'a?, dno tcov ;^p»;/xdrcBZ' (TTpaTevpa (juXXeyeiv, Jlch. An. 2, 6, 5, to 
vavTLKov Tpe(j)eLv dno 7rpos68(X>v tlvuiv, Time. 1, 81, diro tuaKoaiav veav Ktii ^^iXtcoi' 
TaXuvTU)v KaTcnvoXepelv riva, Isocr. Antid. Ill); ijn other connexions eg, of the 
occasion, source, etc. (e/c roiasSe TTpocpdcrecos, i^ andvTwv TovTutv ax^decrdai, Pi. Pej). 8, 
549, e^ evepyfcnuiv evpevas hiaTiBfaBai nvi, Isocr. Paneg. 28). In certain connexions 
sometimes eV, /«,i. e.ij/, of the distinctive murk bi/u-//ic/i any thing is recognized : 
"On oi 6eoi (re evpfvas irepTrovcri, Kai iv lepols brfKov Koi iv ovpaviois crr]p.eLois \S.en. 
Cyr, 1, 6, 2). ^Opav iv ocjidaXpLols, to see before one's eyes, etc.) 

1^ 40. The dative denotes the side^ aspect, regard or property, on and in 
U53) which the predicate shows itself, the notion to which it refers : Vevet 
"EX-'X?;!', (f)vcreL KaKo^., rjXiKia veo<;, vTrep/SdWetv [irpoeyeiv, 8ia(f)ip6tv) 
aperf], (}>pov7]aeL, TrXtjdei,, /xejeOet, TrXeoveKrelv tlvo^ rifxal^i kuI -^i^fiao-iv 
[Xen. An. 3, 1, 37). "E^pjco, tm ovtl, \6ya>, rfj aXTjOeia, in deed, in 
realitij, in ivord, in truth. To Trpdrretv tov Xe7e(,f iiarepov ov rfi rd^ei, 
nrporepov rfj hvvdfiet iariv [Bern. 3, 15). Naucrt koi ire^ai viKaaOat. 
'^difjiaaiv L(j')(yeLv. WxdineaOai rS /3e\Ti(TT(p tov ottXltikov {TImc.^,12>; 
to suffer loss in the hestj)art, thejioiver, of — ). 

Eem. To denote a par t of the subject itself, the accusativeis,used,^ 31. In 
certain general notions to which a term predicated of the subject refers, both cases 
are used, partlj^ without any distinction, e. g. ttoXj? ptyuXr], Qa\lraKos ovopan and 
ovopa 0., yeVet "EXXtjv and ro yevos'''E. (with the article; but also KoptV^to? yevos, 
Thuc. 1, 24), partly with a slight distinction, e. g. SicrxtXiot to ttXt/i^os, but 8ia(pepeiv 
(inrepj3dXKeiv, etc.) TikriBei, cf)vcreL dyados, by nature, naturally, dp^Xvrepos tt]v 
(j)v(rtv, duller in natural gifts ; of duller nature or capacity. 

§ 41* The dative denotes the efficient c^msQ from or through which any 
(255) thing- is done : ^Ajvola dfiapTdvetv, t^o^w (evvoiq) rd TTpo'^reTay/Meva 

iroLetv. ]\IeX7;T0? Tr]v ypacprjv Tavrrjv ii^pei tlvI koi uKo\aaia Kai 

veorrjTi ypd-ylraa-duL BoKel {PL A^iol. 26). 

Rem. The moving cause, or that on account of which any thing is done, is 
denoted bj^ hid Avith the accusative ; sometimes, however, the dative approximates 
to this signification : ArjpoaBe'i/ijs rotj neTrpaypevois e0oi3eiro rovs^Adrjvaiovs [Thuc. 
3, 98). ('Y^' r]8ovr)s, for pleasure, for joy, e. g. •yeXai'.) 

§ 42. The dati^'e is sometimes used to denote the manner and the accom- 

(257) panying circumstance (with) : Havrl Tpoirw ireLpdaOai, (also irdvra 

rpoTTOv, § 30, d), ovSevl Koafio) ekTrlirreiv (Thuc. 7, 84), /3/a e'nevai, 

Kpavyfj TToWfj iinevat {Xe?i. An. !_, 7, 4). (Ot ^A.6rjvaloi dr^Xei rfj vIkt) 

diTo ^iCXijrov dvkcrrnqaav, Thuc. 8, 27 j with the victory incomjjlete.) 

Rem. 1. Usuallj', however, it is only of some particular substantives that tbe 
simple dative is thus used, adverbially, e. g. Spo/^w, at a run, at full speed. kvkXco, 

[part I, 



§43—45-] The Dative. 39 

round about, Spyfj biixeiv, 6vfxa (jiepeiv n, cnyfi uKoveLv, ((777ouSj}). Otherwise crvv or [§ 42.] 
fierd is used, e.g. o-vc Si'kj;, ^eto Sikijs, aud with addition of an adjective, nera 
noXXfjs aKpi^eias (aKptjSws). {With joy, joyfully, fjbeois, dapevas, etc.) 

Rem. 2. To this use of the dative belong also the datives of feminine adjectives 
and pronouns, witli a substantive notion understood (such as oSw, or the like), used 
as adverbs of manner, e. g. drjuoa-ia, I8ia, ivfCfh Tovrrj, fKelvj], ij, jtj), etc. 

Rem. 3. The military or naval force with Avhich a movement or enterprise is 
conducted, is often put in the dative without a preposition: 'A(piKve'iij6ai e'Uoa-i vava-i. 
TToXXcd (rroXw, x^'P' TroXkf). 'Adtjvalni St(rx'Xiot? on-XiVcuj eavrcbv /cat iTTTrevai Sloko- 
alois ia-TpiiTiva-av eVi XaXKihia^ {Thuc. 2, 79). ISlvua-nnvos KaTea-TpaToneSevcraTO 
Tu> Tre^co eTTi Xo0ca cLTvexovTi rrjs noXeus w? TreVre crraSta (JSTew. Sell. 6, 2, 7). But 
(Tvv may be prefixed : BaaiXevs (rvv a-TparevpaTt ttoXXw Trposepxerai {JLen. An. 1, 
8, 1). (2vi/ is also omitted from the dative with avros in the sense, with — self 
and all ; together icith : 01 'AdrjumoL Tvevre vavs eXu^ov koL piav TOVTi>iv avroU 
dv8pdariv, Thuc. 4, 14 ; men and all, i. e. with its crew.) 

With comparatives, and with irpo and jxerd, the measure hi/ hoio § 43. 
much something is greater or less, earlier or later, is put in the (270) 
dative : Terrapo-i /ui/at? eXarrov. IToXXat? jevealt; varepa twv Tpcoi- 
Koiv. AeKa erecn Trpo rf;? eV 'SaXajxlvv vavfjiu'x^ia'i. {WoWoi, /xaKpM, 
oXiycp, ^pa')(el, puKpco /Jiei^cov, oXljco tcvI eXdrTwv. Tc5 iravrl Kpeirrcov, 
infiiiltely better. Tocroi)T&) KpeirTwv, oaw Trpecr^vrepo';.) {MnKpa dpi- 
cTTos, with the superlative. HoXXw Tvpov\a(iov, Th uv. 7, SO, had greatly the advantage.) 

Rem. But we also find ttoXu and oXlyov {nokv pelCcov), and always (when no 
substantive is added) ri and ovBev (/xaXXoi/ rt. ov8ev pdWov). (ToarovTm fietwirfpor, 
oa-co Kul ylrevdea-dai roXyiia, without comparative in the second member: so much 
icorse, as — .) 

a) Verbs which denote an affection of the mind, at and lecanse of \ 44. 
something, take this object in the dative : thus ')]8o/j.aL, %a//3a), %^o- (264) 
fiaL, ddufXM, dydXXoju.aL, iiralpoiJiat : "A^dofxai rot? vrapovcrtv, rok yeye- 
vrj/juevoi';. 'JLTraipofxevo^; rj ttXovtm rj Icrx'^l i) dXXo) tm toiovtm {PL Bep. 

4, 434). But eVt is also added: 'EttI rfi tmv 'ApKa^ioyv rvxo ou% 
7]TTov rcov AalceSai/jioviwv rjaOvjaav 01 ^rjjBalot {Xe?i. Hell. 1 , \, 3:i). 

Rem. Some verbs most frequently take eVi (xat'pw), with others it is rare {inal- 
popat). The dative is also found with dyajrav and a-repyeiv, e.g. crfepyfiv rj] 
eavTov Tvxn {Pf- Hijjp. Maj. 295) ; but usually the accusative, e. g. (TTepyeiu tu 
ivap6vTa. We also find ^apecos (xaXeTrcoy) (pepeiv ri, eVi rivi. 

b) The verb T ,;pwMat , use, and voniKf o, when it has the same mean- (265) 
ing, govern the dative : Soi/JLarocfivXa^i j^po^VTai ^ap^dpoi<;, XpMfj,ab 
rcvL <f)iXoi. Oi 'AdrjvaloL dycocTL Kcil dvatais; SteTj;o-/oi? ivofxi^ov {T/iuc. 

2, 38). ' 

a) The dative serves to mark the time at which [when) a thing § 45. 
takes place, when a definite point of time (day, night, month, A'ear), (276) 
or a festival is assigned (and with wpn, e. g. 'x^eLfXMvo^ copq) : T^ avry 

CHAP. IV.] 



40 The Genitive. [§ 46. 

[§ 45] I'liJiepa (rauTj] ry vvktI) aireOavev. TcS rpLTM eret ocKaBe aTreTrXeucra, Ty 
varepaia l\vpo^ to crTpaTev/jba aveTravev [Xen. Cyr. 3, 3^ 29). Tot? 
HavadijvaloLi!, rol^ AiovvaioL'^, at [the festival of^ the FanathencBa, the 
Dioni/sia. (Ifj vov/j,7)via,Ta2<; iroixirah.) With other words eV is added: 
'Ey TovTCp Tu> '^povQ), €v eVfiV&j TO) Kaipu), ev tco TrapovTi, ev Tm totc, 
sometimes also with the words above named : ev TySe ttj rj/xepa, ev tm 
^ap^ifkiwvL fJirjvl {I)em. 49, 60). (The omission of ev is very rare with 
words which in themselves do not denote a point of time hut an event, e.g. 'E? to 
TTfSiov 'Apxi^afMOs eKfivrj tJ] ta^oXfi ov Kare^q, in that invasion. T/iuc. 2, 20.) 

Rem. On the genitive in notes of time, see § 66. 

d) To denote the place where a thing takes place, the poets sometimes use the 
dative without iv, e. g. ay/joi? rvyx^aveiv [Sojjh. PI. 313). 'EreoKXo? liKela-Tas 
Tifias ecTx^v 'Apyela x^ovi {Eur. Siippt. 874), especially of names of cities, e. g. 
Awficoi/i, MvKTjvaii. In prose the name of the city is thus put : Mapadavi (Mopa- 
^ww KOI 2a\afjuvi Ka\ nXoTaiais, Pt. Menex. 245), and besides, the adverbial forms 
derived from the ancient dative plural, in the sense at the j^tace, e.g.'Adrjirrja-i, 
nXarntu(7ii' ; s^ee the Accidence. {^OXvpTTiaa-i Ka\ AeX(^oI?, Thnc. 1, Wd.) (So too 
^(prjTToi, ^Icrdfxoi, Ilv6ol.) 

Rem. (To § 39 seqq.) A dative, denoting circumstance or appurtenance, may 
sometimes be attached to an individual substantive, instead of to the predicate, e. g. 
6 yoj/o) Trarijp {Lys. 13, 91) ; sometimes even without the article : 'Itttto^uXt;? 
Xe'yft TTEpi Toiv jipoyovdiv AvcriSos ttXovtovs t( koi ImvoTpofpias Kal viKai Tlvdo'i Kal 
'ladfjio'i TfdpiTtTvois re Ka\ KiXrjcnv {Pt. Lys. 205). 



CHAPTER V. 

Genitive. 

§ 46. The genitive in Greek denotesj in general, a connexion of depend- 
(279) ence between the person or thing which is named in the genitive, 
and some other person or thing which is referred to it. The con- 
nexion is either immediate, between two substantives, one of which is 
defined by the other ; or it appears in this, that something is referred 
to some other thing through an action or quality which goes to, is 
directed at, and exerted towards, or enters into, that other; or in this, 
that sc^mething is ranged under some other thing as the whole, of 
which it is the part. Furtjierj. tlie genitive denotes a ^^artiny Jrom, 
and a ffoiny out J)-ijm something, because this supposes a previously 
existing connexion '. 

I ^ This latter sense is not possessed by the Latin genitive, where the ablative is 

I used in this way with prepositions, adjectives, and verbs. The use of the genitive 

to denote a connexion or hanging together, as the result of an action which aims at 

[part I. 




§ 47) 4S-] ^^^^^ Genitive. 41 

In the genitive is put with a substantive the name of the person § 47. 
or thing- which possesses what the substantive denotes ; the person (2S0) 
or thing- to which it belongs, and by which therefore it can be 
denominated and designated (genitive of connexion and possession) : 
T(09 Aapelov. KT/TTot 'JLvLKovpou. OlKerr]'^ A.r]/xocrdevov<i. ^v\a^ 
7roXe&)9. SiJjypafjifxa HXdrwvo'i. "^pyov TIpa^cTeXovi. H rcov 
TToXe/xicov rpoTTt']. To jepo<i tmv dvdpcoTrcov. Micr^o? rerTapcov /j,7]vwv. 
\\pL6/jLo<i 'TrevTaKiaxi'X^(^v hcov {PL Tim. 23 ; an amount of — ). 
KA,?7p&)o-t? ctp'XMv. At TOiv vewv rifxal {Jiononrs tvhich the young enjoy, or 
which they shoic) . At rtov ku/ccov auvovalac {dad men's society, intercotirse 
with dad meu). (O Tf]<i rj(Tvx^a,<; ^ioro<;, Utir. Bacch. 388, poeticaL) 

(289) 

T^? TToXew? Kal TMV TO, ^iXrio-ra Xeyovrcov {Isocr. de Pac. 129. I 
belong to — ) . Etmt rwv iTrtridefievcov {PL PoL 307, to be the prey 0/—, 
at the mercy of — ). Ot Ilepo-at t^v ^ Kaiav eavrojv iroLovvrai {Xen. 
Ages. \, 33). (Oi TlekoiTovvrjaioi Sua kol e'lKoai vav<i tmv ^AdTjvaicov 
eXa^ov, Thuc. S, 95, two and twenty ships of the Athenians, Athenian 
ships.) 

Eem. 1. The usual way of describing the son of such a man, is to put i^ie father s 
name in the genitive without vl6s : Aeapxos KaWifidxov and A. 6 KaWifiaxov. 
(See the Article, § 13, a. R.) (Ttjv 2fUKv6i(ovoi oix opas MeXia-Tixrjv; Arist. Eccl. 
46, M. the wife of Sm.) 

Rem. 2. The prepositions iv and is (sometimes e'l) in the language of common 
life, and in imitations of it, often stand before a genitive with omission^ of the 
governing substantive oIklo (also lepov) : riepttcX^s KKeiviav KaTa6ep.€vos fv Api- 
^povos eTraiSfvev [Ft. Prot. 320, placed him in A.'s house). "^avOdveiv eu Kidapiarov 
(PI. Thed't. 206, at a ciiharajplayer s). Ilorfpov ro irapa ao\ v8<op Bipp-oTtpovmeiv 
iariv rj to iv 'Aa-K\r]7noi ; (Xen. Mem. 3, 13, 3.) 'Ei/'Aifiou. SwKpaTJjy e(^r/ Uvat 
tnl biinvov ds 'Ayd6(ovos (PI. Symp. 174). ^oirdv e'y bihaarKokov (hibaa-KaKav), 
to attend such a master ; iritxTveiv els StSao-KuXcov (PI. Prot. 325). ElsriXOov 
o'lKa8e es epavTov (PI. Hipp. MaJ. 304). 'Ey''Ai8ov. ('Ek bi^aaKoKuiv aTraXkaT- 
T€(r6ai, PI. Prof. 326, to leave school.) 

Rem. 3. On the genitive under the government of the article, see § 14, c. ("A 
6^x01' dXXTjXcoi/, Thuc. 5, 39, wtiat they had of one q,noihers, helonging to one 
anotlier ; oTrocra dXKr]\u>v eixov, Thuc. 5, 80.) 

The g-enitive is put, as objective genitive, to transitive substantives, § 48. 
i.e. such as are derived from transitive verbs, or from verbs or (281) 
adjectives which govern the genitive, and such as denote a capacity, 

something and enters into it, is in Latin much more circumscribed, especially in\ 
verbs, so that in this regard also the Greek genitive is much more comprehensive 
than the Latin. ' 

CHAP, v.] 



42 TJie Genitive. [§ 49. 

[§ 4S-] an opportunity^ an influence, for and upon something- : "Epw? ('Apa- 
aira eveTreae) t)}? yvvaifco^;. ^6l3o<; tmv iroXefiicov, fear of (i. e. the 
beino* afraid of) the enemies ; b tmv TroXe/jbioov (j)6j3o'i, the enemfs fear 
(of something), or {some one's) fear of the enemy. IIo^o? toO arwo- 
QavovTo^. A(a UavaavLov /jLlcro<i {Thuc. 1, 96; out of hatred towards 
P.). AiSdcrKaX.o<i Xoyojv (=0 \6yov<i SiBdaKoyv). ^FjTndufiia '^prj/jid- 
Twv. ^FiTTL/jieXeia ro)v Trpayfidrcov. ^AfieXeLa yovewv. 'Hyefiovia tt}? 
'EWaSo?. Tpacf))] (f)6vov {<ypd(f>eadai cfyovou) . 'E^Treipt'a tcov iroXe^i- 
Ktav. 'KjKpdreca i]Sov'r]<i Kal Xv7r7]t;. ^IprjvT] Koi eXevOepta rwv rotov- 
Twv {PL Bep. 1, 329; freedom from — ). ^Ayyelcov diropia {Thuc. 
Ai, ^ffrom lack of vessels). ^A(f)op/ji,r]v {dSeiav) SiSovat rtvl rov X0180- 
pelcrdai. ^A(f)op/j,r) epycov {Xen. Mem. 2, 7, 11, as a means of setting 
about a ivorJc) . 

Rem. Sometimes an objective genitive is even used witli substantives derived 
from verbs or adjectives which take a dative or a preposition (especially irpos, etj, 
towards) : but it an\ obscurity might result from the use of the genitive, a prepo- 
sition is used: 'Efifiovr] tov kokov {PI. Gorg. 479, from efifieveiv ra kokco). Upo^'Krjua 
Xeifiovuiv {PI. Tim. 74. a j^t'otection against). ^'EniKovpi^fia rrjs xi-ovoi {Sien. An. 4, 5, 
13, also Trpos). Ov Xoycov tovs dyaii'as TTporidepfv clXX' epyu>v {TJiuc. 3, 67). ArjXov 
eyevero. on ov ttjs TOiv 'EXXi]va)v evvoias k'veKa 6 Tjyepiav eX6oi {Xen. jLn. 4, /, 20). 
A.i]po(Tdei^ovs (j)iXiu Koii ^Adrjvaiav ivvoia {Thuc. 7, 57 ; out offriefidshijyfor D., and 
goodwill toioards the A.). 'Ho-uxt'a ex6pS>v {Pt. Pep. 8, 566, reposefrom — ). Some- 
times the genitive is used even more harshly, instead of irepi or a preposition of 
place: To rav Meyapecov ■^r](piapa {T/iuc. 1, 140). 'H rov tttjXov epaTrjcris {PI. 
Tkecet. 147). Mera rrjv rfjs AiroAius ^vpcfiopdv {Thuc. 3, 114, = ttjv ev rrj Aitco- 
Xia). 'ATTocTTaais toov 'Adrjvaiav {Thuc. 8, 5, = dno Ta>v 'A^.). 

§ 49. a) In the genitive {g. definitivus) is sometimes added that in which the generic 
(282) notion expressed by the governing w^ord is in a special manner contained and 

denominated (but usually only the genitive of an infinitive) : 'H rov x"''pf'^ ^'o- 

6f(ns {PI. Phil. 11, the affection, or mood, ofrejoicinf/), rj rod TTfideiv re^'"? {P^- Phil. 

58). ^Apadla avTr) t] (Trove iSicrros r) tov o'Uadai elSevai, a ovk olbev {PI. Apjol. 29, 

that of conceiting oyieselfto know — ) '. 

(283) b) The genitive with words signifying a measure, number, or 
quantity, denotes the kind, the thing measured or numbered (g. gene- 
ris) : TiXr]6o<i dpOpooTTcov ov afxticpov, /3oa)v dyeXrj, oivov heKa dfjL<f)op€l^, 
fjbehifxvo^ aiTOv, d/ma^ai airov {Xen. Cijr. 2, 4, 18, loagon-loads of corn), 
TpidKovra p.vpidBe'i arparid^; {Xen. An. 1, 4, 5), rpiaKoaia raXavra 
(f)6pov {Thuc. 2, 13, in taxes). 'Hy tl a-racnaa-pLov ev rfj iroXeL (Thuc. 
4, 130). (Rarely with a neuter adjective as substantive : ^ Apbr}')(avov 

1 To ovop.a 6 MatcapTarof, the name M. {Dem. 43, 77). To rov narpos efiov ovofia 
2cocrtai' rw vlu> tOeprjv (Dem. 43, 74). (In apposition, not in the genitive. Very 
rarely rw opti T^y 'larcjvrjs, Thuc, 4-, 46, instead of rw opet tji "Idravrj, see in § 13, R. 
'IXt'oi; TVToX'uQpov, poetic.) 

[part I. 



§ 50.] The Genitive. 43 

evhaLfiovia<;, PL Apol. 41; something inconcekalhj rjreai^ inJJie way {h A9-'\ 
of blessedness ; inconceivable happiness. 'AOrjvaloi, iirl fieya e^^wpT^crav 
Bwdfieox;, Thuc. 1, 118. 'EttI irXelarov dvOpco-rrcov, Thuc. \, 1.) (''AXi? 

TOVTWV.) 

Rem. 1. Especially v^e may remark the expression iv navr). kokoii {ddvfiias, etc.) 
fivat (es Trav kukov d(f)iKve'ia6ai) . 

Rem. 2. In like manner, a genitive is appended to adverbs (especially nas, as, 
and oTTcos. asavTcos. ev, koKcos, kuk^s, iKavas) with the verb ex^, in the sense am 
qualified, disposed, provided, in regard of—.find^ myself in point of—,liam a 
certain measure of — .• IIw? e'xf's So^t^s tov roiovbe irtpt ; J^Pl. Scj^- 5,^456.) 
UeXonowTjaioi enXeov, cos fixe rdxovs eKaaros [Thuc. 2, 90). 'Ap' ovv ovtos inavas 
fTncTTrjiJLrjs e^ft ; {PL Phil. 62.) Suyu/xeVpcos \eiTT6rr]ros 'dx^iv Kai ivaxovs {PL Tim. 
85). (Qs TToScoi/ eixov, as fast as my legs would carry me, raxto-ra, Hdt. 6, 116.) 
('H Ke'pKvpa tt]s 'iraXias /cat StKeXi'as /caXco? Trapdn'Kov Kelrat, Thuc. 1, 36 ; lies 
exceedingly well for the voyage to S.) In Hdt. and the poets also, Uas dywvos 
i]KOfi€i' ; €v rjiceiv xp^ip-drav, etc. (always without article.) 

a) The genitive stands with words which denote a part of some- § 50. 
thing-, in order to assign the whole {g . partitivus) . In this manner (284) 
the genitive is governed by substantives and words used substantively, 
(pronouns, numerals, adjectives, and participles with the article, the 
article with an adverb or with a preposition and its case) , by super- 
latives and by verbs involving the signification of the superlative : 
Me/309 rt, {rd Svo /Jiepr]) rr)? aTpaTid<;. Tcbv yepovrcov rt?. 'Ev evio.L'i 
TMU irokeoiv. Twy ttoXltmv ol fiev dirooXovTO, ol Se ecfivyov. AeKa 
{ttoWoI) TOiv o-rpaTicoTcov. 'O reTapTO<i tmv iralhaiv. Ol Setvorarot. 
TOiv prjTopcov. Td A,a\a rcov ^dxov, ol airovhaloi tmv 'yoviwv [Isocr. 
Dem. 11). Ol xPV<^'Tol tmv dvOpoiiraiv {Arist. PL 490). ^ 'Etti ttoXu 
Trj<; %a»/3a9 [Thuc. 4, 3, over a great part of the land). 'A0r]vaL(ov 6 
^ovX6/jL€vo^. "0,tc irep 6(f)eXo<; r]v rod crrparevfxaTo^; {Xen. Hell. 5, 
3, 6). To KaravTiKpi) avrwv roij (Tirrfkaiov [PL Rep. 7, 515, the part 
of the cavern facing them). 01 7roX\.ol ')(aipovcn koi rwv iBea-fidrcov 
Kol TOiv iTTLTrjSevfjbdrcov T019 koI to aw/xa koX rrjv "^vxW ^Xairrovaiv 
[Isocr. Pac. 109). Xvii/3ovXo<; dya66<; p^p?;o-(yu.(WTaToi^ dirdvTcov jwv 
KT7]/xdrcov iarlv [Isocr. Nicocl. 53). M6w9 iravrcov (^poveh. 'Op- 
OoTara dvdpcoircov X6yei<i [PL Theat. 195). 'H vav'i upiaja eirXei irav- 
T09 TOV arparoTreSov [Li/s. 21, 6). Ol iraXaLOTaTOi t(ov 'AOrjvalcovTrpo- 
yovoL TOiv Ka6^ kavTOi)<i dv6 poiiroov rjpiCTTevaav [Xen. 3Iem. 3, 5, 10). — 
T?co 6pa)/jLev rj/xMV avTUiv rd opdofieva ; [PL Pep. 6, 507; lath tvhat 
part of ourselves — i') 'Ey tolovtw t7}9 olKia<i, ottov irXeiaTaKt'; 
8e(T7roT779 o^lrerai [Xen. Hipp. 4, 1 ; in such a pjart of the house — ). Ol 
'A6r]valot iv tovtm 7rapaaKevii<i rjo-av [Thuc. 2, 17). — E19 toOto TLve<i 
dvoia<i iXrjXvOaaiv [Isocr. Pac. 31). Et9 roaovro d^iadia^i i]Ka) [PL 
Jpol. 25). 

CHAP, v.] 



44 l^h^ Genitive. [§ 5 1 • 

[§ 50.]' Reii. 1. "We must note tlie different positions of the words, when the partitive 

genitive is governed by a participle with the article which has with it other defini- 
tions (case, adverbs, etc.) : Ot 'Ap/ca'Scai' jyjaeVepoi ovTi'i ^v\i\i.a)(pi {Thuc. 5, 64, tJiose 
of the Arc. loho — ). At apicrTa twv peav T:\eov (raLiJThuc. 1, 48). Ot ^vfnrpodvfir]- 
Bivres Tav prjTopcop rov eKirKovv {Thuc. 8, 1). 

Rem. 2. With numbers or words of number {p.6voi, oXt'yot) now and then aizo, 
i^ are added, especially to denote that which is drawn off from, or remains : "Ayvcav 
cnvb rerpaKicrxikicov oTrKiTcov )(lXlovs Kal TTevTrjKovra rfj vocrco oTTcoXecrei/ [Thuc. 2, 58). 
'Ek Tpiav eu av elXoprjv {Soj)h. Tr. 734, I should have chosen one of three). 

Rem. 3. Instead of the neuter singular of an adjective denoting magnitude 
{■noKvs, etc.), or a certain part (e. g. rjpicrvs, Xoittos) with a partitive genitive, in Greek 
the adjective often takes the gender of the genitive : 'O rjpia-vs, 6 Aoittoj tov )(p6vov. 
EvKTTjpatv efiia) err] e^ Koi ivevrjKovra, rovTov 8e tov ^povov tov TrkelcrTov edoKei 
evdaipau eivat {Isce. 6, 18). Ki}po? naTevoeL TroXkrjv Trjs ;(a)pas rots App,eviois 
ep-qpov Koi apyov ovcrav 8ia tov TroXepov {Jilen. Cj/r. 3, 2, 2). (Rarely with other 
adjectives : Tfjs yrjs f] dpia-TT], Thuc. 1, 2.) 

Rem. 4. Sometimes a general subject (or object) is put first, and then instead 
of the partitive genitive, we have, by way of apposition, a partition with pronouns 
or words of number (e. g. ol pev — ol 8e, etc.) or a limitation (ot ttoWol, jpartly — , 
partly — ,for the most part) : Ot r?} (piKocro(f)'ia pepcpopevoi Xeyova-i, ort ol ^vvovTes 
avTrj ol pkv ovdevoi ci^ioi, ol 8e TToXAot TroXXatv naKav a^ioi etcriv {PI. Rep. 6, 495). 
Ot'Sa dbeXc^ovs. ol Ta 'laa Xaxovres 6 pev avTOiv TapnovvTa exet, 6 6e rov iravrbs 
ivbeiTai {S^en. Conv. 4, 35). IlfXoTroi'i'ijcriot /cat ol ^vppaxpi, Ta 8vo pepr], fvejBaXov 
fs TTjv 'ATTiKrjv {Thuc. 2, 47). Ot ivavTLOL To'ls iXaKehaipovioLs 8f^i6v pev Kepas ol 
MavTive'is f tx""' 'i"ap« ^' avTo7s ol ^vppaxoi 'ApKaSav rjcrav, eneiTa ^Apyeiaiv ol )(iXiot, 
Xoyddes {Thuc. 5, 67). Cf. § 5, (KacrTos and iiXXos aXXo. 

b) A partitive genitive is also governed by an adverb of place or time, 
denoting a point in and of the whole : 'E|a77eXX,e rot? TroXe^u-ioi?, 17 /ua? 
'jrapaaKevd^eadai efx^aXelv irov Trj<i eKeivwv %wpa9 [Xen. Cyr. 6, 1, 4^). 
Ou/t olada, OTTov yr]<; el {PL Pej). 3, 403). JJavra^ov Ti]<; 7?}?, ovhaixov 
<y^]<i. (Ou ^X.e7rei?, cv el KaKov. Sop A. (Ed. B. 413.) ' AWol aXXjj 
tt}? TToXect)^ aiTOiXkuvTO (Thuc. 2, 4). Ot aXkoL. oaot ivravOa rjXdov 
rjX.iKLa'^ {JPl. Rep. 1, 329). Ot avco tov yevovi {Fl. Legg. ^, 378, those 
higher nj') hi the race, i. e. the ancestors), i'^yvrara <yevov<; [Isa. S, 64). 
Uoppo) ao(j)ia<; eXavveiv [PI. Euthyphr. 4, a long ivaij into — ). Yioppoi 
Twv vvKTO)v, Trpco'l' T?}? rj/jbepa<;, 6-^e tt}? wpa'^. UrjvcKa rr}? rj/uLepa^ ; 
(Arisi. Ares 1498 ; at tehat time 0/ day .^) 

A partitive genitive not unfrequently stands in Greek without an 
expressly governing word, in the following cases : 

a) When to an indefinite substantive (without article) there is added the mention 
of a special sort, by an adjective or participle : "Ep^erat 6pxr](TTpls rav to Bavpara, 
8vvap€V(i)v TToif'iv (Xe«. Symp. 2, 1, a dancing-girl, of those wlio — ). HaTayias, dvr)p 
Ufpcrrji tcov dpcf)! Kvpov ma-Tcov {Xen. An. 1, 8, 1. Similarly: 'Avrjp Tmv prjTopav, 
Arist. Eq. 423. "AvSpey rui/ (pvXaKav, Thuc. 6. 43. 'Avrjp almost merely = tis). 

b) When to the whole expi-essed in the genitive there is immediately annexed the 

[part I. 



!^ 51.] The Genitive, 45 

special name of the individual (not a general class-notion) : T^s 'iraXta? AoKpol [ikv [§ 51.] 
IvpaKovd'ioiv rjaav, 'Prjylvoi 8e, kotu to ^vyyer/y, AeovTivcov {T/iuc. 3. 86, of Italy, in 
It., of the Italian cities). Ot Awpt^? ^/^wi' {T/iuc. 4, 61, = ot Acopi^s oVres fjfxav). 
AaKeSat/^owoi tcoz/ TrepioiKav {Thuc. 4, 53, iac. o/'^'/ie c/as* of the Perioeci). Espe- 
cially in this manner is used the genitive of a country (a place) with the name of a 
single point in it: Ilapa\a^6vm Botcorois (cat ^(oKtas 'Adrjvaioi fO-Tpdrevaav rrjs 
QeaaaXlas firl ^ap(Ta\ov (Thuc. 1, 111, to Ph. in Th.). Oi ""KOr^vaioi appia-avro ttjs 
XeppovTja-ov eV 'EXeorJi'Tt {Xen. Hell. 2, 1, 10). (The genitive lierc has always the 
article, the governing word never, the place in itself less known being referred to 
the well-knoAvn country.) 

c) With the verbs ehai, yiyveadai, to he, become, one of — (i. e. 
I0 belong to — ), and after all verbs denoting the iDeing- in one or 
another way received into a elass^ counting- or being counted with a 
class. But with dvai, ^uyveaOai,, and sometimes with other verbs, eh 
may be prefixed to the genitive, e. g. KptTLa<i tmv rpuiKovTa rjv {Xen. 
3Iem. 1, 2/, SI, one of the thirty tyranti) . Twv ^AXK/juaLoviScov elvai {Bern. 
21, 144). ^YJ^r]V iiV/cpdreL rcov rptaKOvra yeve(j6at {Lys. 18, 5). "E(7Ti 
Twv alaypwv, fidWov Be tmv aLcr')(^L<TT(X)V rou? ^u/jifid^ov<; tpalveaOac 
irpohthovTU [JDem. 2, 2. So eari tmv XvcnreXovvTcoj', t6)v dBUcov, rcov 
koXmv, nearly = ala^pov, uBlkov, etc.) . But also "Ecrrii' ev twv ala-'xpcou, 
Isocr. Arch. 97; ecm rcov (pavXoop re, PI. Rep. 10, 603; ev tc twv alaj^poiv 
icTTiv, Bern. 20, 135. Tcoy et<? rr^v ttoXlv dvrjXcoKorcov rrjv ovaiav el<i 
€7&) (f>av7]aofiaL je'yevrj/jiivo'i {Isocr. Call. 62). 'O SpdavXo'; toiv ev 

"StiKeXia KareXeyT] Tpir}pdp')^WV {Isce. 7, 5). SdXcoi/ tmi/ eVra aoCpia-Tav eKXrjSr) 
(Isocr. Ant id. 235). TpcKpe fxt twp inneveiv eiridvpovvTaiv (JCen. Cyr. 4, 3, 21). Kat 
eae 6ii tu)v Tteneiarpevav (PL Rep. 4, 424). Ovhapov TranoTf Meibias rav avyxaipov- 
Tuv f^rjrdcrdr] t<5 8r]p.(o (Bern. 21, 202). Also: Ala-xivqs rav ix^pS^v to)u awv els 
(^rjTa^fTo (De7?i. 19, 291). MeiSi'as ivx^TO ^rj Xax^'i-v Tmv e^iovTcov (Bern. 21, 133, = 
a-Tpar€V(Top.eva)V) . 

d) With verbs which otherwise govern the accusative (especially in 
the sense give or take), when a certain indefinite portion {someivhat, 
some) of a whole is denoted as their object (as in English : to eat o/'this 
or that) : XloXy fxdXXov v/uv irpo'^rjKeb rwv vfxtrepwv ip,ol SiSovat rj rcov 
ifjLcbv i/xol dfX(f)L<;^'r]rriaat {Lys. 21, 15). 'O Kva^dpi](; Xa^cbv rwv 
eppcofievcov 'Lmrwv re Kal dvhpwv irpo^eXavvec {Xeu. Cyr. 1, 4, 20). O 
Kupo? era^e TXovv koX livypTjra, Xa^6vra<i rod ^ap^apiKov crrparov, 
G-vv€K^il3d^eiv rd<; dfjid^a<i [Xen. An. 1, 5, 7). "0<jol e^a'yov rwv KrjpLcov, 
rrdvre'i d(j)pove<i ejiyvovro {Xen. An. 4, 8, 20, ate of the honeycombs). 

Oi 2vpaKov(noi es to ^OXvpniflov Tvapiirep-'^av (fyvXaKrjV, SetVai/rey, pfj 01 ^Adrjvaioi tcov 
XprjpaTav, a rjv avToBi, KivrjcruxTLV (Thuc. 6, 70, take of the money). 'Adrjva'iot a^UovTo 
es Ilpaatas Kal ttjs re yrji eTepov (eSrJcocrai/) Kal avTo to noXiapa tlXov (Thuc. 2, 56, 
laid waete a part of the land. Ibid, ere/xoj/ ttjp Tpotfjji'tSa yrjv and i'Tepov ttjs yrjs Trjv 
TToWrjv). Bpaaidus difXav tov naXaioii reixovs piav fTroirjae ttoKiv €k 8volu (Thuc. 5, 2, 
CHAP, v.] 



46 The Gcjiitive. [§ 52, 53- 

[§51.] a. E ; B. made a breach in — ). KvUvai opy^s,to abate of {lay aside) his anger, 
Arist. Ran. 700, and r^j ecp68ov, to relax iti their attack, Thuc. 7, 43 ^ 

Eem. In like manner (witli the notion of part and piece), it is said, levai tov 
TTpoa-co iS^en. An. 1, 3, 1, to go forward), iTnraxvvnv Trjs obov tovs axoXairepov 
TTpoaiovTas [Thuc. 4, 47, to hasten them on their way), TrpoKonreiv tlvi Tijs dpxrjs 
(Thuc. 4, 60, to further a person's progress to dominion; to pave the tvay to his 
dominion). Kar/aya {piya) rtjs Ke(f)aXris {PI. Arist.), I have got a {great) hole in 
my head {somewhere in my head), avverpi^rjv r^s Ke</>aA^s' (also a-vvrpi^ecrdai tijv 
K((l)a\riv, Zys. 3, 18, by § 31). 

^ er> Two genitives may stand in different senses with the same substantive : Ot av6pu>- 
y Q^r" Trot bia TO avrav SfO? tov Bavdrov Ka\ tmv KVKvav KUTa-^evbovTai {PI. Phad. 85). 
"Itittov 8p6pos fjpepas {Bern. 19, 273, a day's running of a horse). Aid Tr]v tov dvifiov 
dnaa-Lv tcov vavayia^v h to TteXayos {Thuc. 7, 34, by the wind's drifting the torecks 
out to sea). (One genitive is governed by another : fxeTa r^s cnipp-axi-as ttjs alTrja-eoos, 
Thuc. 1, 32, together tcith their desire of, or application for, an alliance.) 

5. 53. Instead of a substantive for the governing word, a possessive genitive (§47) may 
be governed by a neiiter pronoun, or by the word ec in the sense of something in or 
on the part of some person, so that the pronoun is often explained by a sentence with 
on annexed, or a dependent interrogative proposition : Tovto p.01 eSo^e twp^ kut- 
rjyopcov dvaKTXVvTOTaTov elvai {PI. Aj)ol. 17). MaXiaTa tcov KaTrjyopcov ev i6avp.a(Ta 
Ton' TToXXoiV. hv i^evfyavro, tovto, ev w eXeyov, cos XPW '^pds evXalBe'iadai, p-rj vn epov 
e^aTTaTTjdrjTe {PI. Apol. 17, at one thing among many in them). "AXXa re aov iroXXd 
dyapai Kol on vvv cipa ;^apt^o/:iei'os KaXXia Ka\ TTaiheveis avTov {S^en. Conv. 8, 12). 
To ^pahv, o pipt^ovTM pdXiaTa rjpibv, pr] alaxivfcrde {Thuc. 1, 84). °A Stw/cet Alaxi-VTis 
Tov yj/rjCptapaTos, tovt ((ttiv {Bern. 18, 56). With verbs denoting to perceive and 
rem a r I; when such a sentence is added, the pronoun is often omitted; so that the 
genitive is proximately governed by the following sentence : 'Eyw ovnoTe enavoppv 
^aaiXea Ka\ tovs <tvv avTca paKap'i^cov, 8ta6ea}pevos avTcov, ocrrjv pev ;)(/&)pav Km oiav 
e'xoifv, m S' dcjidova Ta i-mTrihua {Xen. An. 3, 1, 19). ^Ayvoovpiv dXXrjXcov o,tl 
Xiyopev {PI. Gorg. 517, each other's speech and meaning). 'Eyw paXia-ra edavpaaa 
2(OKpdTovs npcoTov pev tovto, w? evpevcbs tS>v veavicrKcov tov Xoyov dtvebi^aTO, ejreiTa 
Tjpaiv cos o^ecos jjcrBeTo, TrfTTovdeipev vtto tcov Xoycov {PI. Phced. 89). Kat nparov 
pev 2coKpdTr]S avTwv {tcov Ta peTecopa epevvcovTcov) eaKonei, iroTepd ttotc vopicravTes 
Uavcos rj^T] TavOpoaTreia etSeVai epxovTai eVt to irepl tcov toiovtcov (ftpovTiCeiv, ^ TavSpu)- 
neia TrapevTes Ta baipovia ctkottovuiv {Xen. Mem. 1, 1, 12, the first thing that he 
considered in them was, whether — ). 

Eem. From this usage of the language, or from some such way of taking the 
relation, it results that the poets use the genitive with the verbs say and hear in 
the sense of, about: (Tt}? prjTpbs tJkco tTjs eprjs (ppcicrcov ev ois vvveaTiv, Soph. Trach. 
1122, in what condition she is, the state of my mother:) and also, that in passing to a 
new matter, a genitive is put at the head of a sentence unconnected with the 
following construction, in the sense, as touching — : Ti fie ittttcdi/ oi'et tj tcov aXXcov 

' 'EnipiyvvcrdaL e(j)aaav ol Jlepaai a(f)a>v re Trpoy KapBovxovs Ka\ fK€Lva)v rrpos avTovs 
{Xen. An. 3, 5, 16. The elliptic genitive as subject). KaTea-KucpT] tcov Teixcov tcov 
paKpcov iirX heKa oTcihia eKOTepov {Lys. 13, 8 ; as if it were, of the long walls there 
teas throtvn down to the extent often stadia). 

[part I. 



§ 54-] '^^^'^ Genitive. 47 

^0)0)1/ ; ^ oXXj; irr) i'xfiv ; {PI. Hep. 5, 459.) Tt be 7^9 re rurjcreooi TJ]i 'EXXtjvlk^s koi 
oIk.iu)V eixTTprja-euii.TTolov ricroibpdaovcrLPoi (TTpariunai, irpos rovs noXep-iovs (ibid. 470). 

a) The g-enitive with elfil sometimes denotes the person or thing- to § 54- 
which something- belongs and is a])])ropTiate, becoming, suitable, com- ^^9°) 
2)etent [is his^ja;-/, diifi/, &c.] : "Ecrriy apa hcKaiov dvSp6<; ^dirrecv koX 
ovTLVOVV avOpcoTTOv ; {PI. Bep. 1, 335.) OiKovopuov dr/aQov eariv ev 
OLKelv Tov eavTov oIkov {Xen. (Ec. \, 2). Ou Travro'i dvSp6<i icrriv 
eKke^aaOai, irola d'yadd roiv i)86o)v eVrt Kal oirola kuku {PL Gorg. 500). 
'ATToo-rao-t? TOiv /Slacop ri iracT'XpvTOiiv eariv {Thuc. 3, 39; takes place 
onlij in the case of those toho suffer harsh treatment ; is for those who — ). 

(NoyLnVare ilvai tov kuXcos noXep.fli' to alaxvveuOai Ka\ to'i^ ap^ovai neideadac, Tliuc. 
5, 9, tliat to tlie right conduct of tear it is essential.) {Ebai irpos tivos, see under 
the prep. Trpos.) 

If) A genitive of a substantive with an adjective (pronoun or nume- (285) 
ral) is either referred by elfii to a subject, or even immediately con- 
nected with a substantive, to denote its demands and consequence 
( what i tcalls for, and brings with it), its untgnllude, rulne, also age 
[descriptive jenitlve) : 'fl? p,ev iyco ovk dStKoo Kara ttjv M6X?;tou ypa(f)7]v, 
ov 7ro\\rj<i ixoL SoKel elvat diroXoyia'; {PL ApoL 28). Tavra Kal BaTrdvr)'^ 
fM€<ydXr]<i Kal irovwv iroXkoiv Kal Trpay/xareiaf; elvat SoKel [Bern. 8, 48) . 
Ovaia Terrdpcov Kal SeKa raXdvrcov [Bem. 27, 4). X.cop[ov BeKa pivwv 
[Isa. 2, 35). 'EttI rbv Yjv<ppdT7]v TroTajxov, ovra ro evpo'? rerrdpcov 
TrXedpcov {Xen. An. 1, 4, 11. Here also without adjective, as the sub- 
stantive ifkedpov in itself expresses a definite magnitude : IloTa/cto? 
Ke/30-o? ovojjia, evpo<i irXedpov, Xen. An. 1, 4, 4). To TLpb-qfiarrj^; %^pa9 
e^aKLCT'x^iXicov raXdvTcov iaTLV [Bern. 14, 19, comes to). Toy Mapcruoi; 
TTorafxov to eSpo? eaTiv elKoat Kal irevre ttoSmp {Xen. An. 1, 2, 8 ). 
Mavla r]v ircov irXeov ?) rerrapdKovra {Xen. Hell. 3, 1, 14). 

Eem. 1. But the descriptive genitive in Greek is not used oi properties and 
make or nafinv in t;vnerg,l, except in one or two idioms witli eljxl. {Tovtov tov 
TpoTTOv elp-L, Arixl. J'l . 24(3. T^j avTT]i yvtojxrjs elvai, Thuc. 5, 46, to)v avrav Xoycov, 
Pi. Gorg. 482, to keep to the same tale.) 

Eem. 2. Beside TrposoSos bvo'iv p.vaiv {Xen. Vecfig. 3, 10), we find also bvo p.val 
TTpos68ov hj § 49, b. Likewise apposition is used : TpuinovTa p.vus TrpvsoSov e;(ett' 
or TTjv Trpijsodou {Bern. 27, 9), by § 19, R. 2. 

c) The genitive with et/it and jiyveadai denotes the extraction and 
birth-place, also the material : Bouo-t/ai? irarpo^i /xev -qv Hoa-eihoivo'^, 
fJL'qrpo'i he Ai;Su7;<? [Isocr. Bus. 10). TlaTpo? Xeyerai Kupo? yeviaOat 
KaiM/Svcrov, fjLTjTpo^; 8e ofioXoyetTaiMavBdviTi yeveaOat {Xen. Ci/r. 1, 2,1 ^) . 

^ But also : 'O (fiupos rjv TtTpoKocria TiiXavTa Kal i^rjKovra {Thuc. 1, 96). Tov Tfixovs 
r)v TO evpos 7T€vt€ Kal eLKoat, nodes (Xen. An. 3, 4, 7). 

- Often ylyvea-Bai '4< tivos. ('Atto tivos yiyv., to he descended from some one.) 
Poeticallj' (()vvai, ^Xacrrety tivos. 

CHAP, v.] 



48' The Genitive. [§ 55, 56, 

[§ 54] 'iTTTTO/cpaTT]'; oBe iarlv 'ATroWoSdopov vi6<i, oIklu^; fieydXir; re koX evSal- 
aovo<i [PL Prot. 31G). Tlfiaco^; oSe evvo/xcoTdTT]<; icrri TToXew? t?}? iv 
'IraX/a Ao/cptSo?, ovcrla Kol yivei, ovS€vu<i vaTepo<; tmv eKel {PL Tim. 20) . 
'H KprjirU [the foundation) rjv Xidov ^ea-Tov Ko^'xyXidrov [Xen. An. 3, 
4, 10) . (Also without elvav and with iroieiv : ©eytteXiot iravroicov Xtdcov, 
Time. \, 93. ^oiviKQ<ialQvpai ire'jToirjp.evai rjaav, Xen. Cyr. 1, 5, 22\) 

^ cq The genitive stands with the prepositions dvev, dvrl, diro, eveKU^^^, 
irpo always, and with the prepositions hid, eirl, kutu, fxerd, nrapd, Trepl, 
7rpo9, vTrep, and vtto in certain significations (those which spring from 
the conception of a hanging together with, and a going forth from ; 
see chap. 6) ; also with all the adverbs which^, as prepositions, serve 
to denote a relation to something in regard of place and space (some- 
times also of time "); also with ifKi^v, except, XdOpa [Kpv^a),privilj/from 
[XdOpa rwv crrpaTiwTMv), ifiTroScov, in the way of [ohstvuctWe : ttoXXmv 
dyadoov dXXy'jXoi'i i/xiroScov 'y[yvea-6aL, Xen. Cyr. S, 5, 24) ^ lastly: mth 
expressions which are compounded with prepositions to denote on a 
certain side of : eirl rdSe (t>a<7J]XtBo<i [Isocr. Areop. 80), rov'YipaKXeiov 
e-rreKetva [Xen. HelL 5, 1, 10), rd Trpo^ eco Tri<; ^rj/Baicov TroX-ew? [Xen. 
HelL 5, 4, 49 ; the country to the east of Thedies) . (On xapiv, h[Kr\v with 
the gen., see § 31, d. E.) 

Eem. 1. With ayx', f'yy^^' ^'^^ TrXrjcriov, the poets sometimes use the dative, for 
the most part so that it can refer to tlie verb [iyyi's eivai rivi). ('Eyyvrepoi/ tw 
Bavara, Xeii. Cyr. 8, 7, 21, of a similarity.) 'E|j)s and e'^e|^s have also the dative, 
especially in connexion with dvai or KCiaBai [ecpe^rjs Kelcrdai nvi, to follow imme- 
diately upon something). 

Eem. 2. How from, out of, is denoted by the genitive without preposition, 
see § 60. 

§ 56. The genitive stands as object with a multitude of verbs^ which in 
(291- their original signification, involve more or less nearly the conception 
^93 "^ of a connexion or coherence with, or a coming out (a being parted) 
262) fi'om the same ; either as principal object (sometimes with an object 
of reference in the dative), or as accessory definition (more remote 
object) along with a passive object in the accusative; e. g. Ti'7;^ayeiv 

^ In Herodot. TreTroirj^fvos en rivos and otto tivos. 

- Such adverbs are: ayxt, dyxov (with its degrees of comparison, mostly poetical), 
iyyis (with its degrees of comparison : tov Kucpov eyyvrtpa tov reixovs dia^avrts, 
(Xeti. Hell. 5, 3, 5, with the genitive of comparison, by § Gi and § 90, E. 4), ttXtjctiov 
(the same), nuppco, (poet, axe^ou, e/ca?, rrjXf, ttjXov, rjjXo^e.) X'^P'^' (^'X" poet..) etcrw, 
e^at, fWo?, (kt6s (with i^u>6iv, etc.), fiera^v, rrpvcrdev, onLcrBev, eTTLTrpoaoev, vnepdev, 
fvepdfv (poet.), i'vOev Kai i'vdeu, dp-cfyorepoidev, (Karepaidei', Trepa, nepav [KaTavTLivepas), 
ivavTiov [uvra, dvTiov poet. [ei/coTrtoi']), KaravTiKpv {dvTiKpv), ev6v [I6vs), axpi-s, 
HeXfiis (in later writers ews), e^fjs, e0e|^j. 

[part I. 



§ 57-1 ^■^^^ Gtiiitive. 49 

ToO cricoiTov, aineaOai tj}? ')(eip6^^ rov •wpd'yixaro^, eTriOvixelv eLpi'jvri<i, [§ 56.] 
ipav (f)pojn](TeQ)<;, /u,6Te)(^6iv tmp u<yado)v, /xeraScSovat toi<; dWoi'i rwv 
djado)V, iTTijjLeKeladai rcov Trpa'yfxcnwv, cip^^eiv rcov 'JLWrjvcov, jraveiv 
TLva vj3pe<xi<i, alrtdadai riva Tciii' ev rm nroXe/jicp Trpa-^^devTwv, Kar ay L'yv do- 
er Keiv (f)vyr]v Tivo<; [to condemn a man to exile). 

Resi. 1. In some such verbs the construction is somewhat variable in con.«e- 
quence of a cUtTerent view of the meaning ; for particular instances of this, the 
Lexicon must be consulted. Some verbs have the genitive in some one special 
sense, but otherwise have different constructions. 

Rem. 2. Although the genitive does not denote an object passively recipient of 
the action, yet verbs which govern a genitive (as principal object, not as secondarj- 
definition along wnth an accusative) are sometimes predicated in the passive of a 
subject which, in the active, w^ould stand in the genitive : Ni/cZ/paTo? epcoi/ tJJs- yvvat- 
Kos avTepciTai (Jew. Conv. 8, 3). 'Ao"Kfirai aet to rificafievov, dneXelraL Se to drtaa- 
^ufjievov {Pt. Rep. 8, 551. 'AjueXeii/ tivos). Ootls np^^eTai vtto Ta>v 8ia tov cra/xa- 
Tos rjdovwv, nvneXevdepijs icrriv {J^en. 3fem.4i, 5,3. "Ap)(^€ivTiv6i) ; especially those 
compounded with koto (§ 59). as KaTaKpiviuOai. KaTacPpovelcrdai, Karaye'Xda-dai. e. g. 
'ETretSav tis e'yyi)? _?/ tov oleadui TeXevTTjcreLV, ol Xeyopievot p.v6oi nep\ rSiv eV AtSov, 
KUTciyeXaipevoL recos, rore di] crrpfCpovariv avTov Ty)v ■^vx^r]v, fxrj akrjdeli uxriv {PI. Rep. 
1, 330). 'Idfirivlas KaT€y^}](piadrj koi dTTodvrjCTKei (JTew. Sell. 5, 2, 36, from Acora- 
, ylnjcpi^ofjiat, deponent middle). 

a) The g-enitive is g-overned by the verbs which involve the con- § 57- 
caption of attaching to, and adherence to a thing- ; viz. such as mean 
to seize or la_y Jiolil hy or iipon, to hold to, catch at, get to (hit), aim at, 
and he studious of, crave, be in need of, lay claim to, he or make par- 
taker of, Jill with, he fall of and rich in, mahe a heginning of: thus, 

XanjSdvofiai, (in the middle), enikap.^dvop.ai, dpTiXajxiiuvopat, avWajji^dvop.ai, exoixai, 
dvT€x.op-ai (also figuratively, e.g. iTrCkapfidvopai tov vop-ov, lay hold upon and find 
faull icith, TCI TovTOiv i\6peva, ivJiat hangs together with these and borders thereon) ', 
aTTTopai, KadaTiTop.ai. yj/avu), diyyuvo), — 6peyop.at. (TTOxd^op.ai,, Tvyxdva {hit — attain, 
get), ecfiiKvovpai, e^iKvovpai {Kvpco), — emBvpo}, e'pco ", ecpUfxai, yXixop-cii, {diyj/o), thirst 
after, eXevdepias), — ^61 (/not, J need), deopai (rti/oy, of a person: I beg of some one), 
7rpos8fOfiai {xP!iC^) '^ f'^'V^etVft (fioi, I have lack of), — dvTnraovfxaL {ttjs dpxrjs rivi, 
contest the government with some one), fxfTanoiovpai, dp(f)isj:jr]Ta> {tivos Tivi), TrposrjKei 
{[jLOL Trjs dpxrjs, I have a right to, have to do trith — ), /jere;(w, fxeTaXayxdvco,. fifTaXap.- 
^uvco, fieT€(TTi. {tcvus /loi), pieradidoifxi ■*, koivcovo) {tivos tivi), a-vvaipoixai, {tivI tov kiv- 



^ The actives Xafi^dvco, take (not take by), exa, hold, have, govern the accusative. 

" But <^iXa> Tiva, as it does not express desire. 

•' IloXXov Sf'o), oXiyov Seoj, lam far from — , within a little of — , oXlyov Sa, it ivant.f 
little of, or but that — . TptaxooToi/ eVo? ei/o? Seov, not deovTos, i. e. the twenty-ninth 
gear ; 8volv deovTfS TVfvTi)KovTa (iv8pes, forty-eight men. ('Oktw divobiovTes TpiaKvcnoL, 
Time. 4, 38 ; oktm as genitive.) (OXiyov, jxiKpov without Set, adverbially : xvithin a 
little, almost, nearly.) 

■* Mere;(a), jieTaXaplSdvci) p-^pos, pLfTeaTi pot pepos, as the genitive denotes the whole, 
of which the person has part. Aayxdva tl, obtain by lot ; in the poets also tivos. 

CHAP, v.] E 



50 TJic Genitive. [§ 5^- 

[§ 57'] hvvov) ', KXrjpovofio) (rf;? ovalas), aTroXavco ", yevoiiat (^e\iTos, naQi^jiaros, yevo) rovs 

(259) TToidas alfxaros), eficfiopovfJ-aL, 6a(j)paivoixai, — 7ri/Lt7rXr;/ii {ipTV., avaTr.), Tvkr^pa), ttXjj^co, 
ye'juo), evnopoi, TrXovrw, — apx^o {virap^oi, Kardpxa), clpxopai ^, and other more special 

expressions. 

(260) Rem. The verbs to take, to hold, have also the genitive of the part by which one 
lays hold : Ot rrapopTes eXajBov Trjs Ccl>vt]S tov 'Opuvrriv {2Len. An. 1, 6, 10). Kat /iov 
eXufieTo T?]s ;^etpos 6 ^AdfipavTos (PI. Pann. 126, tool' me hy the hand). So eX/ceii/ 
Tiva Ttohoiv {bi/ the feet), and the like. 

/;) Further, the verbs which convey the notion of removal from and 
depriving" of: viz. such as to give up [one's claim to), forego, miss of , 
be and make far from, shut out of, hinder of, deprive of, Icgrudge, free 
from, lack, refrain from [spare), desist from, make an end of, tog-ether 

with he differeyit from ; thus, aCpUpm, pedUpai (Titos') ^—anoTvyxava, ajxap. 
Tovo), a(paXXopai, yj^fuBofxai {a7voXel7Top.cn twv KaipSyv), — a7rf;(co. fi^e';^co, ^^wpi'^co, a(^- 
i(TTr]pt {'OpxopfViovs Or](3ai(ov,move them to revolt from the Th.,d(picrTa(T6ai QrjjSaLuv), — 
f'lpyo) (tlvu TrjS 8lv8ov), to";^a), kcoXvco (ivavTiovpai tlv'l tivos), aTepw, d7ro<TTipu> (rtva 
Tivos) ^, (j)6or'a> iyvpvo). povcb, strip, make deserted, i. e. bereave of, KaraXvco riva ttjs 
apx^]^), iXevOfpco, aTraXXaTTco (tivci KaKuiv. aTraXXdrropai 7T6va)v), acplrjpi, ottoXuco (riva 
rrjs aiTLOs), — «7re;(o/xoi, (peidopai, — e'lKw, v7reiKCi>, TTapax(i>pS) {tlvi twos), V7T0x<i>pS), 
i^'icTTapai {t?]S ovcrias, rov (jipovelv), (e^aviaTapai. vTravidTapal tivl ehpas), — Tvnva 
(tlvci Trjs €7n6vpLas, Travopac rrjs 67r.), iTv^x^ {tov X6yov, vcpUpai tov peya cppovelv), — 
8ia(j)fpa), dieaTTjKa, and other more special phrases (e. g. Xacpw 68vvr)s, feel viyself 
relieved of), or such as are used in a more free sense by the poets (e. g. aTipd^eiv 
Tiva av Seirat, Soph. (Ed. Col. 49, to refuse a person something , and count hirn, 
iinworthy of it, 7Vi<pevyivai voaov, Soph. Phil. 1044). 

Rem. In diiFerent verbs the sense which requires the genitive, results from their 
composition with 0770, or e^, thus (besides the verbs above given) in dTviXavva, 
(nroTpeTTU) {tlvci ttjs dXa^oveias^, d7ro7rr]8a> {'EcoKpc'iTovs, S^en. 3Iem. 1, 2, 16, desert 
him suddenly), eK^alvco {ttjs epavTov I8fas), eKJSdXXo) {tivci Tiprjs), e/cStairw/M-at {twv 
KadecTTaTcov vopipcov, Time. \, 132), e^La-Trjpi {riva tov (ppovelv, e^icrTapai rfjs 
dpxiis). skXijco {tlvci d7T0plas). Where the local notion /)'o?«, out, is prominent, we 
have (both in these compo\inds, and in otlier verbs) otto or €^, e. g. 'H ^vxt] otto 
tov crapaTos ^j^topt'ferat. At ox^cil Tpla TrXtOpa otto tov TTOTapov a7Teixov (Xen. Am. 
4, 35). ^ ArraXXaTTeiv tlvci e/c ttovcov. (^EXevdepovv, cnraXXc'tTTeiv tlvci otto Mijdcov, 
ofpersons.) 

§ 58 «) Further, the genitive is governed by the verbs which denote 
(291) iei?/g careful or neglectful of, mindful ox forgetful of (the conception being, 
that the mind is directed to something), as cTnpfXoipm, p.eXeL p.oL, peTapeXfi poi 
{it repents me of). (f)povT[^a>, K7]8op.ai, ivTp(Tvop.m {have a rare of, regard for), 7rpovou>, 
TTpoopw,', upiXoi, oXLycopo), — pepLvripai, f7rLpep,vr)pai, XavBdvopaL, i7TLXciv6dvop.aL, civa- 
p.ipvr]a-KU> {tlvu tlvos), sometimes iv6vpovp.aL (usually with the accusative), and the 
verb 'Treipcofiat (Tretpco), attempt. 

^ Also avvaipopai tov k[v8vvov, share the danger. 

^ Also aTToXai'to dya66v {(piXaiipov) tI tlvos. 

^ "ApxopoL OTTO TLVOS, begin loith, at something. 

* But d(f)Lr]pL, pfdirjpi TLva, let a ^^erson go, set him at liberty. 

^ Also OTroo-rfpo) tlvci tl, § 25. 

[part I, 



§ 59-] '^^'■^ Genitive. 51 

Rem. 1. The constructions /lieAet ^ot, (ppovri^o) nepl twos also occur. (MeXet juot [§ 58.] 
ravra, personally. 'Eoprat /cat x^P"' Tracrt ^eKovcrtv, PI. Legg. 8, 835.) 

Rem. 2. Mefivrjuai has also the accusative (i^ear ?'« i7!/?2f? «??c? Imoic : tovs 
dSiKovvTas) ; avajxnivrjCTKU) two accusatives (§ 25). Mvrjfiovevcio has usually the 
. accusative. 

ReM: 3. After the same analogy, the genitive is sometimes found also with 
alaOavojxai, have a perception of (by the senses, e. g. Kpavyrjs), and aKovca, hear to 
(e.g. Toiv ^eipi'jvcov), different from aKovco rivos, hear from a person,^ 60. 'Akovw 
Tivhi SiaXeyo/ieVov, I hear some one speahing. 

b) Likewise the verbs which sig-nify to he leader and ruler of, as 

apxoi, riyovjjLai, KpaTO), (BaaiXevco. SecTTTo^o), TvpocrraTu). Tvpavvevoi, (rTparrjyS), rjyejjLOveva), 

and the verb aKovco {kXvoo) in the signification odej/ (and avyxov- 
arw) '. 

Rem. 'Hyovixal TivL, am leader to a i^erson, shoio him the MHvy, Kpara nva, over- 
come a person {p.dxr)). In the poets, the verbs of ruling have also the dative. As 
aKovo), so vnaKovo) occurs with the genitive (usually with the dative). 

a) The g-enitive stands with various verbs which are compounded with § 59. 
a preposition governing- the genitive, as the object of the relation denoted 

by the preposition, either alone, or with an object-accusative; especially 
(besides the verbs with cnro and ef, § 57 b, R.) those compounds with 
Kara which denote an action directed to, or against a person, e. g. Kara- 
yf\o}.KaTa(j)povai,KaTaj3oS) {tcov a-Tparrjyav, cri/ont against the generals, in accusation or 
complaint), KaravrKu) (yeOvcora tivos), KaTa^eo), KaTaTvpo[^op.at, KaTa'^ivbofxai, KadvlBpi^co. 

In those which denote accusation and condemnation [Karrj^opoy, Kara- 
'yi'yvoiaKw, KaraStKal^co, KaraKplvw., Karaylrrjipl^o/xaL) , tbe offence or the 
punishment stands as object in the accusative : Karrjyopelv ahiKiav, 
pjwpiav TLv6<; (literally, /<? charge injustice against a person) , so ih^ai th.e 
Greek construction is often the converse of the English. "Orav rov /carayvcore 
lepocrvXlav i) KXoTrrjv, ou Trpo? to ixeyeOo^ mv av Xd^coat, tj]v Ti/xcoplav 
iTOLelaOe, aiOC ofiotco^; airavToov ddvarov KaraKplvere {Isocr. iu Loch. 6). 
{¥s.aTa-^i]<^iC,eG6ai SetXlap, ddvarov tivo<;.) In the passive : Ta /j,ov T^euSi} 
Karrj'yopij/jieva {PI. Apol. 18). 'O KaTe-^r]<^icrpikvo<i i]\xmv Odvaro';. (iioX- 
Xt]v bv(TTV)(^iav KaTayiyvMcrKfiv tlvus, to pronounce a person to he very imfortiinate.) 

b) Further, in some verbs compounded with irpo and virep (partly 
in their proj)er signification, partly with the sense of a preference or 
advantage), e, g. irpoTiOevaL 7rpoo[[Xiov rov \6you {PI. Legg. 4, 723, 
prrejix), TTpoTLixdv awrripiav KepSov<; {Ant. 2, /3. 5), Trpoi'^eLv Tiv6<i rtvv 

{to suj'pass a person in something'), virepeyeiv (TKidheiov tivo<; {Arist. 
Aves, 1508), virepcfypovelv rivo'i {to look doivn iipon), virepe'^^eiv irdvTOiv 
KdXket, /cal {xeyeOei. 

^ In Herodotus also iveidofiai twos. 
CHAP, v.] E 2 



52 The Genitive. [§ 60, 6i. 

59.] Eem. 'Ympopoi.I overlool-, look down upon, and vnepaipco, lirepiSdWa, surpass, 

have the accusative. lu the proper signification, the preposition is usually 
- repeated. 

c) With ini^alva, set foot upon, e. g. t^? AaKcui/iK^sr. (ETn^alvui eVi ttjv vavv, 
go on hoard the ship.) 

60. (?)"\Vith the verbs to hear, learn, ask, the name of the person from whom the 

tiling is heard, &c., is sometimes put in the genitive : 'Y/ifty e'/x"^ aKova-euQe rraa-av 
rrjv "aXrjdeiav {PI. Apol. 17). " Kyyikos ovbels Tvapea-Tiv, otov nfvcrupeda raKei 
TTpdyfxaTa {Arist. Aves 1120). It is more usual, however (except with Tvvv6dvofj.m), 
to add TTopd {np^s, e^). 

Eem. 1. 'ATToS/xojuai rtvos, properly accep>tfrom some one and approve of, e. g. 
Mn Tavra aTro^ix^trBe ^ Xyopdrov {Lys. 13, 83). Ovk dno^e^ofxai (tov. eav roiavra 
cf)\vapfis {PI. Bep. 1, 337), then usually with participle annexed {aTTohixopai tlvos 
\eyovTos) : accep)t willingly, approve that {^vo^.tohile,if) a person does so and so ^ 

Eem. 2. "oCa p.vpov, smell of perfume (with the accompanying notion of fulness). 
T^s Ke^a\i]^ 0^0) }xvpov {Arist. Eccl. 52-4), in the head {from the head). 

Eem. 3. The poets put passive verbs with the genitive, in the sense of from 
{"Av fj deXova-a, TrdvT tfxod KOfiiCeraL, Soph. (Ed. R. 580, what she will), especially 
participles, denoting extraction or origin, e. g. (/)ws, Tpa<^ds tlvos. (Cf. § 54, c.) 

:69) Eem. 4. The poets sometimes use with verbs which in general denote a motion, 

75- the o-enitive of the place from which the motion commences : Aopuv 6p5> Xpvaodefiiv 

■• 3) eVrd^ta x^polv (pepovaav {Soph. PL 324). Haldas yf;? e\dv Knpivdlas {Bur. 2Ied. 

70, out of — ). The more ancient language had for this sense the particular termi- 
nation 6ev, which has rem.ained in local adverbs (cf. the Accidence). (Also e^ 
ovpavodev.) 

/-. a) A geuitivo stands with verbs and phrases, denotmg- crimination 

,qm' and impeachment of a person, or conviction and condemnation, to 

denote the matter of the crimination (charge, &c.), e.g. Tpdcpofiai, 

^'CKi'TT'TTOV (fiOVOV, as with alTia>p.ai (also amw/xot tovs 6eovs rav dyadav), eVnirtM- 
juni, StcoKO), eladyai, VTrdyai, ypd<poij.ai, a'lpa {tlvci (f)6vov, KXoTrfjs), iivi^eifiL {tlvi (puvov), 
diKrjv Xayxdvco (or simply \ayxdvo)), 5iK«^o/Ltat {tivl KXrjpov, go to law with a p)erson 
because of an inheritance), (pevyo, aXL<TKo^ai, 6<pXiaKdv(o {dae^fias). (^AnoXva>, d(f)itjij.i 
TLva T^? alrias, § 57, b -.) 

Eem. 1. With some of these verbs the name of the p)unishmeiit also stands in 
the "•enitive: 'YTj-ayo) tlvo. Bavdrov. KpipofiM davdrov {am upon my trial for life 
and death, but also nepl davdrov, Xen. Hell. 5, 5, 25). (Ttjuco tlvi tcov ia-xdroav. 
TijiHrai fxoi 6 Karrjyopos davdrov, laj/s the punishment at, demands th at deatk ^Ae 
the punishment.) 

^ In like manner dvexop-ai rivos jroiovvrvs ri, put up with, tolerate that (prop, 
when) a 'p)C^'son does so and so. Hence with gen. alone, dvexopal rivos. 

' The conception on which the genitive rests, seems to be eitlier that of a bringing 
\mder a certain notion (on account of, under the head of), or, of a direction to 
something (that to which the charge comes). 

[part I. 



§ 62, 6^.] TJic Genitive. 53 

Rem. 2. On the verhs compounded with Kova, see § 59, a. 'O^Xio-Kfii/o) stands [§ 6i.] 
also with the accusative of the thinc]js one is accounted guilty of, and of the 
punishment: 'iic^Ar^Kao-t [j.ox6r\piav (cat aSiKt'ai/ (PZ. ^^jo^. 39), o^Xfivxikia^ 8paxiJ-as, 
6cJ3\f7v yeXwTa. ('Ey/caXftf Tivi dStKi'ai/.) 

<^) With some verbs and phrases denoting' to j^raise or coimt /icijjp?/, 
to compassionate or i^aX'^ revenge for, the object on account of which 
one is praised or pitied, or reveng-e is taken, stands in the genitive : 
EySatjUOf/^ft) ere tov rpoirov {PL Crit. 43), NO/-' e^ecrrt KaKehaiixoviovi 
Trdvroov, coy ireiroit'^KacrLV riixa^, Ti/xcopTjcraadai {Xe?/,. Hell. 6, 4, 19) ; 

so with oya/xai, evbaijiovi^ca, fiaxapt^a}, (rj'ku), OLKTe'ipco, (ijxvvofjLai, THiapovjxat,. (With 
an adjective : Evdaipav poi avrjp ecpaipero tov Tponov, PL P/iced. 58.) 

Eem. 1. Occasionally some other verbs of kindred meaning are thus used, e. g. 
(TvyyiyvaxTKO) rivl TrjS entdvpias {PL Eiithyd. 306; as ripapovpai, otherwise crvyyiy- 
va)(TK.eiv Ti] imOvpla rivos). XaKebaipovioL (hpyi^ovru Qrj^aiois tt]S dvTiXi-jylrecos tj]s 
TOV 'AttoXAwi^os deKdrrjs {Xen. Hell. 3, 5, 5). The poets use this genitive with all 
verbs which denote praise, blame, or anger at something, e. g. Trarpt prjvla-as 0o'i/ou 
(Sopk. Ant. 1177). Verbs oi wondering are also found with a single genitive of 
the person wondered at : Qavpd^oy tcov vnip tiis I8ias do^rjs inroQvricrK.eiv ideXovrav, 
vnep 8e ttjs Kotvrjs prj ttjv avTrjv yva>pT]v e)(6vTa>v {Jsocr. jLrchld. 93). 

Eem. 2. In the same manner the genitive is used in crying out at something, 
with an adjective, an interjection, or alone : S^frXta ToKprjs {Eur. Ate. 7-41). *ei5 
Toil dv8p6s {Xen. Cyr. 2, 1, 39). T^? TV}(r)s, ro tpe vvv 8evpo KkrjdivTa tvx^Iv {Xen. 
Cyr. 2, 2, 3, what a misfortune, that I — ). 

The genitive stands (as possessive) with the adjectives which denote \^~- 
belonging to, or the contrary, viz. oi/celoy, 'ihios, tepds {consecrated to a god), koivos, 
dXkoTpios. Ta Tcof T7]v ttoKlv oIkovvtwv oiKela tmv KoXoy^ fSauiXevovTcov 
earlv {Isocr. ad Nic. 31). 'H toXl'^ diravToov tmv iroXiTevofievcov kolvjj 
iariv [Andoc. 2, 1). 'lepo^ 6 %copo? tt}^ ' Apre^atSo'? [Xen. An. b, 3_, 13). 

Rem. OtKeTo?, in the sense inclined and a2yi')ropriate to. and dXhorpi-os, nn- 
favourahle to, alienated from, have the dative : 'H Gao-o? rore AaKeSmpovlois pev 
olKeia, riplv S' dWorpia rju {Dem. 20, 61). Koivos has more frequently the dative 
{koivov Trdaiv, koivos 6 dyav ipol re kcu ao'i). 

The genitive stands, as objective genitive, with adjectives denoting a "i J- 
property which refers to a certain object (transitive adjectives), viz. : 

a) With the adjectives denoting Z?^^/ of, deficient in, needy, iinpar- (268, 
iicipant of, void, ox free from (cf. § 57, the g-enitive with the corre- 2S8 
spending verbs), e. g. Ta KolXa tt}? 7>}9 vSaTo<i e/jLTrXed iariv [PI. P/iad. ' • 
110). IloXi? /Lteo-rr) ifxiropcov Kai^evcov [Isocr. Pac. 31). "'EjptjfioLcrufi- 
pLd')(o}v ia/Jbiu. IIw^ dv 6eo^ etr) 6 roiv KoXoiV Koi djaOoov dp,oipo<i ; 
[PI. Conr. 203.) 'KaOapoq (j)6vou [PL Legg. 9, 864). Such adjectives 
are Ti\.r\pr\^, TrXeco?, eprrkeas, avpTTXeas, pecrros, ttKovctios, — evSerjs, eTTioej;?, k€vus, 
eprjpns. Trevqs, peTO)(^ns, (ipoipos [dKepatos, dKepacrros), Kadap6s, iXevdepos, and some in 
which the signification is more special, e. g. dp(j)av6s {naLdav), yvpvcs {^vx^ yvpvrj 
CMparos). 

CHAP, v.] 



54 Tlie Genitive. [§ 6^. 

[§ 63.] Eem. 1. To an ■adjective formed from a substantive with a frivaUvum, and 

expressing a notion complete in itself without the addition of an object, the Greeks 
. sometimes annex for more exact definition the genitive of a kindred substantive, 
so that the adjective expresses no more than the general notion hereft of , free from, 
e. g. imais appevav iraiboiv {JLen. Cyr, 4, 6, 2), arifxos Trdcrrjs ri^r^s (P/. Legg. 6, 
774, also TovTcov aTifjioi, Andoc. 1. 75, dejyrivedofthis honour), aScoporaros ;(p7j/iarcui/ 
{Thiic. 2, 65, iincorrupted hy), dOaos rrjs ^iXlmrov Swaa-reias {Deni. 18, 270, free 
from, tinhurt by). But especially in the poets, e. g. dvi^vefxos Travrav ^fifxovav 
{Soph. (Ed. C. 677), citreTvkos (papewv {Eur. Flicen. 324), cicpavos TrjsSe rrjs dpds 
{Soph. (Ed. C. 685, without uttering this curse), aXvnos yi^pas {Sopih. (Ed. C. 
1519, untouched by). 

Rem. 2. The poets form nvimerous compound adjectives with the sense of 
fulness or abundance of a certain special kind, and give them a genitive, e. g. 
TToKvarecpijs dd(pvr]s {Soph. (Ed. H. 83), TroXvKTr]p.cov (5iov {Eur. Jon, 581). 

(2S7 b, I?) With the adjectives which denote Iniowledge, experience, care- 
c) fidness, capacHy, poirer, or being guilfj/ (or the cause) of something-, e. o>. 
Fj'TriaTi]/jLQ)v r?}9 OaXdrrrj^ {Thuc. \, 142), e^KpaTi]<i vttvov, yaarpo';. 
Such adjectives are ep-Treipos, I'meipos, (TTLtrTrjpoyv, dvf7ri(rTi]pcov, di]6rjs {tov kukcos 
(iKOveiv), (Trijji.e\r]S, ape\r]s, dp.vr]jxoiv, €yKpaTi']S, d/cparryv, Kvpios, alrios, with others of 
more special signification, e. g. <f)iKopa6r]S, dp.a6r]S {upala ydp.ov, rijjefor marriage). 

(2S7 a) c) With adjectives derived from verbs vi'hich govern the accusative 
or genitive, and denoting" either the action, or (especially with the 
ending lko'^) the capacitij for it, or (with a prirativuni) the forhearance 
of the action, e. g. }s.aKovpyo<i twv aWwv, Kan'^Koo^ M?;S&)i', <^eiS(y\o? 
•^pri/jLarcov, avaTpeirrLKO'^ iroXew^, i^epyaariKcoraroi tov av (= rovroiv, 
a av) e'y')(eip6)aiv {Xen. 3fem. 4, 1, 4), djeuaro^ e\evOepia<i {PI. Rep. 
9, 576), u7radr]<; KaKcov [PL Pkad. 250), aiTpaKTOi oiv icjilevrat [T/aic. 
6, 33), dvi]Koo^ TOV irdvrwv ri^icnov dKovajJiaro<i {Xen. Mem. 2, 1, 31). 
^i,X6Bo)po<; {fond '{f g'u'lng) evixeveia'^, d8o)po<; Zvcrpieve[a<i {PL Conv. 197). 

Rem. 1. KaDjKoo? and vTtr'jKoos have also the dative, like the corresponding verbs. 

Rem. 2. A genitive is also used with adverbs formed from the adjectives 
described under b and c, especially' with e'xa (instead of er^at with the adjective) : 
epa>TiKcos, fp-Tveipcos, avoKas, dpeXcos e)(€iv tlvos. ( Amx'^povf pdXa vTvepoTTTiKas tq)v 
euavTimu, S^en. Sell. 7, 1, 18.) Likewise with SuKpepwrcos {rcov aXXav), from 8ia- 
(pepoiv {tivos). 

d) With some which are compounded with a substantive capable of governing the 
genitive, and contain its notion, e. g. v-nevQwo^ (rJ)? dpyj]^, he who has to give an 
account of an office administered by him), vnoTfXijs (p6pov {Thuc. 7, 57), vnodiKos 
(pouov, dcrelBeias. 

Rem. The poets sometimes construct compound adjectives in a harsh manner 
with a genitive governed by the substantive contained in the adjective, e. g. 8copd- 
Tcov vTTOvTeyos {Soph. El. 1386, who is under the roof cf the house). Xpopos rjp,epa)v 
dv7ipi6p.os {Soph. Trach. 247, a time consisting of days ofiohich there is no number). 

e) With d^io<i, dvd^io<i, uvrd^Lo^;, together with the corresponding 

[part I. 



§ 64 — 66.] TJie Genitive. 55 

adverbs, and the verb a^iM, account tooriluj, e. g\ "A^io? kiraivov, [§ 63.] 
KoXdl^eiv Tiva a^lco'i tcop dScKrjfxdrcov, d^iovcrOai, tmv lacov. 

Eem. 1. "A^iov with the dative denotes it is worth some one's tvhile,e.g."A^i)v 
aoi Kal tS>v ds tov fieXkovra xp^vov tov ^iov (^povri^eiv {Xen. Mem. 2, 1, 34). 

Rem. 2. Of the genitive with adjectives which denote something corresponding 
with a thing, see the dative, § 37, E. 1. 

The genitive stands with the comparative of adjectives and adverbs, to § 64. 
denote the second member of the comparison [KaWiMv ' AXKi^idSov, d^iet- (27 1 ) 
vov ^rjv ro)v dWojv), in the same sig-nification with the adjectives which 
denote douhle of, twice as great, and the like ( — 7r\d(no<i, — ttXoO?), 
and sometimes with aA,A,o? (see comparative, § 91) ; further, with 
some verbs derived from a comparative and expressing a comparison, 
together with one or two others, which, without being so derived, 

have a similar signification, as TrXeoveKTO) (tS)V exdp(bv), ^leioveKTUi, r^aa-afiai, 
(tcov imdvixiav), eXacrcrovfjiai, va-Tfpco and iiaTepL^o) (r^s fidxrjs), — Trepiyiyvop.ai, 
TTipUip-i {rtvoi 77X1)6(1, (rocpLO.) XetVo^at (7rXj}^et vp-Siv), airoXeiTiopLai {am left behind, 
fall short of, tyj^ dXi^deias). 

a) The genitive serves to denote the price at which a thing is § 65. 
bought, sold, exchanged, given in pledge, for which it is done, or at (258) 
which it is set : UoXkoJv y^prjixdrwv [ttoXKov) oyveiaOal n [nrplaadai, 
KrdaOai, iroikdv, diroSlSoaOai) . Ao^a -y^prj^drwv ovk wi//;t7/ [Isocr. aclNtc. 
o'l). Kal Tj}? '^v-^ri<i dv rovro irpcatfJbTjv. OvSefjUtd^ 'ydpLTO'^ ovS dxpe- 
\e/a9 dvrdXXd^acaOe dv t7]v ek tov'; "RWripa^ evvoiav [Bei)i. G, 10). 
^TiroTiOkvai {inroKetcrOaL) irevre fivodV. Yiocrov Kvrjvo'i ZihdaKei; {l?l.Apol. 
20.) M.L<jQov [for pay) TLfjboKpdrr)^ vojjlov^ ekcj^ipei [Bern. 24, QQ). 
XprjfidTcov eiTLKOvpelv (Pi. Rep. 9, 576, for moiie//) . Ot tj}? Trap' rj^epav 
ydpiTd rd ixefyLcna rrj'^ TroAew? diroXuiXeKOTe^ [Deiii. 8, 70). Ta roiv ev 
Kal KaKoy^ irocelv hwajxevoov hCopa /xei^ovo<; TLfxfbvraL ot \afipavovTe<; i) 
Toyv dXkwv [Xeu. C//r. 2, 11, lo). IlXota ^pr^yU-ttTcoi' T6TLju,')]fieva {T/nic. 
4,26). 

Rem. Hoiovp-aL Ti (tlvo.) T7ep\ noXXov {TrXelovos, oXiyov). With aXXarro/xat, 
dvTaXXdTToij.ai the preposition avri is also added. 

d) In the genitive is also set that for which pay is demanded or given : 2a)K/jdrr/y 
ovdeva rrjs avvovcrias dpyvpiov iupdrrero {2^en. M.em. 1, 6, 11). 

ci) The__genitive serves to denote the i!i»i^withm. which, orjit a § 66. 
certain point of which, something takes plaee jwith_partitive concep- (276) 
tion), therefore partly in specifying a natural midefined time, or a 
time often recurring (as e. g. vvkto<^, at or liy niglit, ti)<; ■t)/xepai;, hy 
day = per die^n) ; partly Jn specifying the definite period_bf..time iii> 
the course^of/ipMck smnething takes place (e. g. tov uvtov 9epov<^, in the 

CHAP, v.] 



$6 The Genitive. [§67. 

[§ 66.] same sufmner, 7rj<; i7novcn-j<i rj/xepa';, in the course of the folloiclng day) ; 
partly ill specifying- the time within which something- takes place, or 
in the course of which something has not taken place (does not take 
place) : Ae/A?;? cKpUovro ol "lhW7]v€<i eh ra? Kco/Jba^; [Xen. An. 3,3, 11). 
"Ert /3a6eo<i opOpov {PI.) . 'S,a)Kpdr7]<; to avro i/xaTiov rj/x^lea-ro depou^ re 
Koi 'X^ec/xcJVO'i {Xen. Mem. 1, 6, 2). (More rarel3' eV depei, in the poets also 
simply depei.) AapeiKov eKaaro<i o'laeL rov ixrivb<i vfJLCov {Xen. An. 7 , 6, 7 ; 
also Tov ixrjvo^ iKciarov). — Tov avrov depov^" Ajpcov Kol KXeoTro/xTTO? 
ea-TpciTeucrav eVi, XaX/^iSea? rov^ eVi Spdicrj<i {Thuc. 2, 58). ^^•Trpd')(dri 
TuvTa ^K\.a(f)i]^oXi(Jovo<; fi7]vb<; iirl (deo(f)iXou dp-)(ovTO<i {Bein. 37, 6). 
AijXia {the 1) el os festival) rjv eKeivov tov iJbr}v6<i {Xen. Mem. 4, 8, 2). 
Oi ?;/xeTepot Trpof^ovot tt}? avTi]<; 97^6^09 eirvdovro re t?)v diro^acnv rrju 
Tcov ^ap/3dpcov Kal e/3oi']drjo-av eVt toj)? opovi rf]<; yoipa^i kol ixd')(r] vLKrj- 
aavT6'i rpoTraiov eanjaav TMV TToXefXLCOv {Isocr. Paneg. 87). — FyXtTTTTo? 
eXe'yev, el /Soi/Xovrat e^ievai 01 Wdrjvalot e/c t?}? 2/«;eXia? irevTe ij/jiepayv, 
eroi/jio^ eivat aTrevheaOat {Thuc. 7, 3). IIpo96Ta^^i; N^/co/i«;;^fo TerTapcov 
/j,r}vcbv dvaypdylruL Tov<i v6[jbov<i tou? SoXww? {Li/s. 30, 2) . YloWo)V 
erwv 'Ajddcov evOdSe ovk eTnhehi]ii7]Kev {PI. Conv. 172). Outtco 6^ 
TToWov ')(p6vov TovTov rjhlovt, ohm evreTf^oy {Xen. An. \, 9, 25). 

Eem. 1. Ti]y avTi]s r]fxepa^, in the course of the same day, yet on the same day, on 
one and the same day, rf] avrij iip.epa (§ 45), the same day, often with small diifer- 
ence. Tov avrov depovs, iv tu> avrco dipei (Thuc. 4, 133). Tov \onrov, in future 
(oil li\a^op.ev TOV Xoirrov eKuvres ro lepuif, Thuc. 4, 98) and ro \oir;ov. 

Rem. 2. The time in the progress of which is also denoted by the dative with iv : 
Y.v TeaaapuKovra jxaXiaTa i]fxepais 'A-yi'wi' ^iXiovs Kot TrevTi'jKovTa OTrXtVas rrj i/ocro) 
OTTcoKecrev (Thuc. 2, 58). ''Ev TpLa-\v rj/xepais koI rocravrais vv^\ diaKocria Koi ^[kia 
ardSia oi Aa/ceSat/iowot 8irj\dov (Isocr. l?aneg. 187) ^. 

(277) /;) The genitive of a substantive (or word used substantively) and a 
participle serves to denote the time (and the circumstance), and indi- 
cates that something- goes on while the subject is doing the thing, or 
is in the situation, denoted by the participle : ^Lvpov ^a(7ikevovTo<i, 
(7TpaTT]'yovvTo<;, in the reign, tmder the command, of Cyrus. See Par- 
ticiples, § 181. 

§ 6"/. a) The g-eneral (possessive) genitive relation may be denoted in 
Greek alike by the possessive j)ronouns and by the genitive of the 
personal pronouns : ra rjfierepa oirka, rd bifka t)ixwv. A possessive 
pronoun may have a genitive standing in apposition to it, especially 
that of ai^TOf : 'Eyu,o9 avTov {avTi]<i), rj/jLerepo^i avrcop, my otvn, our own, 

^ AaKedaLfjLOPLcop ^aaikevs evros rpLcov iru>v d^ei'Xero ti-jv ap')(rjv (Isocr. Euag. 64, 
in less than — ). 

[part I. 



^ 68.] Prepositions. 57 

Yllov r7]v 07P avhpiav Kol fieyaXocfipocrvP'nv, ava^alvovro^ eirl tov oKpi- [§ 67-] 
jSavra [on the sta/je) fiera rcjv viroKpirMV [PI. Conv. 194). 

b) The objective g-enitive relation is sometimes denoted by a pos- 
sessive pronoun : ^vvola epo) rfi afi (PL Gorg. 486). Ol KaKehaifxovioL 
^6/3m rep v/u,eT€p(p iroKeixi^creLovaLv {Thuc. 1, 33) . 



CHAPTER VI. 

Appendix to the doctrine of Cases : Of the Prepositions, especially 
such as govern several cases. 

The prepositions wliicli govern more than one case, are partial to the § 6Z. 
accHsaUve (a case in itself not conveying the notion of any particular 
relation), when they denote a motion to, along, or over any thing; or 
when they have a figurative meaning derived from this (of a relation 
which is neither local nor corporeal) ; sometimes even (e. g. 3ta and 
Kara), when the thought of a local relation altogether disappears in the 
figurative meaning. The dative they take in the signification on, at, 
by : the genitive, when they call forth the notion either of a going- 
out from, or of a connexion toitli, or of an entering into (e. g. /iera, 
^la) , or of a part (a point) of the whole (e. g. eVt, u^jon) . 

Rem. The different construction, and the difference of meaning therewith 
connected, results — apart from the consideration of the way in which it is 
influenced by the notion of rest or of motion involved in the relation — from the 
circumstance, that some prepositions in themselves originally denote an undefined 
relation capable of being put in various ways ; which relation is specifically deter- 
mined by the verb and the governing word, e. g. eVt, % and upon, but especially 
irapd and Trpo's of a relation beside, and in the direction from something. _ In the 
figurative usage of the prepositions, the original signification, from which that 
usage is derived, is in many instances not so easy to discover. The particulars 
of these figurative senses in the several constructions must be learnt from the 
Lexicon; here, only the primary distinctions are assigned, together with some 
examples of the manner in whicli the more special and less proper applications are 

' Of the vocative, we have only to remark, that in prose it has S before jt, with 
very rare exceptions where there is a forcible brevity in the expression : "Av8pes, ' 
SiaTrXeiJ' /xeV, evda (3ov\6ij.f6a, 'Ajna-Tapxos 68e rptr/peis i'xcou KcoKvei (Xeti. An. 7, 3, 3) ; 
in the poets w is very often omitted. An adjective is put between S> and the sub- 
stantive, when it is emphatic (w KaXe nai) ; otherwise it is put after it (« Upa>Tapxe 
(piXf, PI. PJiil. 53), and always in customary forms of address, as w AVSpes 'A67]vaioi. 
Instead of the vocative the poets sometimes put the nominative (dixrrrjvos, avrl tov ; 
Sopli. (E. R. 1155.) In prose only with ovtos, tliis j^erson liere, which is also used in 
the sense lio, there I you there I An adjective or participle maybe annexed as ^appo- 
sition in the nominative with the article : 2u 8e, o «px«v Twi/eVl rats Kap,j;Xotj avSpwv 
{Xen. Cyr. 6, 3, 33). f Q 'Yo-rcto-Tra koi oi aXXoi o\ napovTes, Xen. Cyr. 8, 4, 17.) 

CHAP. VI.] 



^8 Prepositions. [§ 69, 70. 

[§ 68.1 deduced from the prlmaiy senses. In some instances, the senses of two construc- 
tions border closely upon one another, and the construction varies in different 
authors. From the Lexicon and by practice it must also be learnt, how, even in 
prepositions governing onlj- one case, the Greeks apprehended this or that 
operation or condition under a different view of the relation in space from that 
which lies at the foundation of our constructions : e. g. juaxfo-^at, 6r]pevfiv dcp' 
"nvrvov,from a Jiorse, i.e. on horse-back. 

§ 69. At a. 1. With the accusative: l?/ reason of {through, of the cause 
and the author) : Sta raurrji' rrjv ahiav {hia rovro) . Alcl to kuWo'? 
Kol Tip apeTTjv (^ikelaOat. Am tou? i7ravop6ovvTa<; del, to t6)V fir) /caXw? 
eyovTwv al i'mhocrei'i ylyvovTai Tal<; TroXecrtv [Isocr. Evag. 7) . AiKato- 
avvrj avT)] St eavT7]v top e-)(ovTa ovivr^aiv {PI. Pep. 2, 367). (In the 
poets, but rai-ely in the Attic poets, through, along : 8ta ttovtov 
/SalveLV, Pind., Sia aTOfia leU Xtyvvv /jueXacvav, jEschijl., Sia aTCfxa 
e')(ei.v, Arist.) 

2. With the genitive : a) //^rc»??_^/^ (local) : 8taSvpia<;'7Top6vecr6ac,8ia 
tT]'^ dyopd^ ekKeLv Tivd. (Aia %eipo? ^'%^^^ '^'^s ^^^ t7T0/^aT09 e'xeti^ Tivd, 
hid cj)6^ov elvai, hid (f)i\la<i levau tlvl — hC 6\i<yov, within a little of, at a 
short distance from, 8id heKdTov eVou?, with an interval of ten years, 
Sid SeKa iirdX^ewv, Thiic. 3, 21, at every tenth hattlement.) b) by^ 
means of, through (of the means) : hC d'yyiX.cov SiaTrpdTTeadal tl, Bl 
€pfu.7)V€(o^ ScaXiyeaOal tlvl, Sid ypa/xixaTcov 'y^pij/xaTi^eiv Tivi. At 6iv e/c 
-^^prjaTMV (f)avXa ra Trpdy/xaTa t?}? TToXeco^ yiyove, Sid toutcov eXTri'^ere 
Tcou avTcou irpd^ewv eK ^avXcov amd '^pi]crTd yevijaeadai ; {Pern. 2, 26.) 

§70. Kara. 1. With the accusative : a) over along- something- (of dif- 
fusion or expansion over, or of abiding somewhere in), in, upon, at, over 
against : Me7a irevdo^; rjv KaTd to KaKwvtKov aTpuTev/j-a {Xen. Hell. 4, 
5, 10). OvKYjV KaTd ttoXlv {PI. Theat. 142 ; in town). Kara "MaXeav, 
directly over against. Ot KaTd Tama otKovvTeq {Xen. An. 7, 5, 13 ; 
here-aljouts, in these parts) . Kara 7??^, KaTd OaXaao-av. Of time : Kara 
Tov<i 'B-paKXeiSa^, ol Kaff r]ixd<i, KaT elprjvrjv, in time of peace, b) ac- 
cording to, agreeably with, after — in proportion or relation to., and con- 
cerning (of that which belongs to something and points to it), — after 
the manner of, answering to, — wise (of the sort or manner denoted by 
the substantive, especially in distribution, where a certain number 
recurs continually) : Kara roy? vopLOv^ t,r}v {PI. Prot. 326). Kara 
vovv ijJboX Td 'TrpdyfiaTa fyeyovev. Kara QovKvSiSrjv, KaTa tov aov 
Xojov. UXelcii i) KaTd to rj/jueTepov ttXt/^o?. Kara ttjv ^petav KaXa 
TavTa Xejco {PI. Gorg. 474.) Td KaTd liavaavtav {the affair of P., the 
account concerning him). Kara to awp-a, as to or in the body. Ov 
KaTd TovTovi f)i]Ta)p el/jLi {PI. Apol. 17, in their manner, after their 
measure). — Kara iToXei<i, city-toise, city by city, each city by itself, 

[part I. 



§ yi — y^.'] Prepositions. 59 

KaS' eva [kuO^ eva twv 'KW7]vcov, Bern., the Greeks, man hy 7nan), Kar [§ 70] 
6\i'yov<i. c) on account of , for (of cause and purpose) : 01 irpoyovoc 
rjfxcov rj]v irpo^evLav vficov Kara ri ejKXrjfMa aTTelirov [Thuc. 6, 89) . A(f)Ly- 
/xepoi Kara ■)(p7]/j,dT(oi^ Tropov {Xen. Hell. 5^ 1, 1 , to'ith intent to get,— for). 
^Ava/Saiveiv Kara 6eav rov ')(wpiov {Time. 5, 1 , to get a vieio of — ; for 
a vieiv of — ). 

2. With the g-enitive : a) down 'upon or over, also under : Kara t?}? 
ireTpa'i, Kara ttj'^ Ke^aXrj^, fivpia<i Kara 7779 6p'^/via<; yevecrOat {Xen. An. 
7, 1, 30). b) against, vpon, of (in expressions denoting a complaint 
ag-ainst or a sentence upon, or generally something said of a person). 
^\.T)vveiv Kara nva [Thuc. 6^ 60). Kkyw ov KaB" drrdvrwv, dWa Kara 
roiv Ivoywv rol<i elpriiJbevoi<i ovrcov [Isocr. ad Nic. 47). yieyLarov 
iyKcofiiov Kara roiv ^KOrjvaicov. "n<i7rep Xiyerat Kara rwt' fiefxvTj/xevcov 
{PI. Phced. 81, in the case of). 

'Tirep. 1. With the accusative : over, above {o^ exceeding and snv- ^ yi. 
passing) : virep rpuiKovra err], /xeyidei Kal pMfjLj] virep tou«? ev rfj vrjl 
irdvra'i elvat {PI. Pej). Q, 488), virep dvOpwrrov cppovelv. (Uavelj beyond, 
to denote distance : ne^j] fiadi^eiv virep ras HvKas km ^ccxeas {Dem. 6, 36 ; to heyond). 
Poetical!}' and in Herodotus, over, so that the goal lies on the farther side : pmTiiv 
Ti virep Tov dojxov, over the house, to the other side of it. 

2. With the genitive: a) over, above (denoting the where) : 'O vTrep 

T?}<? KQ)p,r}<i 7?7Xo^09. "HX,(09 inrep 't]/bLO)v Kal rS)V crreywv iropeverac 

{Xen. Jlem. S, 8, 9). Ot virep Xeppov/jcrov QpaKe<i {Xe/i. An. 'Z, 6, 2). 

b) for {in defence of , for the good of) : Ae76u/, /xd-^ecrOac virep rivo<i, 

for, instead of 'E7&) virep aov drroKpivovfMai. 

'A/i^i. 1. With the accusative : a) a^owiJ, of motion, tarrying and § 7-- 
surrounding ; mostly poetical ; in prose ol a/x^t rtva, those about, the 
train or suit of, a person {ol dfx<pl Kvpov), the person himself with his 
companions or those like him {ol dp.(f)l "Avvrov) ; d/u,(f)i n e^xetv {elvat), 
to be busied about a thing, b) about, towards (of time, or magnitude) : 
d/it0t SeiXriv., d/u,(f)l rd eKKalheKa err) yeyovco'i. 

2. With the dative : a) on, with, or in a thing about me {cifKpl (cXaSoiy eCeadai, 
with boughs about me), merely poetical, b) about, for, of: (po^elcrdat. djicpl yvvaiKi, 
poetical, and in Herodotus. 

3. With the genitive: about, around (rare), of, poetical. ('H S/k?; 7; ap.(j}\ rov 
Trarpos, 2^en. Cgr. iii. 1, 8.) 

'ETTt. 1. With the accusative : a) upon (Lat. in with accusative) : § 73. 
dva^aiveiv dvd I'ttttov. b) to (towards, to fetch something), against 
(persons) : livac eirl rd<; rcjv rrXovaicov 6vpa<i, Kara^evyeuv eiri Xocjjov 
{eirl he^La KelaOai), KaXeladat eirl hehrvov, dyeiv riva eiri rd KaXd 
KdyaOd, levai eVi irvp, ecf) vScop, evrl ^vXa ra? vav'i irepureiv ttol, avv- 
Lcrraadat errl rov<i dp^etv em-)(eipovvra<i {Xen. Cijr. \, 1, 2). %pa(jvpiayo<i 

CHAP. VI.] 



6o Prepositions. \h Th- 

[§ 73-] r\Kev l(^ 'r]fxa<^ w? hiap'rraaoyuevo'i {PL Rep. 1, 336). Mrj'yavacrdaL Ti eVt 
■ Tiva. {Il€(f)VK6vaL eTTL TL, to be made for something^ c) over (of expan- 
sion in space and time) : kiii reaaapaKovra ardhta hvi^Keuv, eVi Trdaav 
^vpcoTTTjv Kal 'Acr/ay iW6jt/jL0<;. Oi ^AdTjvaiot iS^ouv rijv yijv eirl Bvo 
rifiepaf;, Thuc. ^, 25, for livo days, for the space of. ('Etti 8e«:a err; 
am-ojXidQovv tl, Thuc. 3, 68, to let for ten years.) ('EttI liKeov, iirl 
fiei^ov, adverbially, in greater extent ; i-rrl irav, Thuc. 5, 68, 0)i the 
whole, on the average.) 

3. With the dative : a) on, by, beside (of place and of thing-s) : 
oiKelv iirl rf] OaXaTTj], elvat eirl Tal<; irvXai^, fxeveiv iifi rw aXr^Oel, 
ol iirl Tai<; fxri-)(aval<i {Xen. Cyr. 6, 3, 28, the people toith the engines). 
b) (more rarely in prose) on (Lat. in with abl.) : Keiixevo^ iirl 
Tfi irvpa {PI. Rep. 10, 614), aXccireKiha'i iirl rat? Kecjiokaiq (j)opelv 
{Xen. An. 7, 4, 4). c) at, against: ro^a Tiraiveiv iiri tlvl, poetically and 
Ionic, d) besides, in addition to, after (of accompaniment and im- 
mediate sequence) : eirl tm airw oyjrov eadieiv, ap'yvpiov e%eti/ e-rrl rfj 
^vvaiKi {Isa. 3, 28, to get money with his wife, his wife and money 
besides). 'AviarTj iir avrw ^epav\a<i {Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 7). 'H eVl rfi vvktl, 
fi e^rjkOov, rjfiipa {Xen. Hell. 4, 4, 9). Ot iirl Traat, the last, e) iij^on, 
on account of, for (the occasion) : davfxd^ea-dai iirl ^(oypa^ia, (pdovelv 
TLVL eiri TLVL, \eyeiv iiri rtvi {to speak upon a person, over his grave). 
'EttI jjblv Tol<i Tcou (piXcov d'yadol'i ^aiBpoi, cttI 8e rot? KaKol<; (rKvOpwiroi 
yiyvoiJieda {Xen. Mem. 3, 10, 4). f) for, with a vieio to (the condition 
on account of which something' is done, with a view to obtain it) : eVl 
fXLdOw, for pay. 'EttI TTOcrui dv e6eXoL<; ti]v yvvalicd aov dtcovaai, otl 
aKevo^opeU ; {Xen. Cyr. 3, 1,43.) 'Kirl tovtw 7re(f)VK6v {irapecrKevaa-Tai) 
T) reyvr]. "Ayeiv rr/y ySacrtXeo)? dvyarepa cttI ydfJ'(p {Xen. An. 2, 4, 8). 
'EttI rm i^jxerepM dyaOu) ^ Apdanra^; eKLvSuuevcrev {Xen. Cyr. 6, 3, 16). 
Aiofxai dyetv a-^oX'i'jV eVl t^ v/jberepa TrapaKeXevaet {PI. Apol. 36, in 
order to exhorting you.) g) in the pjovjer, at the command (of a person) : 
'Oirorav /SovXr] ektivac co? i/xe, eirl crol earat {Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 14). Ta 
e^' rjixlv, what tee have in our oion power, what rests %oith iis. 

3. "With the g-enitive : a) upon (in answer to the question where ?): 
KaQr]<7Qai eirl Bi^pov, ^^(eladai e(f a/^a^?;?, rrepidyeLV tlvo. e</)' lttttov, ein 
Tov aiycaXov avXi^eaOai, eir dyKupa<i opfielv, eTrl rerrdpcov TerdyOat {by 
fonrs, i. e. four men deep). Hence b) (close) beside: fieveiv cttI tov 
TTOTafiov {Xen. An. 4, 3, 28). Ta eTrl ©pa/c???. c) before, by (in pre- 
sence of) : €7rl TMv (TTpaTijywv, eTrl fxaprvpwv (e(^' eavTov, by themselves 
alone), d) by, upon (i. e. in the ease, or, in the matter of) : oVep cttI 
T03V hovXwv Xeyofxev. "^A iirl tmv aXXcov Spare, ecf) v/jlmv avroiu ayvoeire 
{Isocr,). TaOra roiavra ovra eir avTi)<i Trj^ dXTjOela^ SeUvvTM {Bern. 18, 

[part I. 



§ 74. 75-] Prepositions. 6i 

22, m truth itself), e) with (so that one has and iises something) : [§ 73-] 
'Ett' i^ov(Tia<i, oTToari'; rj^ovXovro, eirpaTTOv, ottco? »'; TroXt? \rij)6 qaerai 
{Bern. 9, 61). 'EttI toO ovo^aro'^ rovrov iravTa top ')(^p6vov rjv {De/ii. 39, 
21, have always gone hij this name). ('EttI ry)^ TOLavri]<; '^['yveaOai 'yvoi- 
fir]<?, Bern. 4, 0, to keep to this opinion.) f) in the time of: eirl to)v 
rj/jLerepcov Trpoyovwv {Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 31). 'EttI tov AeiceXetKov TroXe/j^ov 
{Bern.. 22, 15). Ot e(/)' ■i-ip.wv — g) (set) over (of office and business) : 
ol ivri TMV irpajfjiuTcov {Bern. 18, 247). — h) toivards (in the direction 
of) : ciTTOTrXelv eV AlyuTrTOu, iirl '^aphecov (pevyeip, airo-^wpelv ctt 
o^iKov [homeivards). 

^lerd. 1. With the accusative : a) after (of time and order) : fiera § 74. 
ravra, thereupon ; jxera rov^ 66ov<;, next to the gods, b) after (to go after 
a thing and fetch it) : rrXelv jxeTo. xoKk-ov, poetical, whence fifTepxofiai, jueraTre'/iTro/Ltai. 
c) Me^' rjfiipav, by day ; fMera %et/3a? ex^cv, to have in hand. 

2. With the dative : among, amid, poetical : /xer 'Ap-yetots, juera (ppealv. 

3. With the genitive : with (following and connected with) : levai, 
fierd TLVo^, Ka6r]a9ai fjiera to)v dWcov, oiKetv /Jberd Oeiav {among), fxerd 
TOV BiKaiov [jxeT dSiicLa^;) KraaOal tl, fxerd irovoov kuI klvSvvojv iXevOe- 
povv TTjv irarpiha. (Suf has partly the same signification ; but avv 
expresses rather a union, fxerd participation and companionship, e. g. 
in compounds, avve-^w, hold together, fierexf^, share in.) 

Uapd. 1. With the accusative: a) along, (past) by, beside, in course § 75- 
of {daring, of time) : irapd tt]V ddXarrav levai {Xen. An. 5, 10,18) . KcbfiuL 
TToWal rjaav irapd tov ttotu/xou {Xen. An. 3, 5, 1) . Tlapd ra? vav<; dpiaTO- 
TTotelaOai {Thac. 7, 39). Ilapa T?;y olbv Kpi]vT] rjv {Xen. An. 1, 2, 13). 
"M-eOvovTa dvSpa irapd v't]4>6vTu>v Xoyovi Trapa/SdXXecv {PI. Conv. 214 ; 
to place them side by side with, for comparison). (Seldom precisely ^r/^//, 
dvai napd riva.) Uapd TOV vecbv TTOTa/io? irapappet. Uapd ttjv Ba/3u- 
Xb)va irapLevai. tlapd tov ttotov, Trapd irdvTa tov /3lov, Trap eKdcTTrjv 
rjfjbipav, irapd tt^v dpyi^v tlvo<;. (Ilap' avrd Td dSiKyj/xaTa, Bern. 37, 2, 
immediately upon, after) b) to (mostly of persons) : 77 irap ep^e 
et'?o8o9 {Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, li),dinivai irapd top 6e6v {PI. Phfed. Hb). 
c) In comparison loith (in preference to) : ^ X^pCXev^ tov kivSvvov 
Karecppovrjae irapd to alaxpov tl virop^elvat {PL Apol. 28). AiaorjXo<i 
rjv irapd tou? dXXovi evTUKTOiV {Xen. Mem. 4, 4, 2) . d) beside, except : 
,'i\\o n TTaph ravra {PL Aj>oL6, 4^6). e) against (not in accordance with : 
otherwise than) : irapd (pvatv, irapd So^av {yvcofXTjv) , irapd Tov<i vop.ov'i, 
irapd Td cn}fiaLv6p.eva {contrary to the orders), f) by, with the distinction^ 
of (of the thing which turns the scale, of the magnitude or amount of 
the difference, properly, p)ast so much) : irapd \iiKp6v, irap oXlyov 
diro(f)evyeLv {barely to escape, with but a little between that and de- 

CHAP. VI.] 



62 Prepositions. [§ 'jG. 

[§ 75-] struetion)^ nrapa irokv vikclv. Ovk wixrjv ovtco Trap* oXl^ov eaeaOai, aWa 
irapa ttoXv {PL Apol. 36). Hap' 6\lja<; '>/«"?^0ou9 ^/XtTTTrof rjTLjjLcoa-aTe 
[Bern. 2-t, 138; ii/ a small majority). Tiapa yuKpov r/XOov cnroOavelv 
llsocr. jEg. 2£; ^cas wiiJim a little of — ), g") through, hij means of (oi 
that which turns the scale^ and on which the result critically depends) : 
Oil Trap ev ovBe Svo eh tovto ra irpdy/JLara acf)lKTai, {Pern. 9, 2) . 'Ttto 
nravToav ofjioXo'^eiTaL, irapa tovtov fyeveadai ttjv acoTrjpiav tol<; TroXiopKov- 
fjievoi<i (Isocr. Archid. 52). "E/cacrro? ov irapa rrjv eaurov afjuekeiav 
oierai ^Xd-^eiv. fieXeiv Se tlvl koX aWai inrep eavrov tl irpolhelv {Thuc. 
\, 1-11 ; for him, instead of his taking care for himself), h) irap ovSeu 
TToietadai, irap ovhev elvac, to mahe of no account, to go for nothing. 

2. With the dative : toith (in answer to the question ivhere ? 
usually of persons) : ivapa ru> ^aaCkel TL/j-rji; 'TV'y')(aveLv, aireladai Trapa 
rfj /jLt]TpL. Tlapa deoh koX irap dv6pco7roL<; TOi? vovv e-^ovat ZiKaLoavvrj 
hia^epovTOi'i rerifirjTai [PI. Ale. ii. 150). 

3. With the genitive : from, of (a person, or a thing conceived of as 
a person) , from beside : "Ajyekoi rfkOov irapa rod /SacrtXeaj?. TLapa 
I\.vpov ouSet? XeyeTat avTOfio\r)aai 7rp6<; ^aatXea, irapa oe ySacrtXeo)? 
iroXKal fu.vpLd8e<; irpb^ }Lvpov {Xen. (Eeon. 4, 18). Ol irapa ^iklov. TJap' 
eavrov hihovat. Euf ota irapa 6e6)v. 0/jio\oyeiTai irapd irdvroiv. 'Ocpel- 
Xerac irapd rov eyfpov tm e-^^Opu) KaKov [PI. Pep. \, 332). M.av6dveLv 
Tl irapd Tivo<;. 

§ y6. YlepL 1. With the accusative : a) ro^ind, ahout (somewhere among, 
in) : Toz/ ifkiov evajju^ov levai irepl rrju 'yrjv. 01 irepl K^ijpov. (Cf. 
dfjb(f)L.) "D.LKOVV ^oivLKe^ irepl irdcrav rrjv 'Si'ceXiav [Thuc. 6, 2). Elfaf. 
irepi '^XXj]^irovTOv. Taura? ra? iroXireia<; evpot dv rt? ovk eXdrrov; 
irepl Toij'i ^ap^dpov^ i) irepl toj)? ''FjXXrjva^ {PI. Pep. S, 544). Hepl 
TovTovi rov<; 'y^povov^, irepl fieaa'i vvKTa<;. Tlepl Tpi9p^tXtoi;9 (some- 
where about, more or less), b) about, i. e. with regard to, toioards (of 
that which one is occupied about, or bearing towards) : eivai irepl rr]v 
6)]pap, SLarpi/SeLV irepl ttjv jeco/xerplav, crirovSd^eiv irepi tl, evcre^elv, aco- 
cjypovelv irepl 6eov<;, d8iKo<;, irovr]po<i, dvijp d'yaOb'^ irepi riva, irepl ttjv 
iroXtv. At vopodeaiai irepl to fxeXXov eicriv. To. irepl ttjv hiicriv {what 
belongs to the cause), rd irepl Tiva (but rd irepl Ti]<i SiK7j<; irvvddveadat, 
PL Phccd. 58, as in 3). 

2. With the dative : a) about, on (a part of the body) : Ot SpaKe<; 
'^Ircova^i (popovaiv ov fiovov irepl rot? aTepvoi<i, dXXd Kal irepl tol^ 
fiTjpoU {Xen. An. 7, 4^ 4). b) about, for (of a care) : <^o^elcr6ai irepi 
TLvi, Oappelv irepi rivi. (Poetically also oi fighting for, in defence of : ndxeadai 
Trepi Tols aKvuvots.) 

[part I. 



§ j"]^ Prepositions. 63 

3. With the genitive : a) about, of (something- as matter of dis- [§ 76J 
course, knowledge, treatment, endeavour) : 8ia\eyea6aL, /3ov\eveadat, 
TTvvOdvecrdai, TT/oecr/Sei? ireixireiv, /xd^^eadai irepi tlvo^, Kivhweveiv irepl 
TMV ia)(cn(jov. Yiepl toutcov ovTco<i eSo^ev. Uepl fiev S?) /3po)cr€co'i Kal 
TTocreco^ outco '%a3Kpdrri<i irape(TKevaaixevo<i rjv [Xen. Mem. 1, 3, 15 ; as 
regards, when one conies to speak of — ). Ti otei irotrjaeiv ainhv tt^o? 
Tov<; v6fMov<i TL/Jii]'i TE TvepL KoX 7reLdap^La<i ; {PL Rep. 1 , 538 ; in point 
of — .) (Sometimes instead of with the accusative in sense h : ra irepl 
rT]<i dpeTr}<i, especially with reference to the added verb, e. g. Ta 
irepl JLixppovo^ etprjrai, Xen. Hell. 1 , 4, 1 [which may be said to be 
compounded of tcl irepl JLixppova, and etprjrac irepl Eu^pot'o?] .) b) 
Tlepl iroWov, iravTO<i, oXlyov, ovSevo'i iroieLadai, to value much, &c. 
(literally, to make to oneself a question about something great), to ac- 
count of much importance. (Poetical : ahoui, (round, yrept aTreiovs yXac^vpoio, 
Od. 5, 68) ; before, of pre-eminence, irepl ttuvtcov e/x/xej^at aXKcop, II. 1, 287.) 

Tlpoq. 1. With the accusative: a) to, toioards (of persons and § 77, 
things) : direXdelv irp6<; riva. irpowyeiv irpo<; to rel')(o<i, diro/SXeireiv 
irpo<; rov Oeov, irapo^vveLV irpo^ rd Kokd, aKOirelv irp6<i -i l. IIjOo? eco, 
east-ioard, rd irpo'i (Sopeav. (IIpo? e&) also towards morning.) b) to, 
agaitist, with, of an action in relation to some person who, from the 
other side^ takes part in the action ; of a state of mind towards a 
person or thing : SnjyelcrOai ti Trp6<; Tiva<;, hiaywvt^eaOaL irp6<; TOV<i 
iroXefiiov^, p^d^^] YVepaoiv irpc<; ^ A.6rjvaiov^, aTaaui^etv frpb<i top dp')(0VTa, 
a7rov8d<; irotelcrdaL irpo^ tou? crTparrjyov^ tmv AOrjpaicov, ai irpo'? roi)? 
Tvpdvvov; opaXiai, [Derii. G, '2\) , dyvfivdaToo<i ey^eiv irpo^ ddXiri-j Kal '^VXV 
{Xen. J\[em. 2, 1, 6), d9u/j,elp Trpo? t)]v e^oSov {Xen. An. 7 , 1, 9), Xoyc^ 
irpo<i XeirTivrjv {against ; of an impeachment : Kara AeirTtvov) . {OvSeu 
irpo'i ifjue, it is nothing to me.) c) in relation to ; for : KaXo'i irpo<; 
hpofjLOV, ovhevo'i d^co<; irpo^ crocpLav. Xeyeiv irp6<; to ^eXTiarov. Bou- 
XeveaOai 7rpb<i to irapov. Tel'^r] kol rdcf^poc Tai<i iroXecn irpo<i ^vXaK7]v 
Kal (TCDTripLav evprjfxevaL elaiv {Bern. 6, 23). Upjon (of the occasion) : 
IIpo? Ti^v TMV ^ Xdrjvaiwv fxeydXrjp KaKoirpayiav evdu^ 01 'KXXr]ve<i irdv- 
re? eirrjpixevoi vjaav, Thuc. 8, 2. TIpo? tovto, irpd<i Tavra, cousequentlj/. 
d) in comparison loith : ^avXoi irpb'? 7)/xd<i. 'Acrruoi^o? irdvTa ixTTepa 
evofJLtcre irpo<i to vav<i ToaavTa^i ^vf^irapaKOfilcraL {Thuc. 8, 41) . Hapopdu 
Ti irp6<i rd hUaia. e) ITpo? (Slav, irpo^ ^iXlav, irp6<i opyrjv, irpo<; 'ydpiv, 
adverbially, violently, &c. 

2. With the dative: a) bi/,at: ITpo? V>a(3vXS)vi rjv b Kvpo^ {Xen. 
Cgr. 7, 5, 1). U/do? rot? KpiTal^ (more usually eirl tmv KptTMV, irapd 
Tol<; K.). Ylvat irpb<i tivi, to be at (occupied about) something, to have 
one^s mind directed to someUiing. b) besides, in addition to : IIpo? 

CHAP. VI.] 



64 Prepositions. [§ 7^- 

[§ 77-] Tol'^ aX\0L<; Traaiv Koi '7Tavovpy6<; eanv. IIpo? Toyrot?. (IIpo? 8e, and 
besides.) 

3. With the genitive : a) from, and fro7n the side of a person or 
thino- (of that which comes from it, is viewed in reference to it) : Ta 
7rpo<? voTov. Ta vTro^vyca ex^iv 7rpo9 rov nroraiiov [Xen. rbi. 2, 2, 4, 
on the side turned towards the river) . IIpo? 7TaTp6<i, 7rpo<i fX7]Tp6<;, on 
the father's, mother's side. IIpo? f^ev 6ewv dcre/3e<i, Trpo? Se avOpcoTrcov 
ala^Xpov {Xen. An. 2, b, 20). b) in favour of, on the side of a person, 
■in accordance with : rj iv arevat vavfia^la Trpo? AuKeSaifiovlcov iarlv 
{Thuc. 2, 86). 'O ^eo? 7rpo«? rj^iOiv ecrrac {Thuc. 4, 92). Ta oTrXa (rr/y 
■\jr7]<f)ov) TiOecrOai irpo^ tlvc^. Ovk r)v 7rpo9 Tov Kupou rpoirov^ e^^ovra 
fxr] aiTohuhovaL {Xen. An. \, 2, 11). "AroTra \6<yei<; Kol ov8afxa)<; Trpo? 
(TOV {Xen. Mem. 2, 3, 15). c) from (of that which proceeds from a person 
throu2;h an action ; poet, and in Herodot.) : Kokoi^ rt irphs Beav ?) di'dpanvai' Aa/3eii/ 
{Hdt.), y.av6aveiv ri Trpo? rtj/os {Soph., nsually Trapci). Ilpoy tov SiSa^^f i? ; {Soph. = 
iiTTO.) 'AStKcTo-^ai TTpoy rtvof {Eur. = vtto), Tifiaadai. Trpo? riwy {Hdt.). Cl) 6^, 

in prayer and adjuration by something" (on behalf of it) : Ilpo? iralhoiv 
KoX yvvaiKwv iKerevo) kol civti^oXo) {Lys. 4, 20) . M?;, Trpo? ^ewf, Trot- 
7;cr779. (With the accusative ak elliptically : Mr;, 7rpo9 ere 'yovdrwv t?}? 
re veoydpbov Kopr)^, Eur. Med. 324.) 
5, 78. 'Ttto. 1. With the accusative : a) under, in answer to the ques- 
tion whither ? Ikvai viro yrfv, vir avra rd recxv dyeiv to arpdrevfia, 
VTTO rei-^tov diroa-rrivai {PI. 6, 490), and figuratively, of a higher power: 
virdyeiv rivd inro roi)? vofxou^, vtto ryv \|r?}(j6oy ep-)(e(T6ai. Atyvirro'; 
iiTTo (BacrCkka iyevero {Thne. 1, 110) . TaSe irdina K.Qr]valoi Treipdaovrai 
VTTO cr^a? iTOLeladaL {Thuc. 4, 60). Also iroieladat v(f eavrco) . b) 
toicards, about, of time : vtto ttjv vvicra, vtto ri]v eco. 01 Klyivrjrai, 
AaKeSaL/xovtcov evepyeiai rjaav vtto tov (xeia/JLOv kol tmv ^alXmtcov t7]v 
eTravdaTacrtv {Thuc. 2, 27). c) sometimes under, in answer to the 
question where ? al vtto to opo^ KcJofiat {Xen. An. 7 , 4, 5), 01 vtto 
0aatXia /Sdp/dapoi {Xen. Cp\ 6, 2, 11). 

2. With the dative : under (of the place and situation) : vivo t^ 
Acrvrj oliceiv, vtto rfj aKpoTToXei, e-^^av rt vtto rw l/xarLcp, TroXXa? TroXei^; 
e^etv v(j> eavTU) {TTOieladat, vcf eavToy), rpecpeaOai vtto rco nrarpi. 
'Yiyovixai tovt elvaL rcov Kokcov vtto tolovtol<; I'jdeat rpacprjvai, koX 
TratBev67]vat {Isocr. de Big. 28; under a man of suck character). 

3. With the genitive: a) /rom ?«??f/er, sometimes simply «?^r/^r; 'H 
TTrjyr) ■^apieaTdTrj vtto tt}? TrXardvov pel {PI. Phced. 230). Ta vtto fy?}? 
hiKaiwrr]pia {PI. Phad, 249) . b) hi/, of the acting person or efficient 
cause with passives : TirpoocrKeadai, alpeladai vtto ri,vo<;, Tei-^rj dvdXcora 
VTTO TToXefxlcov. Also with neuters^ and with phrases in which the 

[part I. 



§ 79> So.] Prepositions. , 65 

subject is passive to the action, and which therefore have a signifiea- [§ 78.] 
tion similar to the passive : eivai ev fjie'yuXw a^Lco/jiaTi vtto rwv ucnoiv 
■{Tliuc. 1. loO), hiKiqv SiSopat, utto dewv, (7v/JL(f)opa. TreptTriTrrecv, TrXrjya^ 
Xafji^dveiv into rivo^, eKTriirreLV [to be driven into exile) viro tmv rvpdv- 
vcov. '0,Ti, Uyttet?, w dv8pe<; W67]i'aiot,7re7r6v6aT6 inro jwv ifjioyv KaTrj^o- 
p(t)v, ovK olSa' eyco 8' ovv /cal avroi; vit avrdv oXiyov e/xaurou eirekaOo- 
/jbTjv {PL Apol. 17). With verbal substantives: Ta rov Kpovov epya 
Koi 'TTaOijfMara viro rov vleof {PI. Rep. %, 378). a) from, in consequence 
of, of cause and occasion : Kafx^ucri]'; ixaivofxevoq viro fMeOrj'^ ri-jv cip)(7]v 
atroiXeaev viro 'Mr'jZwv {PL Legrj. 3, 695). b>.ripboaQhr\^ ■r](jvya'C,ev vir 
a7r\oLa<i {Thuc. 4, 4<). Ov')(^ oXov re rjv d'rTo-)(wpeiv vtto rMu Imrecov 
{Thuc. 7, 78). d) lender, to, of an accompaniment {to the sound of), 
cheering-, quickening-, or compulsion : utto aaXiviyyo':; rrlveiv, %ct)pety 
VTT avXi-jroiv, viro /xacrrlycov ro^evecv {under the lash, compelled by it). 
(In later writers with the dative.) 

Rem. The acting person with a passive verb is sometimes denoted by vrapa, when 
the action is to be conceived as coming//-ow, from the side of, the person : Oijaat /^e 
TTapa (Tov TToXXfjs kcu KaXiJs crocpias TrkTjpwdi'jaeadai {Pi. Conv. 175). in the poets and 




sionally used by some (Thucydid.) in the sense of proceeding from a person, with 
the passive of certain verbs, e.g. do, say : Ot rvpamoi 8l dacjinXelas ocrov ibvvavTo 
ficiKia-Ta ras TroXets cokow, enpdxdrj re air avTwv ovtev epyov a^ioKoyov {Thuc. 1, 17). 

a) Sometimes a verb, not in itself denoting any motion, is so conceived as to § jq^ 
include the notion of an antecedent or accompanying motion, on which accordingly ^ ' ■^' 
depends the preposition or a local adverb, especially Trapetjut : TvapfivM is cicttv. 
'EvTavdo7 Trdpeiaiv {Ft. Apol.3'^). {Kadf^fadai e? to 'Upaiov, eVt tijv ia-rlav. liXkocre 
TvoL, to seat, betake, oneself thither) Conversely, prepositions and adverbs denoting 
rest and continuance, stand with verbs which in themselves denote the antecedent 
motion, e. g. eK r^s- TroXecoj, civ KUTecjivyev, Xen. Cyr. 5, 4, 15. 'AvejBrjv ev6u8e, 2ien 
Hell. 1, 7, 16. 'EvTav6a ?]a, PI. Apol. 36. 

<5) The prepositions d-rro and t'^, together with irapd, are sometimes (as also 
occasionally in English) annexed adjectively with the article to a substantive, where 
one should rather expect eV or Trapd with the dative (denoting residence in or at a 
place, or witli some one), viz. when a motion of the person or thing to another 
place, or a residence at another place is denoted : KXeavSpos, 6 e*c BvCavTLov appio- 
<rri)s, peXXfi ij^eiv {Xen. An. 6, 4, 18; the cjovernor from Byzantium). Ot d-rro 
6aXd(rar]S 'AKapvdves dSwaroi rjcrau ^vplBorjOelv {Tltuc. 2, 80). "Ostls dcpLKvelro rav 
Trapd /Sao-tXew? Tvpos Kvpov, Trdvras ovtcos bieriOr] cosd" eavra p.dXXou (piXovs dvai rj 
^a<Ti\el {Xen. An. 1, 1, 15). {/^rjpoadivris (tl ervy^avev av pteTu rd s'k ttjs AlrccXias 
TTfpl "tiaviraKTov, Time. 3, 102, loas still, after the events in AEtolia, about N.) So 
likewise iv6evbe, ineWev. "AyyeXoi tuiv 'ivboOev {Thuc. 7, 73). 

a) Between a preposition and its case, besides the definitions belonging to this <;, Qq 
case (e. g. ck twv epycov rrjs frnpfXeias, Thuc. 3, 46, for sk tt^s en. r. fpyoov, eVi TroXXaj "^ 
pais KeKTTjpevovs, Xen. Hell. 5, 1, 12, against jpeo^le 2i0ssessed of^ man?/ ships), there 

CHAP. VI.] F 



66 Verb and its kinds. [§ 8i, Zi. 

[§ So.] may stand a particle of transition or connexion (as re, -ye, /ntV, fie, -yap, au, oi3i/, apa), 
sometimes several of these, and enclitic cases of the pronouns, e.g. eV av toIs Stjjuo- 
alois KivSvvois {PL Sep. 9, 577). Upbs fih (ipa aot tov irarepa {PL Crit. 50). ('E|, 
olp-ai, rrjs aKpoTaTTjs eXevdepias, PL Sep. 8, 564.) 

Rem. An adjective or participle, as apposition to the governed word, stands 
sometimes between this and the preposition : ev povjj tu>v Tvaacbv noXeaiv rrj 
iixerepa {Dem. 8, 64). Aia (pikias rfjs QpqKrjs iTopevop.ai. {S^en. PLelL 3, 2, 9). 

b) Prepositions are often put after their case by the poets {avaa-Tpo({)r]), but in 
prose only Trept is thus put (when the substantive has the emphasis, e. g. EujSoi'as pev 
irepL, sometimes after several words : oji/ eyui ov8ev ovre ptya ovre crpLKpov 7r«pi eVaio), 
PL ApoL 19), and most frequently eveKa. (^Q,v avev in Xeuophon.) 

c) The position between the adjective and its substantive is rare in prose (chiefly 
with pronouns : roiaSe ev rd^ei), in the poets frequent. 

d) The preposition may stand between an adjective and an adverb of degree 
belonging to the adjective : ttoKv ei> Seiporepois, a>s 8ta. jBpaxvTaTav. 

Rem. Whether the preposition with connected substantives shall be repeated 
with each, depends upon the consideration, whether the connected words coalesce 
into one notion, or whether thej'^ are separated (as with aXXu, ovre, rj) ; some- 
times, however, the preposition is omitted, where we should have expected it to 
be repeated, e.g. with rj^. If to the governed substantive there is annexed a 
comparison by w? (wyTrep), in Greek the comparison is often put first, and usually 
is immediately followed by the preposition without repeating this with the prin- 
cipal substantive : 'i2s- Trepl p-qrpos kol rpo^oi} ttjs ;^a)pas', eV fj rfOpappeda. (BovXev- 
fo-Bai 8fl{PL Sep. 3, 414 = Trepl rrjs ^. cos nepl pyjrpos). 'Qs npos ixi \iov\evopivovs 
Tovs ivavTLOvs TrapaaKfvci^eadai ^prj {Thuc. 1, 84). 
5 81. El?, until, for, is connected with adverbs of time: els dei, els av6is, is avpiov. es 

eTreira. es ottot earaL {^sch. 3, 99), ^e'xP' '"'ith adverbs of place: p^xP^ evraiBa, 
p^XP'- Sfi^^pO) jSovXeveadat, pexpi onoi Tijv aocblav daKrjTeov eariv {PL GrOt'ff. 487). 
(Also pexpi oy^re, Thuc.) 



CHAPTER VII. 

The Ve7-b and its kinds, and the Genindive ^ 

§ 82. In point of syntax, it is indifferent, whether the active (transitive or 
intransitive) sig-nification is attached to a verb of active form, or to 
the middle of an otherwise active verb, or to a deponent, whether it be 
only in the middle (form), or have the passive tenses in an active sig-ni- 
fication. Which form is the usual one, must be learnt from the Lexicon. 
If of an active verb the middle is also used (not only in the forms 
which coincide with the passive, but also in those in which middle 

' Poeticallj', Ae\(f)o)v kutto AavXias for dwo A. Koi dno A. 
• § 82 and 83, strictly speaking, do not belong to syntax. 

[part I. 



§ 82.] VltI> and its kinds. 6j 

and passive ai*e distinct^ and with difference of meaning), then eon- [§ 82.] 
eerning the signification we must remark : 

a) Most commonly, the middle voice denotes the same transitive 
action as the verb in the active does, but as undertaken in reference 
to the subject itself, and in its interest, or as performed upon some- 
thing belonging to or concerning the subject, e, g. alpovfiat, I take me, 
choose mijself a — (y^'^eyidva), irapacrKevaXpjJt'ai, procure mi/self {irapa- 
GK^va'Qui, prepare) , hovXovfiai rtva, make a person my slave [SovXco Tiva 
T(p ^acrikei), iropl^o/jLat, (jet me {Tropica}, bring about), alroufMat, ask for 
m.ijself, Tideixai vofxov, make a laio (at the same time also for myself), 
hLafxerpovfiai alrov, mete out grain to myself, have it meted to me (Sia- 
fxerpo), mete out), 7rpoj3dX\ofMai ra oirXa, hold out before me, couch, lay 
in rest, afi(f)i^dX\o/ji,aL ifiaTLa, dirncrelofiai to <yr)pa^, shake off old age 

d'rom me, Treptppijyvu/Jiai, rov y^iroiva, tear off my coat, e(T7raad/jii]v to 
^L(f)o<i, dretv my sword. YlXaTaiij'i TratSa? Kal jwalKWi eicKeKOfjbicruLevoL 
■^(Tavi<; 'A6>]va<; [Thuc. 2, 78, had conveyed away their wives and children). 
01 <TT paTLOiTat TjKovwvTO Koi Xoy^^o,^ KoX fia')(aLpa^ Kal iXafMirpvpovTo 
Ta9 daTTLBa<i [Xen. Hell. 7, 5, 20 ; their spears and sicords — ) . 

Rem. 1. Some verbs which, when they are simple, have active forms, by com- 
position take the form of a middle deponent, with such a signification, e. g. fxera- 
■jrenTvofxai, send after, for (Thucydides also /xeraTre/xTrw), e<pe\KOfiai, drag with me. 
Sometimes eaurw {e'fiavTM, cravrw) is added to the middle in this sense, to mark it 
more strongh', e. g. iavrw 8vvafii.v nepirrou'icrdai. Sometimes the active and the 
middle are^used with little diff'ereiice, because the reference to the subject itself 
is not necessary to be expressed, e. g. Trpdrrco, exact, call in, and npciTTonai {for 
myself), (peponat jii<t66v, but also simply ^e'pco, d7ro7re;ii7r6), send atvay,anoTvip.TTop.ai. 
send away from me. 

Rem. 2. Ilotov/nai oTrXa, mal'e myself arms, i.e. have iliem made for me, StS(i- 
(Txofxai, €8i8a^dfiT]v rov vl6v, I had my son instructed (but airoKTeivca, cause to he 
killed, without such a reference, &c.). 

b) Sometimes the middle denotes an action upon and in the sub- 
ject itself ; this however is not the case, when the subject is at the 
same time plainly conceived as special object of the action, and con- 
sequently an express reflexive relation takes place, but where the 
action is rather taken as a merely intransitive one, without a definite 
external ol)ject (in the accusative), e. g. Xouo/xat [iXovad/jirjv) , dXei- 
(j)o/ji,aL [rjXei-\\rdiJb7}v) , eTriSeiKvu/jbai [i7reBei^d/jLi]v) , show oneself (ray art 
and skill), TpeTro/xai, [eTpaTrofMTjv), turn oneself' to, attend to, a thing, 
eyp}xai {i(7')(()fi7}v), keep (myself) close {tcv6<;, to something), dire-^ojiai. 
abstain from, Xa\i^dvoiiai, lay hold itpon {Ttv6<;, something). With 
expressly reflexive signification, the active stands with eavrov, e. g. 
crdi^eiv, diroKTelveLV eavTov, dvaXafi/ddvetv eavTOV, irape-^oy efxavTOV 
T6/jbv€t.v {to cut), (rarely iTnacpdTTeadai kavTou rivt,) and where the 

CHAP. VII.] F 2 



CS Verb and its kinds. [§ 82, 

• ] notion of a condition in whicli the subject is, or into which it is 
brouo'ht, or of something- that goes on in it, is more strongly promi- 
nent, there the passive form (middle with passive aorist) is very fre- 
fiuent, where the English sometimes, and much oftener the German, 
has the reflexive form, e. g. cfiipofxai {ijve-)(6riv) , KLvovfxai {i/civrjd7]v,pui 
m.yself in motion, get in motion, am set 'm motion), d6poi^o/j,at (rjdpoi- 
adrju, but rjOpoio-djJiriv SuvafxLv, gathered me a force, as in a^, SieaTrdprjv, 
e7T€paL(o97]v, (jL)p/xrjdr]v. eTrXavr/drjv , dirrfXXdjrjv, avveOtaOrjv, ht7]ve-)(dr]v, 
eixaXdaKLaOrp, sometimes where the passive view does not seem very 
obvious, e. g". in (paivo/xac [if^dvriv). (Kiravadfirip, I ceased, eiravadiiv, 
was made to cease.) 

Eem. 1. A similar view lies at the foundation of the form of several verbs as 
deponent with middle or passive aorist, e. g. veavievo^m, behave myself lihe a 
yownq man, iv^avuvcra^r^v, but opyi^onai, become wroth (am wrotb), apyiadev 
(opyi'^tt), move to wratti, rare), ^aivoixu, become mad, ipavrjv. Where the view 
wavered between the two, the result was a deponent with alternating form of 
middle and passive ; cf. the Accidence. 

Rem. 2. Sometimes a verb lays aside the transitive signification, and jet keeps 
the active form. Originally, this is apt to take place in consequence of an ellipse, 
some object, more general or special, being i;nderstood, and the verb thereby 
acquiring a specific meaning, although in process of time the ellipse quite disap- 
peai's from the signification, e. g. «ya) (viz. to a'TpdTevp.a), lead on (in war), 
iXavvoi, ride (rbv Imrov), j3dWa> \iOois, jiclt ivith stones, €s(Bc'i\\o}, make an attack, 
cliarge, neTajSciXXw, change mi/self {undergo a cliange), e-^m els 2ki.covi]v, steer {rr^v 
vavv), iiTexii), liold up, stai/, pause, dvlr^ixi, leave off, cease, arpecpo), vTToa-Tp€(j)a), turn 
round, (pvXdacrci), keep guard. kSometimes both the activ^e and passive are used 
in the same signification, e. g. inro(fiaivfi 77 i]p.ipa and viTo(f)a[veTai. 

Rem. 3. In some particular transitive verbs, certain forms have intransitive 
signification, especially the perfect, plusquamperfect, and aor. 2, in 8vco, (pvco, and 
i(rTT]p.L, then the pert. 2, and its pluperf. in certain verbs, e. g. SXcoXa (cf. the Acci- 
dence). 

c) Sometimes the middle assumes a somewhat different and more 
special active signification, in which there lies concealed an original 
relation to the subject, e. g. (^uXdrrw, guard, (^vXarro/xai, am on my 
guard against [ri or two), diiohihwp.i, give ItacJc, paij, dirohihoixai, give 
tjack from me, i. e. sell, 'ypd(f)cii, write, 'ypd^pofxat, indite, la// a charge 
against^ iirayjeWoy, announce , 2^ass the order for something, iTrajjeWo- 
liai [announce myself), promise^ make profession of, djjbvvoj, ward off, 
dpLvvoiiai, ward off from myself, defend myself against. {TLfKopo) rivt, 
kelp, intransitively, Tifioopovf^ai Tiva, avenge myself upon some o?ie.) 

Rem. 1. Sometimes the middle is used, without any strongly marked diff^erence, 
but still in certain particular constructions of the verb, e.g. ttoico, make, bring 
forth, but 7Toiovp.ai \6yov, 6i]pav, hold (in periphrases) ; TroLovfXM nepl ttoWov, iv 
opyjj Tioiov/xat tlvo, vrotoi/xat tov norafioy onicrdfu, get the river in my rear. 

[part I. 



§ S3, 84.] VctI? and its kinds. 69 

Rem. 2. Sometimes out of the purely passive conception (with the _ passive [§ S2.] 
forms) there developes itself a new active signitication, as a deponent passive, e. g. 
0o/3(u, I malce afraid, (pojiovfiai, e(poj3ijdriv tovs noXefxlovs, I fear, KaTairXrjTTQ}, beat 
doion, disiiKt//, KUTfTrXayrjv Trjv Sura/itc avToav, was dismayed at, alcrxvvtsy, put to 
shame, alcrx^vo^iai, T]cr)(yvdriv {riva or ri), to be ashamed of; to feel shame at. (Ilei- 
6a>, persuade, neldofiai, obey, lnci(T6r]v, but with the dative.) 

d) In some instances the distinction almost entirely disappears, so 
that active and middle of the same verb are used in the same signi- 
fication ; e. g-. this is often the case with irapkyoi and Tvapey^oixai, 
afford, supply, exhihit, irpoTpe-nw and irpajpeiroixaL, put forward, in- 
stigate, arroKpVTTTOi and aTroKpinTTOfiat, conceal {aTToKpinrTOfMat ijxavTOV, 
PI. Hep. "6, 893, but usually diroKpiiTrTO/j^ai rivd n, hide a thing from). 
(Compare the use of the tut. middle with the other tenses active,, on 
which see Accidence.) 

Eem. 1. AotSopw Tiva, XoiSopoG/xai rivi, with change of construction. 

Rem. 2. There are also intransitive verbs which have both an active and a 
middle with different signification, the middle denoting the action more as referred 
to the subject alone, the active in relation to others; e.g. apx'"' begin, i.e. am the 
first among several {take the lead), apxoiJ-ai, begin, i.e. take the first step (of my o\yn 
actions), jSoi/Xei'co, am counsellor, ^ovXevofiai, deliberate, take counsel, avu^ovXevo) 
rivi, give counsel, a-vfi^ovXevofiai rivi, take counsel withsom,e one (on my own con- 
cerns). Some other intransitive verbs have active and middle used with no per- 
ceptible difference of meaning ; but usually the one form is more frequent than 
the other, e. g. Tretpcojuat more frequent than 7reip<i. (Erpj-^dixr^v, 2}i<'t to flight, 
iTpaiTOfi riv ^ turm djnjiself.) 

Of the use of the several forms in middle and passive it is to be remarked : § S3. 

a) The future middle, like the tenses which coincide for act. and pass., is often 
used in a purely passive sense, e.g. dpe-^ofiai =r Tpa(p7](T0fj.ai, /3Xn\//'o/xai, co(/)eA?ja-opoi == 
/3Xo/3r;cropat, o)(l)ikr]dr]croji,aL (rarely the future of the verba liquida, (pavovp-aL = c^ai/?)- 
(Topai), but not of those verbs winch to the present active take the future iii the 
middle (cf. the Accidence), e. g. Xi'i-^l^opai, yj/coo-opai, yeXao-o/xai. (But aor. 2 middle, 
in a passive sense, is very rare and limited to a few verbs ; thus Karaa-xopevos.) 

b) Of transitive deponents the perfect middle is used in the passive beside the 
active sense, e. g. e'lpyacrpai, KficTT]p.€vos {KaraKexprjTai, is used up, Isocr. Paneg. /4, 
although the verb governs the dative) ; so from transitive medial deponents some- 
times the passive aor. and fut. are formed and used as such, e. g. elpydcrdrjv (middle 
flpyacrdpijv), fKTi]dr]v {eKTr](Tupr]v), ahiadeis {^TLacrdpriv), fpyaa-di^cropai. The other 
tenses of a transitive deponent in the middle are rarely used passively, e. g. uvovpeva 
Ka\ TTnTpaa-Kop-eva [PI. Phcsd. 69). 

c) That in Greek there are passives of sundry verbs which are not transitive, or 
do not take a proper object-accusative, was noted in § 26, § 27, § 35 b. R. 3, 
§ 36 a. R. 4, and § 56, R. 2. 

a) The gerundive of transitive verbs (active or middle) is an adjec- ^ s^^ 
tive with the signification Jit or necessary, and is predicated of the (420) 

CHAP. VII.] 



yo Adjectives. [§ S5, 86. 

[§ S4.] subject with eljjii (The elju is often omitted in the inclicativej_sonie- 
times also in the infinitive.) 'O^eXT^rea (tol rj ttoAi? iarLV {Xen. Mem. 
o, 6, 3). Ni/ct'a? eXeyev, oTrXtTaycoyov^ (vav^) 6K tcov ^vixjJid-)(wv fiera- 
7re/x7rTea9 elvat [Thuc. 6, 25). HoiT/Tea a Xeyea. 

(421 a) I?) Of intransitive verbs the q-erundiye is formed onl}- in th e neuter, 
and is usecTwith iartv as an impersonal predicate^ which is co nstru ed 
Avith the dative or g-enitive when the verb governs these cases. 'Ireov 
earlv {Irrjrea iariv, § 1 b, Pt. i). 'Eirixetpv'^ov tS epyo). 'AirreovTov 
irokeiMOV (from airro^ai in middle) . ^KTrifieXTjriov tcov ^oa-Kij/jLarcov. 

(421b) c) As from intransitivejSOj by^analogj, from transitiv.e.-ver ks . als o, 
the gerundive is used impersonally with ia-riv, and governs, t he a,acjisa- 
tiye : Sepairevreov tov<; 6tov<; {Xeu. Mem. 2, 1^ 28). 'AaKririov rrjv 
cro(j)iav. Toi)? 7raiBa<; et? top TroXe/jiov a/creov Kol yeuareov ai/j.aTO<; 
{PL Rep. 1, 537, from yeveiv nva a'L/jiaTO<i,to give one a taste of blood). 

Eeu. From verbs whicli are used both in active and middle in different senses, 
the gerundive may be used impersonally in both significations, e. g. yvixvaa-Tiov to 
(Toifxa (■yvfivd^a) and yvfivaaTeof iaTLV,oiie must exercise {yvfivu^onai), neLareov, one 
must obey {iTeiOo^ai}. 

§ 85. The name of the person who has to perform the action, is taken 
bv the gerundive in the dative (of relation, by § 34) : 'O^eXT^rea rjfitv 
li rroK.L'i. 'IrTjTeov (jot. But with the impersonally used gerundive 
the name of the acting person also stands in the accusative : Ov 
hovXevreov tov<; vovv €')(ovra<i rot? ovtod KaK6i<? (^povovcnv [Isocr. Euag. 
7). Toy l3ovX6fM€vov evoaL/xova ehai crux^poavvr^v hiWKreov Koi acTKrj- 
reov [PL Gorg. 5U7). Ov hUais Kal \6yoL^ hiaicpLrea eaTiv, /xt) Xoyw 
KoX amov^ ^XaTTTO/j-ivou^ [Thuc. 1, 86 ; vie must not seek to deckle bi/ 
laio and words, not being ourselves injured in tvords only). 

EEii. The acting person was conceived in general, without the special relation 
denoted by the dative, and yet not as actual grammatical subject (nominative). 



CHAPTER VIII. 

The 7'dations of Adjectives [and Adverbs), especially the degrees of 

Comparison. 

a) TnE adjectives wdiich express order and sequence, as also those 
which denote inclination, contentment with an action, or a midtitude 
and vehemence, together with some others (e.g. /xow?), stand in 
Greek as apposition to the subject, sometimes also to the object, 
where we use an adverb to denote the situation and relation of the 

[part I. 



§ 8/.] Adjectives. yi 

subject (or object) during- the action : Ol 'XQ-qvaioi nrporepoc eirrjecrav. [§ 86.] 
' H/3o8oToi? 7rp( i)T0<; r a Ylepac/ca crvve' ypa'^ev (but irpwrov to. UspaiKci, 
frst the Persian war, then somethino- els e) . "To-raro? 77 /c(u. 'Ohr]iio<i 
'SiikTidhrj a-vve^oiprjae TrpcoTw ypacjyijvai irapaKaXovvn tou? arpaTCoora^ 
{jEsch. 6, ISG). 'O €'7ri/3a<; irpwro'^ rov relxovi. T pe-^afxevwv rwv 
^AOrjvaicov tov<; Xtou9 irpcorovi, viKarai icai to aX\o arpuTevfjia [Thuc, 
8, 55. Here more usually irpwTov rovs X.). — 'E/co^^re? afxapTciveTe. 
{01 aKovTe<i dfxapT6vTe<i, Dem. 24, 49.) Kvcravhpo^ Ta? 7r6\ei<i e/covcra^ 
TrapeXdfj./Savei'. "Aa/xevo<i (and da/j,evco<;) vfid<; eiSov. — 'O dve/jio^; e/cirvel 
fj.eya<i {Thuc. 6, 104). Kpijvr] dcpOovo'^ peovaa {Xen. An. Q, 2, 4). — 
Ot W6r]valot vTroaTTOvSovi tou? veKpov<; dTreSoaav rot? '^vpaKova-ioi'^. 
]Moyoi9 rol<i Ka\d)=i Te6pa/jLfj.ivoL<; aaxppoavvi] eyyiyverai, [Isocr. Fauath. 
19S). ('A~paKTos dnoxoypo), &c. [= re itifecta.^) 

Eem. In particular, note the use of the adjectives in alos formed from the 
numerals, in apposition to the subject, to denote the day on which the thing took 
place: AiecpBeipovro ol TrXela-Toi ivaraioi kcli iiihop.niot {T/iuc. 2, ii)). TeTapTciioi 
eVt Tois opiois iyevovTo {Xen. Cyr. 0, 3, 8). {^kotoIo^, X.en., opdpLos. PI.) In the 
poets some other adjectives of place and time are also used instead of adverbs : 
Xpovios €(pdvr]v {Soph.). Qvpalos olxvo) {Sojph.). la-^ys 6pp.5ip.ai. {Soph.). 

b) Often vrhere we should put the adjective as attributive to an 
indefinite substantive (subject, object, or preposition with its case), 
the adjective stands as apposition to the substantive with the definite 
article prefixed, the substantive notion being- put as something- g-iven, 
and previously known or presupposed, and the adjective being- put 
as its predicate ; the principal point being to describe the nature, 
condition, or circumstances of that thing- (see § 12, with the exam- 
ples) : Toy? aTparrjyov^ oXlyov; XPV eXiaOai {Thuc. 6, 72, it behoves 
to choose feio (jenerals : the generals to he chosen should he feio). Tov? 
aKovcTOfjukvovi 6Tepov<i TOiovTOVi e^ovacv {PL Phced. 58 ; the)/ have other 
suck hearers). ^Layeifxdll,eiv ev d(p66poi<; rol^ eTrtr/^Seiot? {Xen. An. 
7, 6, 31). (Cf. § lUU a). 

a) Adjectiyes_5yith the^rticle in the masculine, whether singular § Sy. 
or pl ural, are used as substanti_ves., to. denQte__a certain class of (301) 
persons : Su/u-^epei roc^ 7ro\LTai<;, rov dcrOevrj irapd rov ifKovaiov oiKrjV, 
fjv ahLKi-jTai, hviaaOai Xa^elv {Pern. 45, 07). lu the neuter, the singular 
deno tes a certain notion in general, something as a wholes the 
plural, onJ Lhe other hand, denot^is the several individuals uf a certain 
kind : To dyadov, ro ZUatov, to fieaov {the mean), to viri^Koov twv 
\uiJiiid-)(a)v {the obedient portion of the allies), — Ta dyaOd, to, KoXd, to. 
TToXLTLKd {affairs of the state). The neuter of adjec tives in iko^j 
denotes„the collective body of persons of a certain kind : to 'EXX??- 

CHAP. VIII.] 



'J2 Adjectives. [§ ^^. 

[§ 87.] viKov {fJie Grecian race, the Grecian portion of a certain popiilaty,on) , ro 
fSap/SapLKov, TO ^vixixay^iKov, to ireXracrTiKov. (To vavriKov, the naval 
force.) It is more rare, especially in prose, for a masculine adjective 
witliout the article to be used of indefinite persons of a certain kind : 
'AyaBcp ovSeU ovSeTrore iyylyverai ^d6vo<i {PL Tim. 29). (Usually 
avrjp dyado^. On the other hand, in the neuter : Aecva Xeyec;. 'Ez/ 
SecvoT6poL<i vvv €(TfM€v 7] t6t€. Evcn in the sing-ular : "Atottov \ey€i<i, 
Tl. Conv. 175, = aroirov re. Ovk e')(ovai tovtov ^iXriov Xeyetv, PI. 
Soph. 247, any thing better.) 

Eem. 1. The poets and some prose -ni-iters (Thucydides) use a neuter adjective 
"vvith the article instead of the corresponding abstract substantive : eK tov nepixa- 
povs rrjs VLKT]s {Time. 7, Ti,from the exceeding joy of victory), hia to avdpunreiov 
Ko/xTTcoSes [Thuc. 5, QS,from the natural boastfulness of man). 

Eem. 2. From prepositions and adjectives are formed adverbial expressions, e. g. 
hia ^pa^eav, brief y, eK rov cfiavepov, openly. 

b) Certain adjectives are used quite as substantives (with or with- 
out the article, with a genitive or possessive pronoun) to denote 
persons or things ; thus, e'xOpo^, (piXo'i {oi i/xol Sva-fxevel<;, evvoi, PL), 
dyadov, kukov, a good, an ev/L AVith some, especially in the feminine, 
a particular substantive was originally understood, e. g. 77 irarpi^;, the 
father-land, country (776X49, 7?]), he^id, dpiarepd [x^ip), V fiovaiKr'], rj 
ypaixjiaTLKr) [re-xyr)). 

TJem. 1. Especiall3% there is in some expressions an omission of the following 
substantives : yi] (17 vperepa, r) oiKovpevr], tj (Baaikeaii), 68us {ttjv eVt Buliv'Kcovos 
livai, see § 17, and in adverbial expressions, § 31 d. Kem., paKpav dnflvai), 
7]pepa (17 e-n-iovcra, rj vaTepala, i) avpiov, 'E\a(j)rjj3o\Lcovos eKTjj laTafievov), polpa [t] 
elpappivrj, eV 'icnj kol opoia), and others in particular constructions and phrases, e. g. 
17 ipr] viKO. (yvw/jLT]), rrjv evavriav rideadai {^rjCpov), x'^'o? Xa/x^ai'eii' (bpaxpds), 
oFm techuTcarterms, e. g. 17 0/3^17, r] yevLKrj (Trroxris), 6 peXkav {^povos) in Grammar. 

Eem. 2. Names of nations are used adjectively of persons: ol Ma/ceScW? iTTTrds. 
The words av-qp and av6pwiT0i have another substantive joined to them as if this 
were an adjective to them : avi]p pdvris, avdpunos 8ov\t], avOpa-aoL iroKiTai, 
especially avdpa in addresses : w uvdpes dtnaa-Tai (Poetically, tvx>] tis aaT-i^p, for 
awTi^pia, Svph. OEd. H. 80.) 

^ 88. '^) Adjectives in the neuter plural, are sometimes used in the 
("302) manner indicated under Accusative, § 27, a, to characterize the sub- 
stantive notion implied in the verb (where the action admits of a 
plural conception, i. e. a number of individual acts of the kind), so 
that the adjective is almost used as an adverb : "HXkovro vylnr/Xd [Xen. 
An. 4, 9, 5, made high leaps). Sav/xaa-Ta eKrrXrjrTOVTai (juXia re Koi 
OLKeiorrjTC Kol epcori {PL Conv. 192, are put in wondrous (sorts of) 
motion). To frakaLov 'EWtjvikov {the ancient Greeks) ofiOLorporra rS 

[part I. 



§ §9, 90-] Adjectives. 73 

vvv ^ap(3apiKw ehianaro [Thuc. \, 6). UoXkd {-rroWa xpW^ai rivi) [§ 88-] 
and irvKvd, frequently, are used quite as adverbs. 

Eem. The poets also use other adjectives in the neuter plural quite as adverhs, 

e. g.aXeKTpa yr]p6(TKeLV awjjitvaid re [Soj)h. El. 9C2). {^oviKos o/xoia rols fxuXtcrTa 

Tov ^apjSapiKov, Thuc. 7, 29.) 

b) Some adjectives are used adverbiall)^ in the neuter sing-ular with 
certain intransitive verbs, to denote the sensible quality of the action : 
ixe^a (f)6e-p/ea6at, ^oav, \eyeLV, rj8v {KaKov) o^eiv, o^v opav. (Also 
fjik'^/a (^povelv.) 

Rem. Of certain adjectives with the article used as adverbs, see § 14, a. Rem. 3. 

To the comparative of an adjective or adverb, the second member ^ gg^ 
of the comparison is joined by r}, Hum, in the same case as the first, (303) 
when the same verb or the same governing term also belongs to the 
second member, and might be repeated with it : Met'^wy ei koX ifXeico 
ex^i'i T) ijoo. Tlvi av fxaWov incyrevaatfxi i) aol ; If this is not the 
case, then, properly speaking, a new sentence should be formed with 
elixi, or some other verb, to be taken from the first member ; usually, 
however, the verb is dropt, so that the nominative stands alone 



aXXcov oUeTCJv ovk rjOekev "A(f)o^o<; irapaXafi^dveiv ovheva tmv ravr 
elSoTcov /xdXkov rj MtXua? [Bern. 29, 56, viz. olhev). But when it 
would be necessary to understand elfxl, the Greeks not unfrequcntly 
retain, by an attraction, the preceding case : UXovcnuneptp dv, el eaco- 
(f)p6veL^, rj €/j,0L, TOV 'lttttov iSlSovi {Xen. Cz/r. 8, 3, 3ii, = /) iyd) elfMi). 
"H67; Tti/e? Kal eK Setvorepcop ^ TOLWvSe iawdi^crav {Time. 7, 77). 

Rem. 1. Occasionally a comparative is followed by the preposition Trpd, hefore, 
or Tvapa {avrl). 

Rem. 2. For \iahXov yj {rather than), the Greeks are fond of saying, pa\\ov *] ov, 
when the principal proposition is negative, or interrogative in the_ negative sense, 
or expressive of censure (so that what is said in the last member, is considered as 
the thing which holds, or must be done, &c., to the exclusion of the other) : Ov 
TTep\ TU)V €fj.u>i' tSioji/ puWop TLjxu)pr](Te(76e Ilo\vK\ia rj ovx vnep vpwv avruiv [Dem. 
50, 66). Tt ovv Set fKelvov tov ■^(^povov dvapeveLV, eais dv Wo 7r\i]6ovs kukcov airei- 
irmpev, fxaXKov r) ovx ^^ rdxtCTTa rrjv elpi'^vriv TTOUjaaa-dM ; {JCen. Uett. 6, 3, 15.) 
'Qjxov TO jSowAeu/xa ttoXij' dXrjv dia(j)6e1pai pdXXov i] ov Toiis aiTiovs {Thuc. 3, 36). 

When the first member of the comparison is a nominative or an § qq. 
accusative, ij may be omitted, and the second member put in the (304) 
genitive (see § 64). This is also done, not unfrequcntly, where the 
first member is a dative : Mel^cov efxov el. OUiav TJ7? rj/xerepaii iroXv 
fiei^w KeKTTjaaL. Avcrne'Xelv olerai it as dfijp ttoXv (xciXXov IBia tjjv 

CHAP, VIII.] 



74 Adjectives. [§ 91- 

i§ so.] ahiKiav T7]^ ZtKa ioavvrj<i {PI. Hep. 2, 360). "Tfilp alaytov tcov dWwv 
earl to hoKelv e^ijiran^/cevat tov<; ajadov ti Tfon'jaavra'i {Bern. 20, ISo, 
=: i) rot? aA.Xo(?). Tovro koI 'i^fuv, roi<; i^rrocTLV eKelvov, ^u/LKpepov {PI. 
Pep. 1, 338, =:= i) iicelvo^ iariv). "Efecrrit' tjinbu /JiaXkov erepcov KaO^ 
t'jcrvx^Lav ^ovXevetv {Thiic. \, 85, := r) 6T6pot<i) '. 

Eem. 1. Stri ctly c onsidered, th9_comparative should take after it tbe g en itive. 
only where a suhstantive (or suhstantively conceived word) is dire ctly compare d 
with the hrst nicniln'v as tlie sulijcct of the comparative, or of an a(ljective_or_yerb 
to which an adverb In the comparative is attached : thus, oIklo fiei^cov ttjs i/xerepa? 
=z Tj rj VjxeTipa, olkiup fJ-ei^co rj rrjv vfjierepav or ?; i) vfierepa icrTiv, crv p.aWov e/xou = r; 
e'-yco : but by a less exact wa}' of putting the comparison, and from a desm? of 
brevitjr, the Greeks also put with the comparative the genitive of a substantive 
which is compared with another in reference to the degree of a third object \_com- 
2^aratw comj)('>i<^i((>'i<^^ ■ (fy*^ M^'T'" olKiav ex.'^ aov = fj (Tv):"E8n^e rw dv8pl ciXXos 
fxel^ov eavTOv Xa,'3eti', ^en. Cyr. 2, 2, 4, ::= i^ avTus Xa/3ot. Xcopac e;(eTe ovbev tjttov 
Tjjjiuiv evTLfjLOV (JiTew. Ci/r. 3, 3,41, =: rj i^pety). Oi UeXonovvrjcnoi TrXet'otrt vaval Ta>v 
AdrjvaiMv Traprjcrau {Thiic. 8, 52, =z i) ol \\6.). (With even less exactness the geni- 
tive in some other places is put with tlie comparative, e.g. 'A^Xtwrepo!/ eVri /xiy vyiovs 
ddop-aros p-rj iiyul '^v^fj avvotKelv, PL G-orcj. 479, ^ rj prj vyiel crco/xaTt avvocKe1.v.) • 

304, Rem. 2. Pleonastically, the comparative takes first the genitive of a pronoun, 

''^- I ) and then, with rj, a more particular statement : noij/o-ere tovs ttoXXous eV cm-daais 
Tan TToXem tovto TTOulaOai (rvp-fSoKov rrjs avT<ov craiTrjpias, ectv vfiiv uxri <f)iXoi, ov 
jie'i^ov ovdev av vpiv yivono ciyaQov fj ivapa Tvavrav tKuvrav dvv'!T<o'jrTov Tv^elu 
evvoias {Dem. 15, 4). Ti'y av alcrx't^f^v fi^? ravTrjs SC^a fj doKelv ;^;pi';jaaTa Trepl 
TrXeiovos nouladai fj (piXovs ; {PL Crit. 44.) 

Rem. 3. By attaching to a comparative with avror the genitive of a reflexive 
pronoun, or personal pronoun used reflexively, it is expressed, that the subject has 
for a certain time or for a certain case a higher degree than usual of the quality 
denoted by the adjective: liavra livhpa ku\ dappaXeoirepov kol dv8pet6repov av 
TToirjcretev avrov avriw ovk oXiyo) rj Trjs OTrXo/xa^^ta? fTViCTTrjprj {PL Lack. 182). 0ap- 
paXearepoL elcTLv aiiToi favroiv, eneiSdv jxdOacnv, fj nplv iiadelv {PL Pi'ot. 350, where 
rj annexes a more particular statement). 

Rem. 4. {a) To express that something surpasses hope, description, &c., the com- 
parative is used with one of the genitives eXniSos (pfl^^v eXnidos), Xoyou {Kpeirrav 
Xoyov, better than can he tohl), Kxtipov {7r(>ppu>Tepu> tov Kaipov),yva)prjs, rou deovTos, 
and tbe like. (EpvOpoTepos rod wros, than in reality.) (h) Too great for (in 
proportion to) is expressed by the comparative with fj Kara. : Mei^ovs eTn6vp,iai fj 
Kara ttjv VTrdpxovcrav ovaiav {Thitc. 6, 15). (Also pei^ov napd — , pal^ov fj 
TTpos — .) {c) Too great to — , jifi^o^v fj (wyre) with the infinitive, see § 150, c 
{p,eyas asTe, ibid. b). 

QI, Like comparatives are constructed aXXos {aXXa fj to yiyvopeva, and with the 
genitive, iiXXa rmv diKaimv, different from — ), the adjectives in nXdaios denoting 
{ma.u jlfbld greater, &c. than, together with Trporepalos, vcrrepalos. noXXanXdaia 

* Even [leTo. TOiv Trpea-^vrepav fjpav {PL Prof. 314), instead of fj fjpS)v, by § 89. 

[part I. 



§ 92, 93-] Adjectives. 75 

drredaKa r&ji/ \rj^6iVTa>v (;) oaa e'lXrjCpa). At7rXno-ta 'AXkiISuiStj tj^Iovv al TruXets SiSoVat [§ 9I-] 
^ aXkcp Tivi TWJ/ (TTpaT-qyUjv {Lj/S. 19, 52). T?/ npoTepcua Trjs fJ-iix^s ^ 

Rem. 1. H is also used after words denoting an opposition, and after Sta(/)€pw : 
TovvavTinv i) to irpoiboKapievov (PI. Lege). 12. 966). To rmv dudpav yevos 8ia(f)f- 
p^vTcos e'xei j] to tu>v yvvaiKuiv {PL Sep. 5, 455). (AtVaioi/ eVri ttolsIv Tovvavjiov r) 
6 crii XtyeLS, PI. Rep. 1, 339, and amb Tovvavriov ipovp.ev i) tou '2nx<x)vihr)v ecpapev 
XeyeLv, PL Rep. 1, 334, without pronoun. Ot IlXaTat^j Tvpo^iiiaWov to) Teix^ijutv 
U(koTrovvr](Ti(cv e(c TovaTTaXw fi oi civSpes avTcbv vTTepe(:iaivov, Thuc. 322, or J; j]. 
Also Tj] vaTepaiq j], ti] vuTepaia OTe lor f] fj, or i] ot(.) 

Eem. 2. With ciWns note the expression ot-Sek ciWos -rrXi^v (avTos, none other 

hut only Mmself), and the adverbial expression aXV ij {further than, nave only), 

after a negation or in a question equivalent to a negation : 'Y.uv aaxfypovriTf, toIs 

" ^ N ' ^' \.\ i.a^j s>.„\'.-„^„. .'.'^■\' t; :...■:„ ^^ ,,r.\ 




rt dTrol3\e\j/as f] Seckijv fj dvhpnav tvoKiv eiTrot uW fj els tovto to pepos, 6 irpoTTo'Kfpet 
re Kai cTTpaTeieTai inrep avT?^s ; {PL Rep). 4, 429.) Often incorrectly written a\V 
7], as if from dXAd.) 

When a mag-nitucle expressed in numbers is increased by TrXiov § 92, 
{irXelov, nrXelv), or diminished by eXarrov {iielov), these words, with (305) 
or without r/, are attached to the denomination of the magnitude, 
without influencing its case. liXeov rj rpiaKovra -rrXeOpa ryrj^; KTijaaadat 
{Li/s. 19, 29). Ovaia irXeov rj irevre raXdvTcov {Li/s. 19, 42).^^ 'Ev 
irXeov rj hiaKOcrloL'^ ereaiv {Thuc). — 'H Xeia errpdOr] raXavroiV ovk eXar- 
Tov irevre Kal eUoaiv {Thuc, 6, 95). Ot hrireh d-rroKTdvovaLTWv dvlpo)v 
ov /aeiov '7T€VTaKoaiou<; {Xen. An. 6, 2, 24). Hepb-^^ra) 6pvL<; eir avrov 
irXelv e^aKoa-iou^ rov dptOfMov {Arisf. Aves, 1251). When the case is 
nominative or accusative, TrXeov and eXarrov themselves may stand in 
the nominative or accusative, and govern the name of the magnitude 
in the genitive : EkevTjveKTac virep 'ApLaTO(f)dvov<; koI tov irarpo'i ovk 
eXarrov jxvoiv reTrapdjcovTa {Li/s. 19, 43). YloXvarpaTO<i ov -rrXeov 
OKTOD r}/j,epo)V rjXdev e/? to /BovXevrypLov [Li/s. 20, 14). 

Eem. Also frequently Trkelovs {p.e[ovs, eXda-aovs) r) x'Xtot and TrXetour xiXi'mi', e. g. 
Ov peOeKTeov rav Trpaypdrav TrKeioaLv fj TrevTaKisxiXiois {Thuc. 8, 65). HXevaTea 
TpLi]pea-i peu ovk 'iXaaaov rj eKaTov, oTrXiTCUs 8i toIs ^VfMTraa-i nevTaKLSxtXioiV ovk eXda- 
(Toaiv {Thuc. 6, 25). SevoKXrjs avvoiKfl T>j yvvaiKi TrXeio) t) oktw €Trj 7j8r] {Isce. 
3, 31). ('OXt'yft) eXdo-o-ovs- irevri^KovTa, Thuc. 4, 44; TvevTr]KovTa as genitive-.) 

a) A comparison of two properties of the same subject is expressed § 93. 
by two comparatives : ^cXofJLrjXov ol ttoXXoI /BeXrlova rjyovvraL elvai rj (307) 



^ liepiTTa Teov dpKovvTcov, JK^en. Cyr. 8, 2, 22. ^ » « /*\ 

2 NewT-epos Tpidicovra ircop [Xen. Mem. I, 2, 35), = yeyoi/ws err] ZXaTTOV (/?) 
TpiaKovTa. 

CHAP. VIII.j 



76 Adjectives. [§ 94 — 96. 

L§ 93] 7r\ovato)T€pov {Jjys. 19^ 15). ('A7a^o? /u,aWov ?) irXovaLO'^, rather 
■good—) 

(338) (5) The comparative sometimes denotes, without any definite com- 
parison, a someivhat (tolerably) hig-li degree, e. g". avOaBecrrepov rt 
aTTOKpLvefrOai {Time. 8, 84). ^^vdvjJLOVjjbaL, /jU7] dypoL/corepov rj Xeyeiv 
[PI. Gorg. 4G2). Of some particular adjectives {good, bad, heautiful) the com- 
parative is sometimes applied in the neuter to an action or procedure merely to 
denote a reference to the opposite procedure : ''E6v6)j.r]v {sacrificed in order to consult 
the god), ei peXriov e'lrj vplv re efiol iTVLTpl^^rm ravTrjv rrjv a.p\r]v Kcil ffj-oi vTvocTTr^vai 
{Ken. An. 5, 9, 31). MaXaKcortpot r) w? kciXXiov avrols {PL Eep. 3, 410) ; especially 
in negation (ou Kpflrrov, [ieXrioi', koXXioi', ^eipov, Kc'iKioi') : IldXt.u dvapLifivijcrKov' oii 
yap x^i-pov TToXXuKLS ciKoveiv {PL P/iced. 105, it dues no harm, one is none the worse 
for — ). Ilpor TO (pvXuTTeiv ov kcikiov icm (f)oj3epai' eivai ttjv yj/'v^rju {Ken. CEcon. 7, 25). 
{Nemrepos and Kuivorepos with the accessory meaning of an alteration of what pre- 
viously existed.) 

(308, c) By an irregularity, the comparative takes after it a superfluous p.uXXov, e.g. 

R. 2) aLa^vvTrjpoTepos p.dXXov tov Seopros {PL Gorg. 487). AlpeTarepop icrri jxa-^op.ivovs 
aTTodavelv ^dXXov rj (pevyopras (rw^eo-^at {Ken. Cijr. 3, 3, 51). Conversely, in verbs 
denoting a wish or choice, fxdXXop is now and then omitted before rj {'Ayr^alXaos 
TjpeiTo (Tvv T(S yeppaico pfiopeKreip rj avp 7W ddUco irXeov f'x^tv, Ken. Ag. 4, 5). {Ovbev 
TJ instead of ovbh aXXo >'/.) 

§ 94. The comparative is used to denote the highest degree, in speaking 
(309) of two persons (also of two sets of persons) : 'O irpea^vrepo^ tmv 
TraiScov Trapcov hvyxo-^^v [Xen. An. 1, 1, 1). Ylorepot, /xaXXov xaipovcn 
Kal \vTTovvTaL, ol ^povijjioi i) ol acppove^ ; [PL Gorg. 4138.) 

§ 95. The superlative often denotes merely a very high degree [super- 
(3 JO) lative of eminence] : KaWtaTa Xeyei^;. Kupo-i (^uXofiadeaTaro^ rjp. 

(Without the article, § 8, Eem. 3.) The exclusive sense is gathered from 

the context, or from a partitive genitive annexed. 

Rem. 1. A superlative belonging to the predicate, sometimes governs a partitive 
genitive, which refers to the subject of the proposition, or to some other word of 
which the predicate holds in the highest degree : Ol 'Adrjpaloi TvdpTcop dvdpaTvav 
TrXeiara (tlto) xp^vrai erreLsuKTW {Dein. IS, 87). ^1X00-0(^10 eari TraXaiordTr) re /cat 
TrXeLarr) rap 'EXXi'jpoyp ep Kpi]Tr] /cat eV AaKeSatpopi {PL Prot. 342). ^Adr/pa^e 
ac^n^ai, ov r7]S 'EXXddos TrXelarr] earip i^ova-ia tov XeyeLp {PI. Gorg. 461). A 
genitive with the superlative of an adverb in the predicate, may refer, not only to 
the subject, but also to the object or another case: laxpaTrjs TrpoerpeweTo Trdprav 
jidXiarTa Tovs avpopTas Trpos eyKpareiap {Ken. Mem. 4, 5, 1, ahove all else to self- 
command). 

Rem. 2. The superlative with the genitive of a reflexive pronoun, or personal 
pronoun used reflexively, denotes the highest degree to which the property attains 
in one and the same subject at a certain time : Et^e aoi, a YlepiKXeis, Tore avpfye- 
v6p.r]v, ore SeivvTaTos cravTov rjada {Ken. Mem. 1, 2, 40). 

§ 96. For additional force, the superlative takes before it the words 

[part I. 



§ 97-] Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns. 77 

(denoting- the excess or distance fi'om others) ttoXKm, fiaKpu) [nrapa [§ 96-] 
TToXu, poet. TToXv), e. g". fiaKpM evvovarcno<i {Arist. Puc. G73). ("Oo-w 
fiijKTTOv TO TMv (f)v\aK(ov kpjov, ToaovTcp uv e'iT) TeT^j'779 re Kal eTrio-T'ijfjirj'i 
f^eylcrTrjf; Seofievov, VI. Hep. ^1, 374 ; in the same degree, as — .) Tiie high- 
est possible degree is denoted by additions such as w? [ottcos) Swutov, 
to?, OTTft)? (??) hvvapiai,, as — as possible (e. g-. vav^ w? Svvavrai, TrXetcTTa? 
irXripovcTLV, Thuc. 1 , 31, o)? hyvajxac fidXiara and w? fidXiara 8uva/j,ai), 
6ao<i, 67r6ao<i with hwapuai or oio? t et'/xt (e. g. biroaov hvvavTai irXeia-Tov 
acTOV XaiifBdiJovcnv, Xeii. (Econ. 30, 28, hmapnv oa-rjv ol6<; re rjv TrXetarrju 
aviJ,7rapa(7Kevaad/bievo<;, Isocr. Pkil. 101), — or also by simply putting" 
before the superlative co? or on {6,tl), with adverbs also ottw? {ij), e. g-. 
0)9 ^e\rLcrTo<;, w? dptcrra, ore /jiaXtcrTa, on irXetarov y^povov, ottco^ dpicna 
{§ pacrra). [Cf. Lat. quani [qiia^itiwi, at) maxime ; alone, or combined 

\V\i\\ jdOSSKM, &c.] 

Rem. 1. Expressions such as ol [ioXiara dvorjTOTaToi {PI. Tim. 92) {irKfla-rou 
exdccTTos, Svph. Phil. 631), are rare. Especiallj^ we may note tlie superlative with 
olos: x^Ri-o^ oiov ^^aAeTrwraroi' {^en. An. 4, 8, 2), literall}', a place such as the 
most diJficuU is (with icrriv omitted) ; but by attraction olos and the superlative 
are treated as one word : ovtos ivayov o'iov deivoTaTov [PI. Conv. 220). 

Rem. 2. A special Avay of adding force to the superlative, in some writers, is the 
pi'efixing of ev roh (without regard to the gender of the superlative), e. g. eV toTs 
TrpuTot [Thuc. 1, Q, first of all), iv rols TrXeicrrat vries (Thuc. 3, 17), iv rols iiciKicrTa 
{PI. Crit. 52, most of all), which perhaps originated in an ellipsis, the original 
expression being iv rols /xaXio-ra, with the participle of the verb understood {ev 
TOLS fiaXLo-ra o/xoXoyw, = ev to'ls /^aXtcrra SfioXoyovcriv ofjLoXoyS)), whence iv tois 
came to be used as an adverb. 

Rem. 3. Sometimes the superlative may be said to take the place of the com- 
parative, by taking (as also does fiovos) to the partitive genitive the word ciXXov 
(or (iKXcov by itself, as the partitive genitive), which, in strictness, is suitable only 
to the comparative, e. g. MciKiaTa tcov ciXkcov dvBpanav. *H fiovoi rj KokXtcTTa rav 
aXXcov {Pi. Pep, 1, 353). Mowt toov aXXcov ''EXXrjvcov {^sch. 2, 37, alone amovg, 
or of all, the Greeks) ^ 



CHAPTER IX. 

Peculiarities in the Adjective construction of the Demonstrative and 
Relative Pronouns, and in their relations in the sentence. 

a) The demonstrative and relative pronouns take their gender and t^ gy, 
number in accordance with the substantive words to wdiich they (312) 
refer, or which the speaker has in his thoughts (e. g. •^Se, lliis 'woman). 

^ MeyiaTq (TTpaTfia Tav npo avTTJs {Thuc. 1, 10), = fieylarq Tracrwj/ /i«XP' «K€iVou 
rod xP'^fov Koi ixei^cov ruv irpo avrrjs. 
CHAP. IX.] 



78 Demonstrative and Relative Prononns. [§ 98. 

[§ 97-] When the pronoun refers to several connected substantives of differ- 
ent g-enders, the rule § 3, (5^ and d, is followed : ahe\(^o\ kol dSeXtpai, 
ov<i el^ov. ^^KK\7](7t,d^ofji,ev irepl TroXe/xov kul elpyjvr]';, a /xeyiarrjv eyet 
Bvva/iiiv ev Toy /S/co t&5 roiv dvOpoiTvuiv {Isocr. Pac. 2). Likewise a 
relative in the neuter may refer to a number of inanimate antecedents, 
even when they are all masculine or feminine : TaOra elTrov ov 7rp6? 
Tr]V evaelSecav ouSe 7rpb<i ri]v SiKaioavvrju ovSe 7rpo9 rijv cfypovrjcriv uiro- 
^ke-^a^;, a cri) 8a]\de<i {Isocr. Panath. 217). 

EEii. The relative to an antecedent in the dual, may stand in the plnral : ra> 
;(6tpf, as 6 deos eVi to avWafij3av€Lv dXXr/Xati/ €Trotr](Tev (^e«. 3fem. 2, 3, 18). 

d) When a demonstrative or relative pronoun, not referrincf to a 
particular substantive, denotes something' comprising" a number of 
units or individuals, it stands in the neuter plural : Tavra ovttco ijki]- 
Koetv. 'Epw (xoi, a ol8a. {Tavra 'yap Kol KaXd koI hUaia, fxr] Trepiopdv 
iroXei'i dp'x^ala'i e^avearcoaa'i, Peiii. 16, 25, where the pronoun is con- 
ceived in a general way : this procedure \) 

^ q8, «) A demonstrative pronoun to which a substantive is attached as 
(313) predicate-noun by etVi, or by a verb denoting to call, consider as, &c., 
is apt to assume the gender and number of the substantive (attrac- 
tion) : OJto? opo^ ea-Ti hiKaioavvrj'^ akrjOrj re \€j€iv Kol a av Xd^rj Ti?, 
dirohihovai [PI. Pep. \, 331). Ki'w;crf<? avrrj ixe'yLarrj Tol<i "KWrjaiv 
iyivero {T/iuc. 1, 1 ; different from avrri rj KLvrjai';, § 11,11. 1). Auttj 
irevla earl aacf)r]<i, ro Zeop-evov rivo^ p.i] ^X^''^ ^PV^^'^'' (-^^'^' (Econ. 8, 2). 
Kal '^v')(rj<i dpa KaO^ oaov dv eupiaKcop-ev KciKia^ d^aipeaivriva, Kadap- 
fjLOV avTov \eyovTe<; ev fieXei (fydey^ofjceOa [PL Soph. 227). 

Rem. The pronoun however stands in the neuter, when the general reference 
of the demonstrative is purposely retained, and with a stress upon it: 'Evha^i.oviav 
Tovro vopt-i^O), TO TToXXa iy^ovra ttoWo. kol darravai' (JTew.). Tovto nu>9 oiiK ufxadui 
ecTTiv ; (PL AjJol. 29)'. Ov Xu-ycoi' Kofinos Tube fxoKkov rj epycov iariv dXrjdeui 
(Thuc). "Eywye ^tj/lii Tavra (j)Xvapias elvai [Jtlen. An. 1, 3, 18). (Tourw t/)o<^/7 
Xfioivrai, Xen. Mem. 3, 11, 6.) 

(315) b) A relative pronoun, having an antecedent and also followed by 
another substantive as predicate-noun, ma}^ conform itself to either : 
the latter, when the relative clause merely adds a remark as apposi- 

1 In questions the singular tI is applied to such a suhject of the neuter plural : Ti 
ravTO. eariv ; (Xen. An. 2, 1, 22.) 2Ke\//-co/x€^a, ri ttot ea-rh a av e'fiol oveiSiCeis {Pi. 
G-org. 508). ^KcrrTeov, tI to. crv^ifiaivovra {PI. ibid.). 

- 'AttoXXwi; rciS' r)v {Soph. CEd. R. 1329, it icas A.). Ovk "icoues rat^e fiVti/ ovbe 
'EWrisTTovTioi {Thuc. 6, 77, these are not lonians, here are no lonians). Tovto avayKrj 
{PI. Gorg. -175) = avayKalov. 

[part I. 



§ 99-] Demonstrative and Relative Pronotins. 79 

tion to a notion in itself known or defined, so that even without the [§ 9S.] 
rehitive clause the sense would be complete : 'H TroXt? tov [xe-yiarov 
vooi-jiJiaTO'^ ov fjueOe^et, o <naaL<i KoXeZrat [PL Legg. 5, 744^ where the 
relative clause is essential to the completeness of the notion^ "the 
disease called faction ^''). — ^'Ckov, o fxe'^tarov u'yadov elvai (^aaiv, ol 
TToXXol oTTft)? KTT^aovTat, ov (fypovTi^ova-Lv [Xen. Mem. %, 4^ 3, where the 
relative clause mig-ht be omitted, without making- the notion incom- 
plete). 'H rov pev/naro'i eKeivov 'mq^i], ov Xjxepov Zev<i oovofiaaev {PI. 
Phmlr. 255). When the antecedent is the predicate of the principal 
proposition, or the purport of the entire proposition, the relative may 
also, if a predicate-noun be attached, either be put in the neuter, or, 
which is more frequent, conform itself to the predicate-noun : 01 
avTol iToXe^LOt rj/xlv rjaav, oirep aacpeardrri vriCTTi? [Thiic. 1, ^5). Ov6lv 
aliKov hia^e^eviiiiai iroLwv, i^virep vo/xt^o) ixeKerrjv dvat KoXkiaT-qv airo- 
\oyia<; [Xen. Ajiol. 3). 

Sometimes the reference of a pronoun to its antecedent is less exact, the sense of § 99- 
tlie antecedent being considered rather than its grammatical form. (316) 

a) A masc. or fem. antecedent may he followed by a pronoun in tbe neuter, 
which puts the notion as a thing in a general way: 'ETTftbrj Toivwi-j ami] dperrj ttuv- 
ruiv idTL, Treipw eiTreLV kcli avafi,vr](j6?]vai, rt avT<j (prjai Topyiai eivai {PL Aleno, 73, 
ihrtt it, the thing in question, is). 'QjjioXoyovfiev iTnarrjjxrjS p-qhev dvat Kpfirrov, aWa 
TovTO del Kparelv, ottov av ivfj. Km r]8ovr]S /cat t<ov aXKcov cnrapTcov {PL Prut. 357). 

b) A pronoun refers to an antecedent contained in, and to be extracted from, a 
previous word, e. g. a relative to the personal pronoun involved in a possessive pro- 
noun : Kal oiKia ye irokv pe'i^wv t] iiperepa rrjs epr]s, ol ye oIklo. xPW^^ 711 ^^ '^"■'- ovpava 
{Xen. Cyr. 5, 2, 15) ^ Especially after a collective term, or the name of a city or 
country, the jn'onoun refers to the individuals composing the class, or inhabiting the 
],)hice : 2vve(pei7reTo 8e toIs TreXraaTois kol to 'ApKabtKuv OTrXiTiKuv, cuv fjp-^e KXecii/wp 
(jLen. An. 4, 8, 18). MfXeVco crot rov nXrjdovs kuI irepl Travros notov Ke)(apLarpeva>s 
avTols tip-xeiv {Ixocr. ad Nic. 15). Qepi(TToK\i]s (^evyei eK UeXoTTovviicrov es KepKvpav, wv 
alrmv evepyerrjs {Thuc. 1, 136). Kai otto Ile\oTTOvvi]a-ov TrapeaTat, ox^eXfta ( =: /3orj- 
6eui), olrcovde Kpelacrovs elal to iraph jrai' ra noXepia {Thuc. 6, 80). 

c) A substantive in the singular is followed by a relative pronoun in the plural, 
the thought passing on to more of the same kind, and to the whole genus : Avxprjpos 
TLs KOI drro Travros TvepiovcTLav noiovpevos, dijaavpOTrows dvi]p, ovi 8rj km eTvaLvel to 
7rX^(9oy {PL Rep. 8, 554). 

d) A preceding e'i ns {rjv tis) has sometimes a demonstrative referred to it in the 
plural, and in like manner a plural term may be the antecedent of the indefinite rela- 
tive ojT-ts-, OS liv : Et? ye pr)v diKmoavvrjv e'i ris Kvpa> (pavepos yevoiro embeiKWcrBaL 
jiovXopevos, TTfpl' Travros eTroielro rovrovs TrXovcncorepnvs TTOielv ruv eK rov u8lkov (piXn- 
Kep8ovvru>v {Jlcu. An. 1, i), 16). *iiv Trapa ravra dbiKelv ris iTVix^i-pJl, rovrois Kvpvs 

^ "Epx^Tcu TTc'iXiv rrjv Evpvreiav' roi/Se yap (viz. Evpvrov) jueramoi' fiovov jSporiov 
t(pa<TKe rovS elvai Trddovs {Soj)/i. Track. 26U). 
CHAP. IX,] 



8o Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns. [§ ^oo 

[§ 99'] Tf <««' "^M^'^ TToXe^ioi iaofieda {Xen. Cyr. 7, 4, 5). At yvvaxKes iKeTevoviravTas, ora 
ivTvyxavoiev, jxr] (pfvyeiv KaToKinovras avras {JCen. Cyr. 3, 3, 67). At TroXft? Trpoayo- 
pevnvcn Tols TroKirais ti)v KaTc'icTTacnv rt'js nokems fxf) KLveli', cos dirodavovnevovs, os av 
ToiTo 8pa {PL Rep. 42(j). 

e) Where the antecedent is a neuter term denoting persons, the relative pronoun 
sometimes (especially in figurative expressions) resumes the natural gender: to. 
TOiavra KivaSr], ot TrenoiriKaa-LV ov8ev ovSe npa^ovaiv ayadov vnep r^y 7To\fcos {Dein. 
1, 40). {TtKvov TuSe, ov ovbev atrtoi/ peXkovaL avp e'/xot rfj TaXcUTrcbpw KTeuelv, Eur. 
Androm. 570.) 

^ 1 00. Oil the construction of the demonstrative pronoun it is to be further remarked : 

a) A demonstrative pronoun is put as object, so that it is characterized by an 
adjective, or by an indefinite substantive with an adjective, attached by way of apposi- 
tion, in which case the demonstrative, by an attraction (as § 98, a), conforms itself to 
the attached substantive. (In English we use either a demonstrative adverb, as 
herein ov the like, or a circumlocution with relative and verb substantive) : TaiJr' 
a\r]6ri Xe'yoj ( PI. Prot. 342, herein I speak truth, or, this that I say, is true). A/ye poi, 
e'l TL croi 8oKU> tovto ^(aXeTTOU ttoltjo-m, otl tjTrjaa ere hovva'i pot tov ^ovKipevov rSiv Mr;Sa)i' 
poi eTTea-dca (Xen. Cyr. 5, 5, 21). Tovrovs eXeyov ot arpaTLcoTai l^apjiapaiTaTovs 8tf\- 
6elu [Xen. An. 5, 4, 34, these, the soldier said, were the most hurl)arous that — ). 
KaKijv eKfivrjv 8a>peav avra Sebuxare (Lys.). OvKen rovTO (jiavXov ov8' cnrXovv epyov 
ipoiTas [Xe?/,. Cyr. 1, 6, 27, what thon here ashest, is — ). ("E^os ti tovto ^ccKpaTtji 
e'x^h PI- Conv. 175. Tlovv fir) tovto Xeyet?; PL Gorg. 4,o2,ivhat then meanest thou 
by this?) 

b) A demonstrative is attached, as apposition, to an interrogative pronoun [t'ls ovtos, 
tls oSe), to mark that the thing asked about is something that has been already inti- 
mated, or that is at the same time referred to : 'AyyeXiav cf)epa> ^^^aXeTrijv koi fiapelav. 
Tiva Tavrr]v ; (PL Crit. 4S, tchat, jjray ?) (Tivas e8pas rnjSe 6o;\^fTe ; Soph. (Ed. 
P. 2.) ^Ev8ovvTaL al ylz-v^^ai fls TOiavTa rjOrj ottoV utt av Ka\ pepfXerriKvlai Tv^aatv iv 
T& ^1(0. To. TTola 8r) TavTa Xeyeiy, w ^ojKpuTfs ; (PL Phad. 81, 'what meanest thou, by 
these ? what are these, that you speah of?) 

c) Ovtos and oSe are added by way of apposition, in the sense of the adverb here: 
Kal eya 7]p6pr]i', ottov ILoXepapxos e'ir}. Ovtos, i'<pr], oTVLcrOev Ttposipx.'^Tai (PL Pep. 
1, 327). 

d) A demonstrative pronoun, when not particularly emphatic, is regularly 
omitted in the accusative, and often even in the dative : Elsijeaav jrapa Kvpov Ta>v 
(jTpaTiu>Tmv Tives, a^iovvTes fl8evai, t'i acpio'iv ecTTai, eav KpaTi](Tu)cnv' 6 he epirmXas 
cnravTOiv ttjv yva>pr]i' aTreVe/^Trfj/ (Xen. An. 1, 7, 8). ri»Xi777ros pepos rt irep'^as TTpos 
TO cjypovpiov alpel (Tliuc. 7, 3). 'ETrayyetXa/xei'ov tov 'Ayr^crtXdoi; Tip (TTpaTeiav, 8i86a- 
(TLV ol AaKe8aip6vioi oaaTvep fjTrjcrev (Xen. PLelL 3, 4, 3). {U.pe<j{ivTepa vecoTepcavnnv- 
Tcov ap)(eiv Te kul KoXd^ew TTposTeTaKTU, PL Rep). 5, 465, without a pronoun to (coXd- 
^etj/, although it governs a different case from apxeiv.) 

e) Sometimes a demonstrative pronoun is put superfluously to enforce some jx^- 
stantive notion preceding in the same sentence ; especially ovtos after substantives 
which are separated by a parenthetic clause from the rest of the sentence : ¥Aeapxos 
To\p'i8rjv 'HXetoi/, ov eTvyxaveu excov nap" eavTM, Kt]pvKa apiarov tu>v Tore, tovtov 
dvenrelv eKeXevae, ktX. (Xen. An. 2, 2,20). Tot? dyadols KaKws xp^^f'^'^i- k^cu toIs ox^e- 
Xeii/ 8vpapevoi.s tovtols jdXdnTeiv tovs avpnoXiTevopevovs inix^ipovatv (Isocr. Nic. 4). 

[part I, 



J 



§ 10 1, 102.] Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns. 8i 

More rarely and without emphasis avrv'i : 'H /cat, asTvep rwv aWav t€xvu>v fxoifiev [§ 
av eiTTeiv o,Ti epyov eKcKTr-q^, ourco Kai rrjS olKOVOjxlas hvvaijXfff tiv elmlv o,ti epyov lOO-J 
avTrjs ea-TLV ; (Xen. (Ec. 1, 2.) In comparisons eKehos : 'O 6eos 8e8a>Kev avTols (toIs 
AaKeSaijLioy/oif), cosTrep vp-lv KaTO. QaXaTTav evTVXflv, ovVcbs eKeivoLS Kara yrjv {Xen. 
Hell. 7, 1, 9). 

Eem. Adverbially raSra, tlienfore (§ 27, a. R. 2), km ravra, and that, and tJiat 
too {Mivava ovk e'^iyTet 6 avdpanos, kui ravra nap" \\piaiov wv rov Mevcovos ^evov, 
Xen. An. 2, 4, 15), rdde in the expression ra vvv rdde (§ 14, b. R. 2). 

In the structure of the relative proposition there are various pecu- § 
liarities, of which we must note the following. lOi. 

(322) 

a) The substantive defined by the relative clause, is often drawn 
[attracted] into it, in prose most commonly so that the relative clause 
precedes the demonstrative : IIoWol ra ')(^p7]/j.aTa KaravaXcoaavTe'?, mv 
irpoaOev a'jr€l')(ovTO KepBcov, ala'^pa vofil^ovre^, tovtcov ovk aire-^ovTat 
{Xen. Mem. \, 2, 22). Kvpo?, el nva opcorj KaraaKevd^ovTa, rj^ ap'x^oc 
ycopa'i, Kal Trpo'ioSov'i Troiovvra, ovSeva av TrcoTrore tK^eCkero, dXk del 
irXeico irpo<;eBiSov {Xen. An. 1, 9, 19). (With 09Tt? : Udv, o^mrdayoiv 
TL<i irdOo'i avoiav to"%ffj vocrov 7rpo<;pr]Teov. PL Tim. 86.) 

Rem. Sometimes the substantive, when separated by the relative clause from 
the remainder of the sentence, takes its case from the relative, but without being- 
drawn into the relative clause : NiKj/paros dpyvpiov pev fj xp^o'^ov ovb' airos i'cjiri 
KaraXiTTelv ouSeV, aX\a Tr)v aXki]V ovcriav, ^v KareXme ra vlei, ov TrXeiovos d^la iariv 
r) rerrdpcou Ka\ Se/ca raXdvrcov {Lt/S. 19, 47). 'Ei/ itokei f] ^Kiarn vrpodvpoi apxeiv 
01 aeXkovTfS (ip^eiv, ravrrjv upLcrra Ka\ daraenaa-rorara avdyKrj olKelcrdai {PI. Sep. 
7, 520). This however is an irregularity {anacoluthon) and occurs most fre- 
quently in poets. (Toi' avhpa rovrov, ov TtdXai Cl'''^'^^' ovros eariv ivBdbe, SopJi. 
(Ed. C. 449.) 

b) Especially the substantive is drawn into the relative clause, when 
it is a new tenn annexed to the preceding- : 6 •nart^p, ov fiovov e'i')(o^ev 
^orjOov, aTTrjv, n: 6 fiovo^ ^or]6o<; ov el'^ofJ.ev. An adjective or genitive belong- 
ing to the antecedent is also often drawn into the relative clause : Anynvs ukovo-ov, 
ovs (rot Bvarvxe^s rJKa (j^epcov {Eur. Or. 854). Ilept hv peyia-rav Ka\ KaWiarav im- 
vetpet Xeyeiv "Oprjpos, TTokipav re Kol a-rparriyiaiv Kal bioiKrjcreow TroXeo)!', hiKaiov nov 
ipardv avrov (PI. Pep. 10, 599). Ot \aKebaip6viot rovs eprropovs, ovs eXa^ov ^Adrj- 
va'imv Kai rcbv ^vppdxcuv, iv okKacn likiovras, dneKreivav {Thuc. 2, 67). Ot A6r]valoi, 
rovs ox^Tovs row 'EvpaKovcriav, ot es ti)v ttoKiv inrovopTjSbv ttotov v8aros rjyfiivoi fjcrap, 
8u(})deipav {Thuc. 6, 100). 

a) A demonstrative pronoun standing" alone as antecedent to a rela- § 
five, is often omitted, especially in the nominative or accusative : 102. 
Ot? fidXiara rd irapovra dpicel, ijKtcrra rcov aXkorplcov opeyovrai {Xen. iSH) 
Conv. 4>, 42). Ti? ixiaelv hvvairo dv, v(f ov elBeLT] Ka\6<; re Kal dyaOoi; 
vofii^6fMevo<; ; {Xen.) Sometimes even in other cases : OvSe/juia irdp- 
earLv, a? rfKeiv ixp^^ [Arist, Eccl. 19). W^vajKaiov avToh eari Biahs- 

CHAP, IX.] G 



82 Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns. [§ I03- 

[§ <yea6aL irap mv av \dj3uxn rov ixcaOov [Xen. Mem. \, 2, 6). Ou Trepi 
"'■' opofiarot; rj a/ji(f)L<;^}')T7]aL^, oh Toaovrwv irepi aKe'^i<i TrpoKetrai (PI. Hep. 

1 , 5 •33). "Oaa TTcoTToO^ airavrei; v/xel'i '))^ov\i']6iiTe, ovSev ttcotto^' v/ia? 

e^ecpvyev [Deiii. 14, 15). ^ KvaXiaicovcnv ovk eh a Sel {Xen. (Ec. ?>, 5 ; 

= eiy Tavra, eh a, omission of the demonstrative and of the preposition which should 

be repeated before the relative). 

Eem. The demonstrative in all cases is frequently omitted, when its place is 
supplied by the attraction ; see § 103. Before relative adverbs of place demon- 
strative adverbs are omitted: KaTaTidrjfxL ttciXiv 66ev av eKaara Xafi^dvco {JS^en.). 

(324, (5') The indefinite pronoun which is the subject to the verb and the 
^- 3) antecedent to the rehitive in eariv 6'?, elalp oi, &c., is usually omitted : 

Oi pu^v TToWol Karepuevov, rjaav he, o'l virey^oopovv avv too /3aai\el {Xen. 

C//r. 3, 1, 3). Twf avpipbd'^wv vpuv elaiv., o'l SiaXejovrat irepl <f)tXia<i 

Tot9 TToXe/itot? (Xen. Hell. 6, 4<, 24). 

Rem. 1. As i'cmv 6s, ea-rip a, so, without change of the verb, i'a-TLv ot (ovs, S)v, 
ois, sometimes even o'lrives), and this (o-tiv oi, thus declined through all the cases, 
is sometimes treated as a single word, in the sense oi some, certain, like the word 
evioi thence formed : ''EvravOa e^aXXov rais fdoAoLs Koi eanv 01 irvyxavov Koi 
dapciKav Ka\ yepputv (JTew. Cyr. 2, 3, 18). EiVe jjlol- "Ecttiv ovsrivas dvdpooncov 
TidavpaKas eVi (TocfiLa ; (Xen. Mem. 1, 4, 2.) (With the negation : Upoyuvmv KoXa 
e'pya ovk 'iarLv ois /xe/^co koi TrXeico vTrap^fi r) 'Adrjuaiois, Xen. 3Iem. 3, 5, 3.) 'HX^e 
TvXimios (TTparidv e^^cov sk HeXoTTOvvijaov Km citto ru>v iv 'SiLKeXia TToXecov eariv hv 
(Ihuc. 7, 11). Ot AciKebaipovwi rmv ciXXav 'EXXi^vcov rov l3ovX6p,evov (KeXfvov 
eirecrdai ttXtju Icoi'coj' koI 'A^aiav Koi fcrriv cov aXXcov i6va>v {Tlinc. 3, 92; ecmv iv 
ois, Time. 5, 25, in some thing.s). (But also ela-lv 01, Thac. 6, 10.) But the im- 
perfect rjv o'l for fjcrav o'i is rare, e.g. 'Hv tovtcov twv aradpuv, ovs ttuvv fiaKpovs 
ijXavvev [Xen. An. 1, 5, 7). 

Rem. 2. In the same manner an indefinite pronoun, a pronominal adverb, and 
the substantive designation of a place, or of a hind and manner, is omitted before 
relative adverbs of place or manner, especially with 'ia-riv : Ot rjyepoves rovs 
EXX-qvas a^ovcriv, evBev e^ovai ra e7riTi]deia (Xen. An. 2, 3, 6). 'Ayopav ovdels 
Tjpiv TTCipe^ei ov8' cmodev eVtcrtrtou/xe^a (Xen. An. 2, 4, 5). "Eanv i'vda tcr;^vpcoff 
co06Xo{;o"i a(f)ev8ov7]Tai, 7rap6vTes (A^h. Cj/r. 7, 4, 15). 'O Koapios kol prj (f)iXoxpr]- 
p.nTos prjd dveXevOipos 'iaff onj] dv 8vs^vpl3oXos i) d8iKos yevoLTo ; (PL Hej). 6, 4S6.) 
Ovk eanv ottcos ovk eTndr'](TeTai rjplv |3ao"tXeiJff (Xen. An. 2, 4, 3, it is not to be 
iJioiir/ht that the hincj will not — , i. e. lie tmdonhtedly will — ). ('Eo-tiv otvov, 
j). OiiK i'ad' oTTov.) Also eaTiv ore, sometimes. 

§ When the relative in its own clause should be an accusative of the 

103. ohject, but the antecedent is a substantive or a demonstrative in the 
dative or genitive, the relative often assumes this case by attraction 
{twv Zoipuiv, &v — , TovTOi<;, oh, instead of a). This may even take 
place, when the demonstrative follows the relative clause (oh — , rov- 
roi<i, instead of a — , touto^?), or so, that the substantive to which the 
relative refers^ is put in the relative clause (§ 101, a : ah eXa^ov vavaLv, 

[part I. 



§103-] Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns. 83 

Trept 5)V e\a/3ov vedv, for Tat9 vavaiv, a? — , Trepl tmv veoiv, a9 — ). A [5 
demonstrative, not emphatic and merely introducing the relative clause ^°-5-J 
(§ 103), is usually omitted, and its place supplied by the relative's 
assuming" its case {irepl mv zz Trepl eKelvcov, 0O9, a? or a — , ol<i = 
eicelvoi<i, ou?, a? or a), ^ovtcov, o)v vvv vjjZv irapaKeXevoiJiai, ovSev toi'? 
SovXoi'i 7rpo<iTdrT(ji) {Xen. Cyr. 8, 6, 13). Et rti/o? oXkov Sec 'Trp6<i 
TOUTot?, oh elire 'Bevo(f)MV, koI ainiKa i^earat iroietv [Xen. An. 2>, 2, 33). 
Ti? i) o)(j)6Xeia Tot<i 6eoi<; ruY^ai^et ovcra airo roiv Scopcov, o)V Trap rj/xMV 
Xafjb^dvovatv ; {PI. Euilnjph. 14.) 'ATreo-TeXXeT aS^i? av to rpirov 




TToielv eTrf)(eipel, tovtcov avTM opyl^eaOai v/j.d<i Trpo^r}KeL [Bern. 23, 184). 
1.vpaK0vaL0i f^ev t?}? vavfxax^cL'; rpoTralov earrjaav, 'AOrjvaloi. Se, ■^9 ot 
Tvpaijvol rpoTTi)^ eTTOLi)(TavTo tmv Tre^oiv £9 T-t-jv \[fiV7]v {Thac. 7, 54). 
Toj)9 yuev diXovi v6/xov^ idcrco, Trepl 8' ov Trporepov ttot avTO<i Ti/j,OKpd~ 
TT}<i eOrjKe vofiov, Ste^etfJii {Bern. 24, 61). 'KaXkiKpariha^Trpo^ ah irapd 
A.vadvhpov eXa^e vavai, Trpc^eTrXtlpcocrev e/c 'Klov Kal 'PoSol' Trevri]K0VTa 
vav<i {Xen. Hell. 1, 6, 3). 'H ttoXl^; yfjicov, &v eXa/Se, Trdcnv fMere^coKev 
{Isocr. Paneg. 29). 'AfieXo) mv fxe Sel Trpdrreiv {Xen. Cp\ 5, 1, 8). 
'Navfiax^a, TraXatrdrr] &v Xafxev {Time. 1, 13). Tovtov tov olvov Kt'/309 
BetTal (Tov eKTnelv avv oh fjudXiara (piXeh {Xen. An. 1, 9, 25). Ot 
Srj/SaLOL oh evrvyn'jKecxav ev AevKrpoi<;, ov fMeTplo)<; eKexprjvro {Peni. IS, 
18. Because the phrase is, a evruxnua, ike (joodforinne I have had). 

Kem. 1. This attraction, however, can only take place when the relative clause 
really serves to assi^jn and define the matter in hand, i.e. is essential to complete 
the sense ; never, when it is only added in continuation or as a remark, e. g. nai^- 
Tdiv, S)v elxov, dyadcbv (tol fxeTiSaKa, a (not av) av tots jxev Aoyw eneyakvves, pvv Se 
(j)av\iCets. The attraction is also not unfrequently forborne where it might have 
place, both after substantives and after demonstratives standin.g alone: OlKopivdioi 
TO a-Kd(j)r] fiev ovx eT\Kov avabovfxevoi twv veav, as KarahvaeLav, npos Se tovs 
dvdpwiTovs irpdnovTo (Thuc. 1, 50). Mefjivijade tov vojxov koi tov opKov^^ ov ofio)- 
fioKUTe {Iscc. 2, 47 ; but Lys. 10, 32 : BoTjl^Z/o-are rot? vojiols km tois opKois ols 
ofioifioKaTe). "EvecTTiv rjpAV rvxet" Trapa Ta>v 'EXXtjvuv tJ)? TLp.i]S TavTrjs. rjuirep ot 
(P AaKeSaipovL fdao-iXeiy Trapa tcov iroXtTwv 'ixovatv {Isocr. de Pac. 144). Qv trw/x^e- 
povTa eKeivois, oiis iyKwpid(ova-i, iroiovtiiv {Dem. 14, 1). ToiavTr^s Tivos ijf^lv 
tni(TTr]p.r]s 8fi, fj (TTLaTaTM xpw^'^'- towtw, 6 av iroir] {PI. Eutliyd. 289). It is very 
unusual for the attraction to be omitted where the relative corresiionds with an 
omitted demonstrative ('Opwiii ep-jieveiv d a-ov kXvu), Pur. Med. 753). 

Eem. 2. It sometimes happens, that a neuter relative which ought to stand in 
the nominative (coincident in form with the accusative), passes by attraction into 
the dative or genitive : Et o-ot Soke t epp.eveiv ois (ipTi edo^ev fjfiiv, enov {PL Prot. 
353). BXa(3T;a-0!^rat a'l to)v noXepiiov vrjes dcf) av i]p.'iv napeaKevaa-Tai {Thuc. 7, 67). 
(AvaXicTKOvaiv ovk els d Set nwov, dXXd Kal els a /iiXa/^r/i' (pepei, X.en. (Ec. 3, 5, = 
els TavTa, a — .) Likewise the dative of a relative now and then passes by attrac- 

CHAP. IX.] G 2 



84 Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns. [§104. 

[§ tion into the genitive : YLap wv j3or]6f'is, ovk tnroki]^ri x^P^^ {^sch. 2, 117, = 

103.]' TTapa rovTmv, ois — ) ^. 

Eem. 3. Sometimes the accusative of tlie neuter relative which is changed by 
attraction, stands, not as object in the proper sense, but to denote the whole ex- 
tent of the predicate (by § 27), especially in the plural: 'E^ av rot cravTov enaivels, 
TLVi 8iKa[o) Aijyw Tov fxrjxavoTToiov Karacjipovfls ; {PL Grorff. 512, from what thou 
sayest in praise of thine oioi.) Al.Krjv ifioiiXovTo Xal^elv av cVt twv ciXKav iredeavTo 
Meidiav dpaavv ovra Ka\ j38e\vp6v [Dem. 21, 3). By this means, an attracted 
relative in the neuter plural sometimes approximates to the signification of a 
demonstrative with on. (KvB" hv, in requital for that — , i. e. hecause, forasmuch 
as: Ot'EXAjji/es to, Tei^r] rjpchv KaBeiKov avd cov ijpfls TaKeivav sKooXvcrapev Treaeiv, 
PL Menex. 244; mostly poetical.) From an attraction, and a coalition of a 
demonstrative and a relative adverb, result the expressions, used as conjunctions, 
a<^' ov (= an eKeivov, ore — , ott eKeivov tov xpovov, ore — ), e^ ov, tv (o, fie^pi- 
ov (pexpi-s ov, but also simply /xe'xp^ H-^XP'- "''' without ov),axpi' ov (in Herod, is o), 
together with e<^' a or icp' co re (= enl rotsSe, cosre, on condition of — ). 

!Re5I. 4. When the relative ought to have before it the same preposition as its 
antecedent, this preposition is usually dropt, especially when the verb in both 
clauses is the same : Tov ifKovv eTroLrjadprjv eK rrjs MiTv\r]vrjs ev tw TrXoiw, a 
'HpcoSrjs ovTos {A.nt. 5, 20). 'Eyo) ev ra ;^poj'(a, w vpav cIkovo) aTTOpovvTwv, tl to 
hiKaiov, ev tovto) StKatorepou? tovs avOpaiTTOvs ttoiS) {^en. Conv. 4, 1). 

^ a) When in two connected relative clauses, both referring to the same antecedent, 

the relative would stand first in the accusative, dative, or genitive, and then in the 
^', nominative or accusative, the relative is often omitted in the latter clause, and left to 
•^ be supplied from the former : Tovtols cmaaiv eKelvoi, ols ri peXei rrji eavrav yj/vxrjs 
aWa prj auipara TrXdrrovTes C^O'i, xaipetv Xeyovaiv (PL Phccd. 82). Twf •napovTwv 
Tols dvdpaiiTOLs dyaBav, oaa pi) Trapa demv exopev, oKka bi aK\r]\ovs rjpiv yeyovev, 
ov8ev livev rrjS iroXeois rrjs rjperipas yeyevrjTai [Isocr. Paneg. 38). Ilept utv SucaaT-qpiov 
f'yvwKe Ka\ reXos ea-xi]Ke, Tras ov 8eivd TToiel TipoKpaTrjs vopov elsfjiepaiv, 81 ov tuvtu 
XvdijaeTai ; [Dem. 24, 73, ^ Koi a reXos eax^ufv.) 

b) Sometimes, especially when the relative should stand first in the nominative, 
and then in a different case, a demonstrative or personal pronoun is put the second 
time instead of the relative : ILov 8rj eKelvos eariv 6 avrjp, os avvedrjpa rjpiv Ka\ av p.01 

^ Other more rare and anomalous instances of attraction in the relative : a) '0 
dvTenrcbv ois eKelvoi i(iov\ovTO TrpaxBrjvaL [Lys. 12, 27: the subject-accusative of the 
infinitive attracted. Mi) ovrcav tcov vTrrjpeTwv, oicoj/ Set, jLe7i. Cyr. 8, 1, 12, = oioi;? 
8el elvai). h) Aet tovs peXkovTas 8ioia-eLV Tvepl tl TrpcoTov 77p6s toiito TreCpvicevai KaXcos, 
rrpos o av TTpoy^prjpevoL rvyxdvaa-iv [Isocr. Antid. 187 : the prejiosition of the demon- 
strative repeated with the infinitive, to which it does not belong), c) 'A0' f;? co/xuVare 
rjpepas {Dem. 18, 26, ^ drro Trjs rjpepas, ev fj oipoaaTe) ; rjpepa nepTTTrj, dcj)' r]s ise(3aXev 
^Ayr]a-iXaos {Xen. ILeU. 4, G, 6 : the relative attracted by the preposition of the 
omitted demonstrative or of the substantive, even when it ought not to have been 
governed by it), d) 'H WCXiqula eKCpevyec npos tu>v 'EXXrjvcdv o'l ctvxov ev toIs aKevo- 
^opois ottXu e'xovTes {Xen. An. 1, 10, 3, = Trpos eKelvovs tuv 'JEXX-qvav, 01: the 
demonstrative with a partitive genitive, after a preposition, omitted before a relative 
in the nominative), e) AieKopi^ovTO evBvs, o6ev vne^edevTo, Traldas Ka\ yvvalKas 
(Thuc. 1, 89, =: eKe'idev, ottol : attraction in relative adverbs of place), f) Tovtchv 
OS ^ovXei eKudTOs {PL Gorg. 517, for ovTiva, qui vis ; ostis ^ovXei, PL Crat. 432). 

[part I. 



§ 105, io6.] Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns. 85 

/iciXa e'Soxei? 6av\xa^€iv avrov ; {Jlch. Cyr. 3, 1, 38). 'Ap' ovv ravra )7-y€l o-a e^i^ai, hv [§ 
aj' itp^ijs Kol €^rj aoL avTois XPW^'^'- °>'''' au fiovXjj ; [PI. Eutliyd. 3Ul.) "Ocrot tov 104.] 
Sijfxov TToWa Koi dyada flpyacr[J.evot elalv 6(f)eiXeTat 8' avrois X'^P"' xofxlaaadai. ivap vficov 
fxaXXov T} 8iKr]v dovpca rav TreTrpaynevap, ovk a^iou Kara Tovrav vno8e)(€a6ai Sia/3oA.as 
{Lys. 25, 11). 

The indefinite relative osns (in -vvliicli no attraction of case takes place) is used in ^ 
some connexions as a simple relative, viz. : '^ 

a) In denoting a. person or tJdng which can or shall he somethincf, ivhich serves 
for somethinr(, both after an indefinite substantive and after an indefinite pronoun, 
which is usually omitted (§ 102, a) : 'Hyepova alTrja-ofxev Kvpov, ostis r]p.as drvd^ei 
(JEew. An. 1, 3, 14). A.la-)(lvr]s avvelBovXevev vplv irepTreLv rivas els 'ApKadiav, o'lrives 
KaTTjyoprjcrovcri tSjv to. ^iKimrov TTpuTTovroiv (Dem. 19, 306). Ovk e^ofiev, otov ctItov 
oivrjcropeda {2^en. An. 3, 1, 20). Ovk ecrriv, otco iyu> KaTaXel'^u} tov ifiov oIkov [IKen. 
Cyr. 0, 4, 30). Oiibev TrposSeofxeda ovre 'Ojjirjpov errMveTov ovre ostls eneaL to avTiKU 
Tepy^ei {Thuc. 2, 41). 

d) After ecrrii/ (without indefinite pronoun, § 102, b. Eem. 1), but mostly after a 
negative, or in a question equivalent to a negation : OVEWrjues eVet TTpotdotev to. apfxaTU 
(pepofxeva, Silo-tuvto- earc 8e osrt? kol KaT€Xr]CJ:)dr], cosnep iv 'nnToSpopo), eKTrXayeis (JTew. 
An. 1, 8, 20). EiTTe ixoL' eaTiv ovsTLvas dvdpanrcov TedavjjiaKas eVi aofpia ; {S^en. An. 
1, 4, 2 ; with unchanged ecniv, as in eaTw 0I.) "'Ecttiu Ztco aAXw TrXet'co eTriTpeneis rj ttj 
yvvaiKi; {J^en. CEcon. 3, 12.) 

Eem. Especially note the expression ovSels ostis ov {ov8ev o,ti ov), with omitted 
ea-Tiv, in the sense every, all : Kal ire^os koX vrjfs koL ov8ev o,ti ovk aTrtoXero {Thuc. 
7, 87). The origin of the phrase being forgotten, it is treated as one word, and ovdeis 
conforms itself in case to the following ostis : 'AiToX\68copos KXaicov kol dyavaKTOiv 
ov8iva ovTiva ov KaTeKKaae tcov TvapovTisiv {PI. Pliad. 117). OvSevos otov ovTrdvTcou 
avvjx&iv Ka6' T]\i,Kiai> TTaTrjp e'ir}v {PI. P rot. 317). 'SuiKpaTrfs TTapi)(eL eavTov ipaTuv 
Tcbv 'EXKtjvcov Ta ^ovXop.evcp koX ovdepl oTto ovk CLTTOKplveTai {PI. Jilenon. 70) '. 

c) After ovTas in negations, or questions equivalent to such : Tls ovtm p.alveTm, 
OSTIS ov ^ovXeTai aol (piXos dpai ; {Xen. An. 2, 5, 12.) (Also os : Ov8e\s uv yevovro 
ovTcos d8ap.dvTivos, os av [xeiveiev iv Trj 8iKaioavvr], PI. Pep. 2, 360.) 

d) In relative sentences which single out, in a definite subject, a particular quality, 
or a particular circumstance, as the ground or explanation of what precedes (^rwi^^^je qui, 
ap)erso)i who — , one who ■ — ■) : Has ov kuklcttos andvTa)V dvQpanav 8iKai(i>s dv vop,i^oio, 
OSTIS, w KardpaTe, TreplTrXeiovos (pahr] tovs KaKovpyovs iToiovpevos ti^s Trarpt'Soj; {Dem. 
24, 107.) OuKovv SiKaiais (eVi/tyoV (re koi e7TeTpi[iov), ostis ovk Ei'pt7riS»;i' ircaLveis ; 
{Arist. Nub. 1377.) (In the same sense often os, os ye, Xeu. Mem. 3, 5, 15 ; PI. 
Phced. 96, &c.) 

Reh. Otherwise Zstis for os is fovmd only in single, in part uncertain, passages 
of the poets and Herodotus. Yet e| Ztov is used as e^ ov (§ 103, E. 3) with 
attraction {Xen. An. 7, 8, 4). 

The relative adjectives olo'^, 6(To<i, ryXt/co9 in the accusative are • x, 
attracted into the dative or genitive in the same manner as 6? : MrjSwv, £o5_ 
ocrcov ecopuKa, ttoXv outo? e/^o? 7rd7nro<; KdXXt,aTO<i {Xen. Cyr. 1, '6, 2) . 
ToLavTa<i tViSocret? al TroAet? ov Xufx^dvovcnv, i^v fii] rt? avrd^i hiOLKfj 

^ Ov8aixu>s oTTcos {cos) ov (j)i]aa> {PI. Pe]). 2, 376 ; Pol. 308). 
CHAP. IX.] 



86 Demonstrative and Relative Pronotins. [§ io6. 

[§ ToiovToi^ 7]6ea-iv, oloi'i 'Evajopa'i el^ev [Isocr. Uuag. 48) . (Yet also : 
loo.j Xoo-auTj;? ovalas KUTa\ei(pdeiar]s, oai]v i^ apx^^ yKova-are, Dem. 27, 60.) 

Eem. 1. The preposition already given with the demonstrative correlative may 
be omitted for the relative (§ 103, E. 4) : Ov irepl ovojiutos tj djxcpis^rjTrja-is, of? 
ToaovTcov Trepi aKe'^is o(ra)v t][uv TrpoKeirai {PL Rep. 7, 533). 

Eem. 2. In olos (rfkiKos) note the peculiar attraction of the relative and the 
following subject into the case preceding-, with omission of the verb substantive : 
IIoXAco ijSic'r' eVrt ^^apt'fecr^ai olm aoi av8p\ rj aTrfx^decrdat (-37???. 3fem. 1, 9, 3, ^ 
offipi olos (TV el, which complete expression is more rare). Tots ot'ots rjixiv re koi 
vplv ;^aXe7rr) TToXiTfla ecrrl 6jy/xoKparia {^en. Hell. 2, 3, 25). 'Efceii/o 8eiv6v rolaiv 
rjkiKOicnv vav [Artst. Eccl. 465). (Yet also : 2dXa)i/ e/Litcrei rovs olos ovtos dpdpcoTTovs, 
Dem. 19, 254.) ' 

Eem. 3. In oaos note the elliptical expressions ocrai ijfxepai (viz. elalv), used as 
adverb in the form 6a-qp.epai {daili/), and iaoi p-rjues, monthly, oaa 'irrj. 



io6, Note on Reflexive and Reciproeal Pronouns".'\ 

b. 1. a) Ov is a secondary or indirect reflexive : i. e. is used with {ace. e.) infin. with 

'participles, and in such secondary sentences as relate the thoughts, &c., of the subject 
of the principal sentence (e. g. in ohject-sentences introduced by on, as, that, or by 
interrogative pronouns or particles; in sentences dienoim^ purpose : Iva, "mas, that ; 
pr], lest). Aeyerat 'AnoWmv efcSetpai rov Mupavav ipi^ovrd oi Trept ao(pias (-Zew.). 
KfXei;fi 8e ol (TvpT7ipy\rai tivdpas (JYeH.). EtVei' on fViSrjp.eTi' ol iraprjyyeXptvov e'cq 
{JCcn.). ''EyKXrjpara eTroiovvro, ottcos crcj^icnv . . . 7rp6(f>a(jLS e'trj {Th.). — h) Also in 
explanatory clauses introduced by yap : Bpax^a aneXoyrjO-avTo, ov yap TrpovTedr] a^iat. 
\6yos Kara tw vopov {S^en.). — c) The dative usually occurs only as enclitic. 

Ov, e are not found in Attic prose, except in two or three passages (some of them 
poetical) of Plato. Even ol is rare in the orators. 

2. Sometimes, however, kavrov is used as a secondary reflexive, and even ovtov, &c., 
the speaker making the statement his own. ISop-i^ei rovs TroXiras vTTrjpenu' eavra 
{sibi. J^en.). 'O Kvpoy tov l,a.Ka ibeiro irdvTcds crr]p,aLveLv avra {to let him [Cyrus] 
know), oTTore ktK. (ATew.). 

3. Now and then, even crcj^Lo-iv avro'is, a(f)ds avTovs, are found as (emphatic) 
secondary reflexives. ''ETnaKijTTTOva-i TLpaprjcrai acpicriv avrols i^dLKrjpe'vois {Ant.). 

4. a) In Thuc. and in some late writers ov relates to the subject of its own verb, 
and (b) sometimes, even in Attic writers, is used for the simple pron. avrov : (1) Tots 
Xldois xp'^IJ-f'^os, ovs 1 ^AdrjvaloL 7rpo7rapfj3d\ovTO afpiaiv {Th.). — 2) 'Swecjiacrdi' ol, 
Kul ktX. (ATe?/.). 

5. 'EavTov {avTov) sometimes refer to iheflrst or second person. Ourw TraiBeveis 
rovs eavriis cf)i\ovs {ainicos tuos, ATe;?.). Mrjbev itnbeiKvvs tS)v eavrov {rerum 
mearum : Isocr.). 

6. When it is sufficiently understood from the context that the action is mutual, 
the cases of the reflexive pronouns {iavrov, &c.) are used for those of the reciprocal 
dWrjXav (especially when the opposed notion is others). ^Bovovaiv iavrols p.dWou 
i] Tols aXXoLS dvdpdnrois {^LCn.). 

^ ToiovTol ela-iv ol Trorapoi, Bi olas av Kol r^y yrjs piaariv {PI. Phced. 112, i. e. as 
the land through, which). , 

' Principally from Kriiger. 

[part I. CHAP. IX. 



PART II. 

THE RELATIONS OF PROPOSITIONS ONE TO ANOTHER, 
ESPECIALLY THE WAY OF DENOTING THE MODE OR 
MANNER OF PREDICATION, AND THE TIME OF THE 
THING PREDICATED. 



CHAPTER L 

TJie Moods in general, and espeeially the Indicative and its Tenses : 
the Indicative with av. 

To denote the relations of propositions, the Greeks have four personal §" 
and definite moods : the indicative^, the subjunctive (conjunctive), the 107. 
optative, and the imperative, of which the subjunctive and optative 
are related in point of conception ; and besides these, the infinitive 
and the participle. 

Both to the indicative (in certain tenses) and to the optative, as 
also to the infinitive and the participle, may be annexed the particle 
dv (Ionic and Epic /ce and fcev), to denote what is predicated upon 
the assumption of something being so and so, which is not actually 
so and so. The same particle, moreover, attaches itself to relative 
Avords (69 dv, orav, &c.), and takes the subjunctive to denote an 
indefinite contingency. 

The Indicative is the mood in which a thing is predicated abso- § 
lutely, without any accessory modifications, or in which a thing is 108. 
enquired about in the same way. It therefore stands -in all both '33 1. 
principal and accessory propositions, where no special rules, to be 
presently described, demand a different mood. 'O iruTvp reOvrjuev. 
W66ev ■ijKec'i ; Aeyovcriv, on ?; ttoXj? yprjrai vtto tcov TToXe/jiicov. Iloir;- 
rea raOra, inrel vfuv hoKel. Towtou tvexa ovk yXOov, on jjBeiv ra ^evr}- 
(joiieva. Et 6eo\ elcriv, gcttl kuI epja deo)v. Et fxev Oeov vl6<; rjv AaKXi]- 

PART II. CHAP. I.] 



332) 



8^' The Indicative and its Tenses. [§ 109, no 

loll "^^^^^ ^^'^ '^^ alaxpoKepSij'i, el Be alcr^poK6p87]<i, ovk rjv Oeov {PL Rep. 3, 
408. A simply conditional proposition, without any accompanying 
reg-ard to the condition as actually obtaining or not) . '0\otp,r}v, d 
TOVTO 7reiT0i7]Ka. Et firjSev eireiroit'jiceL^, tl i(f)6/3ov ; 

Eem. In some kinds of dependent propositions, which, especially in Latin, are 
exjn-essed in the subjunctive, the indicative is retained in Greek : on this see at 
end of Chapter III. 

§ The principal times, together with imperfect, plusquamperfect, and 

109. future perf. passive, are expressed in Greek by the simple tenses of 
the verbsj and only in some passive forms by corresponding composite 
forms. To denote other relations of time^ there are periphrastic 
combinations of the pei-f. participle vpith the tenses of elixl, or of pueXkoi, 
am about, with the infinitive. 

§ a) The Present Tense is used of that which is^ or is conceived to be, 

110. now present : '0/j,o\oyel TouTot';"0/x'r]po<i. 
(334) 

i~34, _Eem. 1. The present is often used of that which has heen for some time, and 

K.) still is, going on, especially with TraXai [where we use oxa- j)>'oyresKice form for the 

perf. have heen — ing'\ : IlaXat tovto ctkottw. Oi5 TtdXai aoi Xeyco, on tuvtov <jiiJiJii 

eivai TO ^eXriov Koi to KpfiTTOv ; [PI. Gorg. 489). IIoXAa ;;S?? eV?; kv 'AOrjvais olKe'iTe. 

_ Eem. 2. The present of certain verhs denotes, by an idiom of the language, 
either generally or in certain special senses, the past action as still going on, or 
still couthiued in its result; e.g. ^kco, am come, (jjevya, am in exile, o'cxonai, am 
f/one : OtSa, oirr] o'ixovtm [Xen. An. 1, 4, 8). (So sometimes : abiKm, am in the 
■wrong in what I have done, dnoarfpa), am keeping a jjerson out of possession of — , 
viKM. am conq^ueror, have conquered : 'ATrayyeXXere 'Apiaicp, otl 17/xets ye viKmfiev 
[dacTiKea kuI ovdels €ti rjfuv fxdxeTai, Xen. An. 2, 1, 4.) 

Eem. 3. Sometimes the present is put for the future, in speaking of being about 
to do something immediately : Et (j)r]<n tolovtov ti elmi, Set^arw kui Trapaaxeo-Oco, 
Kciya KaTa^aiva {Bern. 19, 32). {'E.lpi, Ikvai, lav, present and future.) 

(336) b) In lively connected narrative the preesens hlstoricum is often 
used : 'EvreiS?) he ereXevrrjae Aa^eio? kuI Karean] et? ti}v j3aaiXelav 
Apra^ep^ri^;, Tia(7a(jiepv7]<; ScafidXXei, rov Kypoj/ Trpo? tov d8eX(f)6v, ax; 
eiTC^ovXevot avrm' 6 8e ireiOeTai re koX avWafxlSdvei Js^vpov &)? diroKTe- 
voiv {Xen. An. 1, \, 3). 

(yi>^^ , ^^^\- ^foi'e rarely in the protasis with eVeiS// : 'ETretS/; 8e AiKaioyevrjs ovKen 

K. I) vpus SyvtiTai i^anaTuv, Tveidei Mepe^evov ijpas npoSovvai {Isce. 5, 13), or in stating 

an individual iact : Aapeiov km HapvauTidos yiyvovTai TratSej fiuo {JCen. An. 1,1, 1, 
tliere were born to D. and P. — ; B. and F. had two sons). But the poets 
often put the present for the aorist even in speaking of a single fact : Ti's /x' 
eK^iei ^poT5>v; {Soph. CEd. R. 437.) AtoVuo-os', ov TiKTei nod' 7; KdSpov Kopr] [Eur. 
Bacch. 2). 

[part II. 



§ III.] T lie Indicative and its Tenses. 89 

In the past the Greek distmgviishes two states : the narrative^ '5' 
denoted by the aorist^ and the absolute (in English, have, am), diQ- iii. 
noted by the perfect \ 

The Aorist is used in accounts and narratives of past occurrences, (335. 
in historical connexion, or in stating a past occurrence, without rela- ^' 
tion to the present and a present result : T[avaavia<; KXeofx/Sporov 
eK AaKeSal/iiovoii crrpaTrjryb^; vtto '^Wr'jvcov e ^ eir e /j,<p 6 nj fiera ecKOcrc 
veoiv CLTTO JleXoTTOvvrjaov' ^vveifkeov he koL ^ KOrjvaloi rpiaKOvra vavarl 
Koi e a T par ev a av iq Kvirpov Kol avrij^ tu 'jroXXa icarearpc- 
'yjravro (T/iuc. 1, 4-9. Of ^vveirXeov, see § 113). 'n? rjOpoiaOri 
'Kvpco TO 'Kk\'r]viK6v {the Grecian troops), ots iirl rbv adeX^ov 'Apra- 
^ep^Tjv earpareveTo, kol ocra iv rfj avbhw errpd^drj koi co? 77 P-fJ-X"! ^J^vero 
Kol ot)? 6 KVP09 ireXevTrjaev, iv rw ep^TTpoadev Xo^o) 8eS?]/V&)Tai {Xeit. An. 
2, 1, 1. On 8eS7]X(OTai, see § 112). Ovp.O'? Trarrjp Ke0a\o<? eTreiadrj p.ev 
VTTO IlepiKXeov<i e? ravTrjv rrjv yrjp a(f}LKea6ai, errj he rpiaKOVTa MKijaev 
{L//S. 12, 1). £lq (eVei) eihov top irarepa, '^aTraa-d/xrjv. (See Plus- 
qnamperf., § 114 c.) IIoXXol TVoXea eireiaav TvoXe/xov dpacrOai 7rpo<? 
TOUTOv;, v^' Mv ol 7reia6epTe<i dirciiXovro {Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 45 ; of that 
which has sometimes happened : Ma.ny a time (ere now) have states 
let themselves tje persuaded — ). "HS77 he Kai riia ovk eOeXovra dviara- 
cTucu oKXd irpolep.evQV avrov roc'i TroXe/it'otf kol eiraiaa koI ejBiacrdixrjv 
'TTopeveaOac {Xeu. An. 5, 8, 14. It has happened now and then that 

Eem. The Aorist is sometimes used in a somewhat peculiar manner : " 

a) The Aorist is used of that which has often happened, and consequently (in (335' 
cases singly occurring) is wont to happen ; in which sense it may then be found l"^- 3) 
coupled with the present (which expresses the general relation absolutely) : To? 
Tajf cpavXcov awovalas oXiyos -^povos 8 leXv a e, ras 8e twv (TTVovhaiuiv (jjiXlas oiS' 
uv 6 Trds aiuiv e^aXeiij/eLev [lificr. Dem. 1). 'O rvpavvos tchs jxev TrpoiTciis yjnepais 
TTposyeXu re /cat acnrd^eTai Trdvras vni(T)(v€'iTa[ re noXXa kol Idia Kal drjpocrLa, j(peoiv 
re TjXe V d £ p u> a € koi yr)v b liv e i p.e brjpa re kol toIs mpl iavrov koi ndcnv 
iXeas re Kai irpcios etVat TTposTToieiTai {Ft. Hep. 8, 56G). "Ojav TiddiTavra (Tvp<\)ipT] 
Tois perex'^vcri rod woXepov, kol crvpiiroveiv ku\ (jiepeiv ras (Tvp(popas Koi piveiv idiXov- 
aiv 01 avopconoL' orav S sk nXeove^ias koi Trovrjpias ris cosnep <iiXi,TTiros la)({i(T>j, »; 
TTpodTJ] irpocpaais koX puKpou TTTola-pa awavTa dvexairiae kuI SieXvaev {Dem. 2, 9). 

t?) The first person of the aorist is sometimes applied to the expression of 
one's state of mind by words or gestures, occurring at the moment of speaking 
(the past tense referring to the preceding emotion which is in the speaker's 
thoughts) : 'Q, 'yade, Ka\ avros ifiavrov viv df] KareyeXaau {PI. Legg. 3, 686, I felt 



^ The Aorist bears the signification of past time only in the indicative and par- 
ticiple, and in some sorts of [subjunctive] optative and infinitive propositions; of the 
Aorist in the other moods, see under these in ch. 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

CHAP. I.] 



90 The Indicative and its Tenses. [§ 112, 113. 

[§ ■ myself forced to latigJi). (So eyeXaaa, yvea-a, iTr/jveaa, rjadt^v, fde^afjirjv, aTreTrrva-a, 
III'] &c. iu the dramatic poets.) 

c) Of the Aorist in negative questions which stand in phxce of a demand or sum- 
mons {tl ovk), see Imj)erative, § 141, R. 3. 

d) Aor. of first attainment : := came to — ] Verbs signifying to have a public 
dignitjs office, or power, are often used in the aorist in the sense of attaining to 
the same : 'ETreiSi) Gr/o-eus ejSacriXeva-fv, els rr)v vvv ttoKiv ovcrav ^vvc^KLae Tvavras 
Toiis iv rfi 'ArTLKt] {Thuc. 2, 15. became king; jiacriXevw, am king). (So rjp^a, came 
to the government, became Archon, 'laxva-a, rjyrjcrdfirjv, irafiUva-a, irvpaweva-a, ejSov- 
Xevcra^ became a councillor, &c. So in the participle: BovXeva-as irore ^(OKparqs, 
€indvpr](TavTos tov dr]p,ov irapa rovs vopovs ivvia (TTpaTrjyovs pia >//■/;(/>« dnoKTelvai. 
navras, ovk ijdeXrjaev eTTi.\j/r]cf}i(rai, 2^en. j\Iem. 1, 1, 8.) 

§ The Perfect is used to denote an action as done and finished^ not 

112. now g'oing- on, but now complete, or subsisting" in its consequences : 
(335. 'O iraTTjp jjlov TedvrjKev {is dead: but tov avrov ivtavTov airedavev, 
^ died in the same year). ^Fj^r)TraTr]/jbe0a alaytaTa vtto tmv prjropcov. 

TloWa Kol fjieyuXa ol deol rou? avdpo)7rov^ evrjpyeri'jKaaiv. Fivp/jKa/xev 
o irakai i^Tjrovfxev. "Ofirjpo^ 7T67toi7)K6 {//as conij)osed) a-^eSov -rrepl ttclv- 

TCOV Tcbv dvdpCOTTLVCOV. 'O TToXe/Z-O? dlTdl'TCOV 7]/J,d<i TMV eiprjfjbeVCOV ttTT- 

eaTepTjKe' koI yap ireveaTepovi TreTrotrjKe koX iToXkov<^ Kivhvvov^ virofie- 
vetv 7]vdyKaae {compelled us ivliile it lasted), kuI irpo'? tov<; "EXA.?;va9 
hia^e^XrjKe KoX irdvra'^ rpoTTOV'i rerdkaiTrciopTj/cev {Isocr. de Pac. 19). 
'O 8i]/j,o^ rfi jBovXfj TToW.aKL'i tt]v TToXneiav iyKe^elpcKev {Bein. \, 9). 

Rem. 1. Sometimes it makes little difference, whether a thing is denoted as a 
result, in reference to the present (perfect), or whether it is simply represented 
as an action and occurrence of the past (aorist). ^avrja-npai ov8(va p.ev nanrore 
ddiKrjaras, TrXeiovs 8e Kal TOiv ttoXitcov Ka\ ruiv aXXcov EXXi^vtov ev TmroirjKus rj 
avfinavTes oi Trpo €p.ov l^aenXeiKjavTes {Isocr. Nic. 35). 

Rem. 2. In some verbs, the perfect is used with the accessory signification of 
the present, in consequence of a peculiar way of taking its meaning, the present 
condition being denoted as produced by a preceding action, and as the result of 
the same. Such perfects are 8e8oiKa (SeSta), eyprjyopa, e'laQa, eoiKa, earrjKa, KeKTr]p.at 
{possess, KT&J/xai, acquire), KeKXrjpat {am called), oi8a, necjivKa (7rf0o/3jj/xat m some 
writers := (pojSovfxai). The plusquamperf. has then the signification of the im- 
perfect : wsnep eloidea-nv, as they used ; rfieiv, I kneto. 

^ The Imperfect is used of the condition at a certain time, or of 

1 13. actions which at a certain time were going- on (still current, and not 
(337) finished), or of that which was a custom at a certain time, the current 

or customary view, &c. of a certain person, or often repeating itself: 
'EttI Ke/cpoTTO? Koi rwv Trpcoroov fiaaiXeuiv rj 'ArTt/c?) KaTci TroXei? (OKelro 
Kol auTol e/caaTOi eiroXnevovTo Kal ij3ov\evovro. ^^ireihrj he Srjaev; e/3a- 
criXevaev, i<; Trjv vvv itoXlv ovcrav ^vvcpKicre irdvra^ {IViuc. 2, 15). 0<?Tfc9 
d(f)LKveLTo TMV TTupd /SacTf A-eco? Trpo? K.vpov. 7rdvTa<; ovro) SiaTidefi aTreirefi- 
ireTo 0)^6" kavTw {xaXXov <^i\ov<i elvat, i) jSacrckel. Kat rwt' Trap eavTca 

[part II. 



§ 1 1 4-] TJic Indicative and its Tenses. 91 

^ap^dpcov iTre/xeXelro, co? irokefxeiv iKavol eirjaav. T?}y Se '^W^jviKr/v Bv- [§ 
va/JiLv i']dpoi,^ev o)? jxdXiaTa eSvvaro eTTLKpuTrroixtvo^;, K.r.X. {Xen. An. \, \, "■'■■' 
5 ; in the description of Cjrus^s preparations for the war with Arta- 
xerxes). KXeap^o? AaKeSaifx6vio<; cf)vja<i 'tjv. Tovto) avyyevofxevo'i 6 
K{)j009 7]jd(x0i] re koI SiScoaiv aura) fivplov^ AapeiKov^' 6 8e Xa/Swv to 
y^pvdiov arpdrev/jia crvveXe^ev utto tmv '^pTjfxdrwv Kol ctt o\e /x e i etc 
JleXoTTovvijarov op/j,co/ji€vo<i Tol<i &pa^l Koi o) (f) eXe t tol"? ' l^XXrjvaf; 
{Xen. Ait. 1, \, 9 ; ivas still carrijing on the zvar, at the time in ques- 
tion) « Kpinas KOL 'AkKi^idtrjs ovk dpecTKOVTOs avrols 'EcoKparovs {= ovx on fjpe(rK€v 
avTo'is 'ScoKpdTTjs) apCkrjcrdrqv, ov xpovov upiXeiTrjv aira [^en. Mem. 1, 2, 39). 
'2a>KpdTrjs tovs eavrov iTTiOvpovvTas ovk eTrparrero xphl'-'^'^'^ [Xen. Mem. 1, 2, 5, but 
2. ov8iva TTCOTTore piadov rfjs avpovcrias eVpa^aro, Ae«. Mem. 1, 2, 60; never once 
demanded). Kopivdioi ovdev tovtcov vnrjKovov {Thiic. 1, 29 ; said of tlieir state of 
mind as a whole, not of a single determination). 

Rem. 1. Sometimes the imperfect denotes something about to be done, what a 
jDerson was going or pro^josing to do : 'HyeVrpaTos KarajSds tijs vvktos els Koi\t]i> vavv 
bieKOTTTe Tov ttXolov to fda(j)os [Dem. 32, 5, was heginning to cut through — ; he was 
hindered from doing it). 4>/Xt777ro? ' AXovvrjo-ov eSlSov, h.r]poad€vr]s 8e dnrjyopeve fif) 
Xaplidveiv [JEsch., 3, 83, was for giving, offered to give. — And so eSiSovv is fre- 
quently used). ('Ervf lOov, I sought to j^ersuade, eireiaa, 1 2^ersuaded.) 'Hv a^ios 
6 ayuiv, OTi ovxi 'ABrjvaLcoi' povov o'l 'SvpaKOvaioi irepuyiyvovro dWd /cat Toiv aWoav 
^vppdx^^p {Thuc. 7. 56, had tlte jjrospect of conquering — ). Aia ravra ol .\aKe8ai- 
povLQL eTroiTjaavTo t7]v ^vppaxMv Kal to IldvaKTov evdvs KadrjpeiTo {Thuc. 5, 39, and 
they immediatety were heginning to putl down — , proceeded to pull down). 

Eem. 2. Sometimes (especially by Herodot. and Thucyd.) in continued narra- 
tive, an imperfect is used with but little difference from the aorist, the action being 
denoted as the beginning of one or more undertakings, or as a proceeding of 
longer duration : Toiro Tron^crai/res ot nXaratet? es re to.^ 'A.6i]vas ayyekov e tt € p- 
TT ov {set about sending) kuI tovs veKpovs inrofnTovhovs utt e d o a a v to'is Qij^aiois 
Ta T iv Ty TToAet KadicTTavTo Trpo? to. napovTa, fj e'SoKet arrets {Thuc. 2, 6). HapiK- 
66vTes oi 'A6T]va2oi i'Xeyov Toid8f {Thuc. 1, 72 ; but ch. 67, HapiKOwTts 8e ol Kopiv- 
6ioi eiiTOV rotaSe). ToiavTa 8r) d(piK0VT0 8iaXey6pfi'oi pexP'' '''^^ 6p[u>v Trjs IlepcriSos' 
eTrei, 8e avTols deros 8€^i6s <pave\s TiporjyelTo, TTposev^dpevoi Oeois /cat ijpmcn tols Ilep- 
(ri8a yr]v Karexovcriu oiJVco 8iej3aLvov rd opia {set about crossing — ; 2l>'oceeded 
to cross). 'E7ret8)7 8e 8ufjrja-av, irposevxov^o aiidis deals toIs MT]8iav yiju Kar- 
ixovcTLv {Xen. Cyr. 2, 1, 1). [So especially \evhsj uhendi et mittendi : irfpneiv, diro- 
a-TfXkeiv, KeXeveiu, jBorjBelv, &c., Schmidt. ^ The imperfects ^'etj/ (r)a), ^/cov, and ecprjv 
{inquam) are used at the same time in the aorist sense. 

Eem. 3. The imperfect rjv is sometimes found where we might expect the 
present, in reference to an earlier condition, or an earlier appearance : Ei apa to. 
6(f)ei\6p€va endcTTG) dTro8i86vai (prjai Tis St'/catoi' eivai, tovto 8e 8r] voel avTa {has for 
him the meaning), to'ls pev ixdpo'is ^Xdjirjv 6(fi(i\ea6ai irapa tov 8iKa'iov dv8p6s, toIs 
he (piXoLS o)(pt\eiau, ovk i]v cro(f)os 6 tovto elnav {PI. Sep. 1, 335 ; viz. as he before 
seemed to us to be). IIoAXoi dvdpionoi dT:o6vi)aKOv<Ti irpOTepov irpXv 8i]Kol yeveadai, 
oloi Tjaav {Xen. Cyr. 5, 2, 9). ~ 

a) li^\\Q Plusquamperfectum is nsed of that which at a certain past 114. 

CHAP. I.] 



C)2 The Indicative and its Tenses. [§ 114. 

[§ time had already taken place : 'H Olvor], ovaa ev fxe6opLoi<; tt)? 'Arxi- 
""^■^ «% Kal Bot&)Tta9, eTerei-x^Laro Kol avTw (ppoupico 01 'AOijvaloL i'X^poivro 
{Time. 3, 18). 

/;) Instead of the simple plusquamperf. in the active, we have 
sometimes a periphrastic expression by the participle perf. with 
r]v : OyTTG) hvo ?) rpeZ? Bp6/jbov<; irepieKrjXvOoTe ijaTrjv 6 ILvOvhrjfio'i Kav 
6 AL0vv(r6Bcopo<;, Kol etVep^erat KXety/a? [PL JEiithjjd. 273). 

c) When by means of the conj mictions eVe/, eTretS^ (Ionic eVet re), 
qfier tliat, or &)?, wlien (co? TayiGTcC), it is denoted that one action fol- 
lowed upon another, usually not the plasquamperf. is employed but 
the aorist, or, if a state and continued relation be denoted, the imper- 
fect : 'ETretS?; ereXevTricre Aapelof; Kal KaTearrj et? rrjv ^aaiXeiav 'A/ara- 
^ep^rj'i, Ticraa(l)epvi]<i Sta/BdWei rov KOpoy Trpo? tov dSeXcjiSv {Xen. An. 
1, 1, 3) . 'ETret Kvpo<i KareTri/jbcjidr] a-aTpd7rr]<i Af Sia? Kal ^pvyLa<i, irpoi- 
Tov iireSeL^ev avrov, on rrepl irXelarov ttolocto, el rat viroa'^oLTo tl, /xTjoev 
■y^euheaOai [Xen. An. 1, 9, 7). Ot iroXeixioL ft)9 elhov tov^ "l£,X\.7]va<i, 
dvTLTTopevovrai [Xen. An. 4, 8, 17). — 'ETrel rjaOevei Aapeio<; Kal vtt- 
coTTTeve TTjV TeKevrrjv rov /Blov, i^ovXeTO ol t&) iralhe d/jicfyoTepu) irapelvac 
[Xen. An. 1, 1, 1). Oi roiv ^AOrjvalcov aTpaTi]'yot, o)? avrov^ 01 Kara- 
vaioi ovK ehe')(ovTo, eKO/J-laOrjaav iirl rov TrjpLav TTorafiov [T/iuc. 6, 50, 
w/ten tlie Cat. were not for receiving them). — 'A\Ktl3id8r]s Aoyov? iroirjo-dnevos 

TToos Toiis Mecrcrrjuiovi, as ovk. eireidev, dW utt e up iv avr o, nvKei fieu av ov 
be^aadai, dyopdu 8' e^co Trape^eiv, uTreTrXei is to 'Prjyiov. (Ibid., 'when lie could not 
persuade them, when they were not for letting themselves he persuaded ; direKpivavro 
single fact.) The plusquamperf., however, may he used with eTretfijj, where the 
thing denoted is the complete ending of the preceding action, or the complete pro- 
duction of the state : TLvdopevos 6 Kpartvos rds tovtcov eTTifSovXas top pev aWov 
Xpdvov rjavxiav rjyev, ineiSf] 8e 6 KT]8€(JTr]s pev rjv 6 KaWipdxov KarrjyoprjKciiS avrov 
{tov KpuTLVov), KaXKipaKOs be pepaprvpriKais, rj prjv reOvdvai ti-jv livOpunvov, iXBovres 
els Tr)v oiKiav, "iva ijv KeKpvppevrj, dyayovres eVi to 8iKaaTT]piov ^uxrav dnacnv to'ls 
TTapovuiv fnedei^av {Isocr. Call. 54). ''Eneibr] 8e e^rjjrdTTja-Be pev vpels invb Toii ^CK'ltt- 
Tvov, i^rjTvdrr]VTO 8e ol TaXaiTTCopoi. ^coKets Koi dvrjprjvTo al TroAets aiiTcov, ri iyevero ; 
{Bern. 18, 42.) 

(338, Eem. 1. In the same way, the aorist, not the plusquamperf., is used after ecos 

R. 5) ■ (ecos nep), ea-re, pe^pi, irpiv (ov — Trpiv) : Ev8lkos Koi Slpos ol AapKradioi p^XP'- 
TovTOv (piXoi iivupd^ovTO ^ikiTTTTov, ecos QeTToXiav UTTO ^ikimrcp iiro'i-qa-av {Dem. 
18, 48). Ol j3dp[iapoL ov Tvpocrdev e^eveyKeiv iroKpricrav trpos rjpds TToXepov iTp\v rovs 
aTparrjyovs fjpoiv avveXa'^ov {2^en. An. 3, 2, 29). ''ExPW rovs prjTopas pi] Trporepov 
Trepl Tav opoXoyovpe'vcov (Tvp-^ovXevetv np\v Trepl rav dpcpicriirjTovpivuiv e8i8a^av 
(Isocr. Paneg. 19). 

Eem. 2. Now and then, the special relation of time which should be denoted 
hj the plusquamperf. is not expressed, but the action is simply set in the past by 
the aorist : Ol HeXonovvi)cnoi oXiyov pev XP"'^^^ inrepeivav, eTreira 8e irpdirovro is 
TOV ILdvoppov, oOevirep dvrjydyovro (Thuc. 2, 92; had put to sea). 

[part II. 



§ 115, 11^-] TJie Indicat'nw and its Tenses. 93 

Eem. 3. Of the aorist and perfect (not plusquamperf.) of the indicative in pro- [§ 
positions dependent upon a governing proposition in a praeteritum [in an ' historical 1 14- ] 
tense\ see Optative, § 130, b. R. 2. 

a) The Future denotes simpl}^ a future action or a future state or ^ 
condition : Et rovro rroiijaofiev, paStw? ra eTrtTijBeLa €^o/j,6v, oaov j^^povov j i r 
ev rfi iroXe/jiia eao/jieOa. 

Rem. Especially note the use of the future indicative in relative clauses 
denoting the being intended for, or calculated to serve, a purpose {one wlio, or, a 
thinrj which, may or shall, &c. ; whom or wJiich, one may, &c.) : Ovx o,rt rt? /car- 
r]yopr](T€i tovtcov, xo^^ttov evpelv (Dem. 15, 34). Et otei ovrivovv dvdpwnatv napa- 
dacreLv re^vrji/ riva TOiavTrjv, rjris ae Troirjcrei p-eya hvvaudaL iv rfj TToXei TjjSe dv6[ioiov 
ovra Tj) noXiTeia, ova 6p6a>g [dovXevj] {PL Gorg. 513). Other examples in § 1U5, a. 

b) The Fidurum exactum (in the active, ireKoinqKO)'^ eaofiaL : in the (34°) 
deponent, elpyaafievo^ ecrofxai,; and in the passive, SLe(j)6apfX6vo<; eao/xai, 
ireTrpd^ofiai) expresses, that at a certain future instant something will 

be finished, and will show itself as finished. Thus it denotes (1) that 
wdiich, as the immediate consequence of another action, w411 there- 
with ensue and be ready ; (2) that which will be soon accomplished 
and done ; (3) the future result of a preceding- action (it corresponds, 
therefore, more to the English than to the Latin futuriim exactum) : 
'FjUP KaraylrrjcpLad/jbevot, rovTcov davciTOV Tiiirjaere, rfj avrrj '^r](f)(p tou? re 
aXXov<; Koajjuajrepov^ iroir'jaeTe t) vvv elat, koI irapd tovtcov SUrjv eiXr]- 
^OTe^i taeade {Li/s. 27, 7). Et irapeXOcov el?, o<=;ri^ovv hvvairo SiSd^ai, 
Ti<; irapaaKevTj '^prjaifjio^ earai rfj iroXet, ira'; 6 rrapcov (f^o/Soii \e\vaerai 
{Dem. li, 2). Tijap iroit^aei (6 Oeos:) ; ^pd^e, fcal 'Keirpd^erai {Arist. 
PL 1027). Mdrr^v fxoL KeKXavaerab [Arist. Nub. 1436 ; in vain shall I 

have wept) . (T^s hwdp-ia^ i)n(ov els dtSiov Tols eTiiyiyvojxevois fivr]p.r] KaTaXeXfiyfrerai, 
Thiic. 2, 64 ; of a future action conceived of as an abiding result.) ' 

Rem. In those verbs in which the perfect middle has the signification of the 
present (§ 112, R. 2), the fut. exact, has the signification of the simple future : 
fiep.vriaop.ai, KeKTrjaop-ai {shall jjossess, different from KTi]CTopaL, shall acquire), KeKkrj- 
(TopLai {shall have the name). Likewise two others {elprjcropai, 8e8r]a-opai). 

The verb fxeWco with the infinitive of the future or present, rarely § 
of the aorist, forms a peculiar mode of denoting the future as some- Ii6. 
thing which one has at this present time in hand, and is about to do (34i, 
{fidurum hi pratsenti), which notation by means of the imperfect ^^~^ 
{rnxeXkov) is applied to the past {futtcrnm in prceterito) : MeXka v/J,d^ 
SiSd^eiv, 66ev ixoi rj SiajSoX-rj yeyovev {PI. Apol. 21). 'Evedv/xovvro ol 
"KXXrjve^, OTL djopdv ovSel<i eVi irape^eiv ij/jueWev {Xeu. An. 3, 1, 2). 



^ Sifecero, iuv iroirjo-a, see Subjunctive. 
CHAP. I.] 



94 The Indicative and its Tenses. [§ 117. 

[§ ^ Kkovw Tiva SLa/3aXX6iv, (09 i^oo dpa e^aTTarrjcra'i vfia<i fieXkco ayeiv et? 
"^■^ ^da-cv {Xen.An. 5, l,b)\ 

Rem. 1. Especially frequent el fxeWo), if I am to — , and 6 jueXXov, he that would, 
in denoting that which must be done in order to secure some object • Aei a-Tpariav, 
el fxeKkei Trpa^eiv ra de'ovra, /xrySeTrore navecrdai roii TroXefj,iois kuku Ttopcrvvovaav 
{Xen. Ci/r. 1, 6, 17). Tov fxeWoura ev yecopyijaeLv Set rovs epyaras Kai TtpoBvjxov^ 
TTapaa-KeuuCeiv Kai ireidea-dm deXovras (A'ew. (Econ. 5, 15). But also 'Avdpelov Set 
eivai Tov evyevi) veavi.crKOv, e'lrrep ev fiax^elrai {PI. Rep. 2, 375). 

Rem. 2. Of the simple indicative future (not fut. in fvcBterito) instead of the 
optative in propositions dependent on a verb in the preterite, see Optative, § 130, 
b. R. 2. 

§ a) With the addition of av the imperfect, aorist, and sometimes 

117. plusquamperf. of the indicative is used to predicate something' which, 
(347) under the supposition of a certain condition, would find (or have 
found) place, but which does not do so, because the condition does not 
exist. The condition is expressed in the indicative with et. Of that 
which, as it is, does not find place, but would do so, and of a condi- 
tion assumed in opposition to the actual present state of the case, the 
imperfect is used [el ISvvd/ji'qv, liroiovv dv) ; if the condition and condi- 
tional result, under the same supposition, belong- to the past, both of 
them stand in the aorist (et eKeXevcra^, eiroirjcra dv, el fir) e/ceXeuo-o-i?, ovk 
av eTTOLTjcra). The plusquamperf, with dv in conditional propositions, is 
used only when an action (then or now) completed, and a state which 
has (then or now) ended, is meant to be denoted. (A plusquamperf. 
having- the sense of the imperf. is used as imperf., e.g. et fjSeiv, eXe- 
r/ov dv.) The time in the conditional, and that in the principal, pro- 
position, may differ according to the sense. (There can rarely be 
occasion to use the plusquamperf. in both clauses.) Et rt ifiov 
6K')]Bov, ovh6vo<i dv ovTco<i jjb diroaTepelv icfivkaTTov, co? a^L(i)/j.aTo<; Kat 
Tt/xi]^ [Xeu. Gyr. 5, 5, 3i). Ovy^ ovrco^ dv 7rpo6ufji(o<; eirl tov TroXe/nov 
v/xd<i irapeicdXovv, el /xr; rip elpi]vr]v ecopayv €K tov TroXe/jiov KaXrjV Kat 
jSe^aiav yevijcrofievrjv [Isocr. Arch. 87).- — Et 6 ^iXiTnto'^ TOTe TavTr/v 
eo-^e Tr]v yvcoiJbrjv., co? ')(aXe'rrov TToXefielv eaTtv '' K6rjvaiOL<i, ovSev dv, &v 
vvvl 7r€7roL7]Kev, e-rrpa^ev [Dem. 4, 5). "lo-ct)? dv direOavov, el firj tj tcov 
TpiuKovTU dp^n Sid Ta^ecov KaTeXvdr] [PL Apol. 32). — Et fir) Uyttet? 
■)]XdeTe, eiTopevo/xeda dv eirl /SaatXea {Xen. An. 2, 1, 4 ; kad ye not come, 
we should now — ). Et eyd) eToXpiOiv tovto iroielv, eireTpe-y^a'i av, 6) 
Arjfjboadeve'i., Kai ovk eve7rXriaa<i l3ori>i Kai Kpavyij'; ttjv dyopdv ; [jl^sch. 
2, 86; had I dared it, woiddst thou have sneered it'') — Et, o tre 



'HSj; rjfieXXov dXXijXovs dnoXnve'iv {Thuc. 6, 31). ('H;jey\X/;(ra Uvai.) 

[part II. 



i^ii/.] The Indicative and its Tenses. 95 

't]pu>Twv, cnreKplvw, lKavo)<; av 7]8ri irapa aov ti-jv 6(n6Tr,Ta i^enaOrjKeLV [§ 
{PL Entliijph. 14; / should already have Jinislted wy task of learning — ) . " ''•^ 
KoiTtov av rjv i)im,v irepl t?}? 7r6Xeco<i hLokexdrjvai tt)? 'r]/xerepa<;, el fii) 
irporepa tcov dXXcov ev (ppovi^aaaa t7]v elprjvrjv eTreiroirjro [Isocr. Phil. 
56; ^vere it not the case that it had already concluded a peace). Ei eyw 

TraXai liXiy^i\.pr\(Ta irpaTTeiv to. ttoXitlko. Trpdyixara, TraXat av aTroKaiXeiv Kai ovr av vfias 
ta(})e\i]K€iv ov8ev ovt av efiavrov {PI. Apol. 31 ; I should long ago have ^perished, 
without benefiting either you or myself, from aTrdXcoXa) '. 

Rem. 1. Sometimes, either in both clauses or in only one of them, the imperfect (347, 
is used instead of the aorist, of relations belonging to the past ; mostly (yet not R. 2) 
always, especially in the poets) to denote an abiding state or a continued series of 
actions : ImKpaTrjs ovt rjXidios ovt aXa^av (paivecrdai toIs crvvovcriv ejBov^eTo' ihoKU 
(f av dn(j)6Tepa ravTa, fl 7Tpoayop€vu>v w? otto 6eov (paivojj-eva yf/evdopevos €(f)aiveTO. 
AriXov ovv, OTL OVK av irpoiXeyev, el pi) eTviarevev d\r]6eva€tv (JiTeK. Mem. 1, 1, 5). 
'Eyo) e)(^6€S, el prj ttoWoIs 8ieTTVKTeva-u, ovk av eSvvdprjv croi TTposeXdelv {J^eii. Cyr. 7, 
5, 53). AiTTovTes Tas Ta^eis rrpodeovTes apnd^eiv rjdf'Kov /cat rjpuiv nXeoveKTelv' el 
Se TovTo TrdvTes eTroioup.ev, drravTes civ dTvcoXopeBa (A'e«. A}i. 5, 8, 13). The aorist 
is put instead of the imperfect in the principal proposition only when, with less 
accuracy, the relation is referred to the past or to a ditlerent time : Et pev to aCopa 
emTpeTTeiv ere e8ei Ta>, 8LaKiv8vvevovTa ?) ■)(prj(jTbv avTo yeveadai rj Trovrjpov, iroWa av 
Tvepiea-ne-^d), e'lT eTVLTpeirTeov e'vre ov, Kal els avp^ov\i)v tovs re (pLXovs dv napeKdXeis 
Ka\ Toiis oiKeiovs, crKOTtovpevos rjpepas avxvds, o 8e rrepX TrXeiovos tov aapaTos rjyel, 
TTjv "^vxi^v.TTepX 8e TOVTOV ovre tw TraTplovre t« d8e}^(f)(0 eTreKoivwcrco, eiT eniTpenTeov 
etVe /cat ov rw d(j)iKopev(a tovtco |ei/w Trjv ai)v ^/'I'X'?'' {i^l- Prot. 313). 

Eem. 2. Eelative and conjunctional clauses which come to be enclosed in such 
a conditional or conditionated proposition, are expressed in the indicative. Ei 
^evos ervyxavov o!>v, ^vveytyvooaKeTe 8i]7rov dv p,oi, el ev eKeiinj ttj (pcavjj re /cat rw 
TpoTTO) eXeyov, ev olsTrep eredpdpprjv {PI. jLjJol. 17). Et ttAoutw /cat Kep8ei dpicTTa 
eKpivsTO TCI Kpivopeva, d eTrljvei 6 (f)iXoKep8t)s /cat e-\lreyev, dvdyKr] dv TavTa dXr]- 
BeuTaTa elvai {PI. Pep. 9, 382). 'HSetoy dv KaXAiKXet ert 8ieXey6priv, eco? oltm ti]v 
TOV 'Apipiovos drreSaKa prjo-iv dirt Tr/s tov Zi]6ov {PL Gorg. 506). 'Expfjv tovs 
pijTopas prj nporepov jrepl tcov opcXoyovpevcov avp,^ovXeveiv, rrplv Trepl tuiv dp,<pis^r)- 
Tovpevcov i)pds e8i8a^av {Isocr. Paneg. 19). 

b) The condition wiiich does not obtain^ is not always expressed in 
a proposition of its own, but may be given in a different turn of 
expression, or be implied in the context of the passag-e as a whole : 
B009 e-)(0VTe<i (TM/xa, avOpwirov he yvco/bLrjv, ovk av r)hvvdixeda irotelv a 
ijSovXofieda {Xen. Mem. \, 4, 14). "li9Te aireXdaat ~Ka\haLOV<; dtro 
Tovroiv t6)V ciKpcov {in order to exj^el) , iroWaTrXdaia av eScoKa ')(^pi]iJiaTa 
b)v (TV vvv e%et9 Trap' e^iov {Xen. Cyr. 3, 2, 16; I loould have given). 
'Bikvo'i ovSel<i cKpiKTai, 'y^povov av^vov ef ^AOtjvmv, 09x49 av rj/xlv <Ta<pe<i 
Ti dyyelXai 0I09 re rjv Trepl tovtwv {PI. Pheed. 57; loho woidd have 

^ 'OnoTepov tovtmv eTToh](T€ AioyeiTcov, ovBevos ^v ^ttov 'AdTjvaicov ttXoihtios ^v {Lys. 
32, 23). 
CHAP. I.] 



96 TJie Indicative and its Tenses. [§ 118. 

•[§ heen in a condition — ). 'EaXw/ca ov \o<^wv arropla aXh! avata')(yvTia<i 
^'7-] i^aX Tov edeKeiv Xk'yeiv irpo'^ v/iid<; rocavra, oV av vfuv i^Siara r}v ciKOveiv, 
OprjvovvTO'i re fiov Koi 6Xo(f)vpo/bb€vov {PI. Apol. 38 ; <?,? would have heen 
to yon — ). Especially note av with the indicative, where in English 
we use otherivise with the conditional mood, to denote a relation dif- 
ferent from the actual one : ^^Tri.arevofirjv vtto AaKehaifxovicov ov yap 
av fX€ eirepLTTOV irdXiv Trpo? vfid<i {Xen. An. Q, Q, 33). ("H/VTri^oy ae 
TfapeaeaOar i) ovk av rjXOov.) 

Rem. 1. The liypothetical proposition with av may have an object-proposition 
(with oTi or wy, or as dependent question) subordinated to it, or an inference 
{(liCTTe), sometimes also in a different way : 'HSfcos tiv T7vdnifjLr]v, t'iv av irore yvwfi-qv 
TTepi ifj-ov e'lXfTf, (I jir] irpi'qpapx'^o'a [Dem. 50, 67). Ovra aa(pa>s 6 Trarrjp epos tovs 
KaTt]y6povs '\j/ev8opivovs iivebei^iv, cosre TjSecos av 6 dijpos ^lktjv Trap' avroiv eXa^ev 
{Isocr. fie Sig. 7 ; wonJd have heen deliglded to tal'c — ). "Eo-tii/ ovv oVcos ravT 
av, eKelva TvpoeiprjKas, o aiiros dvr]p p.rj diacpdapeh eTokpTjaev elTTflv ; {Dem. 19, 308.) 
Such a proposition may even itself be made the condition : Ei roivw av €p.o\ rare 
wpyi^ecrdf, on ovk €Tpirjpdpxr](Ta, rrms ovxi vvv TTpos^Kei vpds elsTrpd^ai p.oi ra dvaXut- 
p-ara; {Dem. 50, 67 ; if then the case 1)6 so, tliat ye loould liave been angry with 
me — .) • 

Rem. 2. Sometimes the aorist (rarely the imperfect) with llv denotes what 
would have happened at a past time, if the attempt had been made, and therefore 
what might, conld, or should have taTcen place : Kai avTo\ av iiropevB-qaav, f/Trep 
ol aWot, ra fie vTvo^vyia ovk rjv ctXKi] tj ravri] eK^ijvai (-le;?. An. 4, 2, 10). 'Ek tlvos 
av (ptkias TTor' iddveiaev 6 Tvarijp 6 epos ra vavap^co rus ;^iAi'a? 8paxpd.s, ov ovk fyty- 
vooaKev; {Dem. 49, 50; conld (or should) my fattier have lent — .<*) Ot Hepaai 
BuTTov, rj o)s ris av aero, p-ereupovs e^eKupicrav ras cipd^as {^en. An. 1, 5, 8). Ov 
yap rjv, o,ti av enoielTf p,6voL {Dem. 18, 43 ; there was notliing that you could 
have done alone). Especially note r]j3ov\6pr]v av, I should (under other circum- 
stances) have wished, I could have wished (said of wishes that are not to be 
fulfilled, vellcm) : Yifiov\6prjv av, wsirep rrpoxeipov eariv CTraivecrai ttjv dperrjv, ovto) 
pa8iov eivat tovs uKovovras Tretcrai diTKelv avrrjv {Isocr. de Pac. 36). 

Rem. 3. Sometimes the imperfect or aorist with av is used to denote what in 
time past might, upon a given occasion, take place, i. e. what was wont to, and 
now and then did, take place. (The imperfect more of the recurrence of a state, 
or of an operation lasting some time; the aorist, of the repetition and reciirrence 
of several actions.) \ivpos, pera^v rav app^druv Ka\ twv dcopaKocjiopcov dimropevo- 
pevos, onoTe TvposldiXeyl/eie Tivas tcov ev rals rd^eai, rare pev elrrev civ {would say) 
'SI fivbpes, o)s T]dv vp,u>v tu Tvposaira Bedcracrdaf Tore S" av ev liXKois eXe^ev' 'Apa 
evvoelre, i"iv8pes, k.t.X. {Xen. Cyr. 7, 1, 10.) AvaXap^dvcov ovv rav rpayahoiroiSiv 
Ka\ Twv 8idvpapj3oTroio)V to. TToirjpara, a p,oi efioKf i pdXiaTa TrenpaypaTevcrQai, 8irjpa)TU3V 
CIV avTovs, TL Xeyoiev {PI. Apol. 22). 

^ In some cases, however, the apodosis has the imperfect without av, although 

1 1 8 tlepending on a condition which is intimated as not existing. 

{ZA°) a) In speaking of what in a certain case in the past or present would be right, 
suitable, allowable, &c., but was not done, or is not done, the imperfects exprjv, 
77posTJKfv, e'Sei, r]pp.0TTev {naXas e^X^v), i^rjv {^v, vTrrjpxev), and adjectives (also 

[part II. 



§ 1 1 8.] Tlie Indicative and its Tenses. 97 

gerundives) with r]v {koXKiov, bUaiov, Kpe'iTTov), are put without av, in order to denote [§ 
the duty or proper conduct i;nconditionally. Ei anavrei coixokoyov^ev ^'CKltvitov rfjv nS.] 
flpfjvrjv 7rapaj3aiveiv, ovdev ciWo eSet tov irapLoura {an orator, who rose to sjjeah) 
•\ ' __ V o A _ ' '^ :' ' v-_^ ' „'_:...,: „,'... ,^„ I Tt^n^-> a (\\ v^W,. 




yvvaiKfs epeAAni' fpyti 

(El 6' TJv dvaynalov pr]6r]vai, ov Arjpoadevovs rjv 6 Auyo?, JEsch. 3, 229 ; it was not for 
D. to say it.) Tav ipo\ avyyiyovoTiav riua fXP^l^ Me\r]Tov Trapaa-xecrdai paprvpa {PI. 
Apol. 34). But also eSet av. El eyw fVi iv bvvapei rju tov padias Tvopfvea-Qai ■jvpo'S to 
aa-Tv, ov8ev av as eSei bevpo levai {PI. Hep. 1, 328 ; thou hadst no need, there would 
he no occasion, &c.) ^ 

b) By a rhetorical mode of expression, the imperfect without «V is used to denote 
what would be (or have been) an immediate and easily-foreseen consequence of 
any thing (instead of the aorist with av. — The consequence or prospective result 
denoted as already in the act of taking place). 'Q,pprip,evcov Ta>v ev '2dpu>'Adrivaiu>v 
TrXeif eVi acpas avTovs {against their countrymen at home), iv w a-a(p€a-TaTa 'Icovlav 
Kal'EWrjiTTOvTov evdv'; elxov ol TVoXepLoi, kcoXut))? 'AXKi/itaSr;? eyeVero {Thuc. 8, 8(j). 
OvTe (Bs awoKTeivaifv ol 6fo\ to Ta>v dvdpu>Tva>v yevos, fl^ov — al ri/tal yap avToli kuI 
TO. Upa Ta rrapa tu>u dvOparroiv r]<j)avL^eTo — arid' oTTcoy f^ei' aa-eXyaiveiv {PI. Conv. 190). 
TavTu npci^as {had I done this — , by such actions), n ovtus pov KaTrjyopel, €Kep8aivov 
pev oi'SeV, ipavTov 6' ei? Kivhvvov KadiaTrjv {Li/s. 7, 32). ('Hf is also now and then 
put, without this meaning, for rjv liv {would have been), the hypothetical being 
rhetorically represented as actual : Mera tijv pdxrjv evdvs 6 8iipos, iv auxoT? T0I9 ^eivols 
epj3€J3r]Ka>s, rjvlii ov8' dyvcopovrjaai ti OavpaaTov rjv tovs tvoWovs irpos epe, rrepi acoTrj- 
pias TTjs TToXew? tus epcis yvcopas ix^i-poTovn, Dent. 18, 218. Other omissions of av 
are very questionable -.) 

Eem. 1. Of II'' flxov {that I might have) without liv (hypothetical^waZ sentence) 
see Optative, § 131 b. E.. 3. 

Rem. 2. The aoiist with vKlyov, within a little, almost, always without av : 
'OX/yov e^rjTrdTrja-ds pe {PI. Meno, 80). 

Rem. 3. The present and perfect indicative never take av. In the older 
poetical language (Homer, Pindar, Choral Odes) occasionally liv {k€v) occurs 
with the future indicative by a mixture of a simple mode of assertion with a 
dubitative (Pres. or Aor. Optat. with liv). In Attic writers (except in Choral 
Odes) this usage is very questionable. 

Rem. 4. On the place of uV, its repetition, &c., see Op>tative with liv, § 139. 



' 'H,3ouXo/xr;i/ now and then for rjjiovXoprjv liv (e. g. Arist. Pan. 8o6). 

- 'H TToXis eKivdvvevire iruaa 8ia(pdaptivai, el livepos eTreyeVero Tjj (pXoyi, Thuc. 3, 74. 
'EKiv8vv€va€ stands unconditionally ( — a7id tuould have been ruined, if — ). Ov yap 
81] Tvov (TOV ye ov8ev toov liXXwv nepiTTOTepov 71 pnypaTevopevov eneiTa roaavTrj (j)r]pri re 
(CHI Xuyo? yeyovev, el pi] ti ejrpaTTes dWolov ij ol aXXot {PI. Apol. 20. A mixture 01 
an unconditional expression : has not arisen ivithout thij doing — , and a conditional, 
if thou didst not — ). 



CHAP. I.] 



c)8 Tlie Subjunctive and its Tenses. [§ 119, 120. 

CHAPTER II. 

The Siibjunctive {Conjunctive) and its Tenses. 

§ Both in the Subjunctive and in tlie Optative an action or state is put 

119, as a conception presented to the speaker^'s mind, without his at the 
(34^) same time enunciating* it as real : but the subjunctive denotes the 

thing- as siiid in reference to present or future time, and to reality, as 
something demanded, or as something purposed and aimed at, or as a 
case of possible occurrence ; whereas the optative denotes it either in 
reference to the past, as something that was once purposed and aimed 
at, or a case conceived as having occurred in the past, or also as a 
(juite indefinite possibility (as a wish, or dubitatively with av) . The 
Greeks, however, in certain kinds of dependent propositions, not 
unfrequently omit to intimate the reference to the past, so that the 
subjunctive is put for the optative (but never conversely) . In other 
kinds of dependent propositions, where the optative should stand, it 
not unfrequently happens, that the relation is left unmarked and the 
indicative is used. 

Rem. The subjunctive and optative are far from being constantly used in all 
sorts of dependent propositions which denote something merely conceived and 
thought ; they are employed only where a need had been felt for denoting this, 
while in others the speaker, not caring to denote this, uses the indicative (see 
after Optative, at the end of chapter 3). In certain kinds of subordinate proposi- 
tions, e. g. in object-sentences with oVt and wy, or in dependent interrogative 
sentences, the modification is not denoted, when they belong to a governing sen- 
tence in the present or future (they stand therefore in the indicative, not in the 
subjunctive) ; but is denoted, when the tense used in the governing sentence is a 
fTceteritum (then they stand in the optative). With less exact accuracy, and by 
reason of a certain liveliness in the expression, it sometimes happens, that some- 
thing which is part of a conception belonging to the past, is put as part of a 
conception belonging to the present, and so the optative passes into the subjunc- 
tive, or (where this is not used) into the indicative, without in any remarkable 
way affecting the thought. 

§ a) The Subjunctive in the first person (in the singular not usually 

120. without a preceding ^epe or a'ye) is used in exhortation and demand, 
(352 a, affirmatively, or with the negation /u.r;. "Iwixev. M?/ (f)o(3dj/xeda. ^epe 

^) Bi], Ta9 ixapTvpia<i vfilv avayvb) {jDem. 18, 267). ^kpe. 8tj koX 6aov<; 
auTO<i iXvadfxr]v roov aly^fxaXdirayv , eiiro) irpo^ vpa^ [Dem. IS;', 1G9). 

b) In the second and third person, the aorist of the subjunctive 
stands with p,i] in prohibitions : M^ iroirjcrT]'; tovto. See hnjperative, 
§ 14-2. 

[part II. 



^ 121.] The Subjunctive and its Tenses. 99 

Rem. Rarely, and poetically, /xr; is used with the first person, in prayins: that 
something may not befall the speaker : 'AAXd /n' eV T^?Se -yfys nvpdfxevaov us 
Td)(i(TTa fj.rjS' avTov dava> [SojjJi. Truck. 801). 

Siibj. clubitativus.'] The subjunctive is used in simple interrogations ^ 
or in doubting questions (expressive of disapprobation, displeasure, 121, 
denial), of that which shall come to pass, is to he done (what one is (351) 
challenged to do, what one is required to do by the will of another, 
what can and shall be done), both .when they are direct, and when 
they are dependent on a leading verb in the present or future ' : Tt 
(^S) ; ri Spw; Tlb)<;ovv Sr] irepl avTMP tovtcov Xiycoixev Kal 7rcb<;7roict)/u,ev; 
[PI. P/iil. 63.) Ao/cet -x^privac, & ^Yjpv^l/jia^e ; i7ri6(o/j,ai ra> dvSpl Kal 
TifJLcopijcrco/Jiai vficov ivavrlov ; (PL Conv. 214.) Ae^ecrOe ri/jid<; rj aTrito- 
fiev ; [PI. Conv. 212. Will ye receive us, or are toe to go aioay ?) 
''\va Qvv rpcaKovTa dvdpcoTroc XetTovpy^crcoa-iv rj/jLLv, tou<; ciiravra^ a~ia- 
TU)<; TTpa '))fxa<; avToin; Suidwfiev ; [I)em. 20, 22.) 'Apa, ecfyij 6 S&J/cpctT?;?, 
/XT) ala-^^yvdoifxev top Uepaoiv jBaatXea fiLfxijcraadaL ; {Xen. Q^con. 4, 4.) 
YioOev ovv Ti9 ap^r^TM, iroWrj^ ovarj<i irepl to. afXipL^^rjrovfieva At«%>?? ; 
[PI. Phil. 15.) TiVo? eveKa icj) rj/nMV irpwrov KaraSefx^df} toiovtov 
epyov ; {Dem. 20, 117; lohj is snch a deed to he done for the first time 
in our days 7) — ^ Kiropw, r^v t itSeK(f)r]i> oirui'i eifhoi koX TaX)C oiroOev 
hioLKOi {JJern. 27, ^^). HovXeuo/xai, ttw? ere cnroSpS) [Xen, Cyr. 1, 4, 13). 
Ou/c e';^&J, OTTft)? aoi elircti a vooi [PI. Eafhyph. 11). Ot kcltti^Xoi (f)pov~ 
Ti^ovcnv, 6,TC iXdrrovo^; irptdp.evoi TrXeiovo^i dTroBowTac [Xen. Jlem. 3, 
7, 6). Td eKTroo/xara ovk olS" el l^pvaavra tovtw Sco, eVet koI rrjv 
eSpav GOV v(^/]p'Traa€v [Xe)i. Cyr. 8, 4, 16). ("E;^;ei) and ovk e^co o, n (0) 
with the subjunctive often occur in the sense, have something [nothing) 
to — : Ovhkv 'S.coKpdreL Siolaet^ idv fiovov exo, orw BiaXeyrirao [PI. 
Conv. 194; somebody to converse tvith). '^Kdrepoi e-)(QvaLv icf) oh 
<pLXoTiix7}9o3cnv. Isocr. Paneg. 44.) 

Rem. 1. Wlien the speaker is less concerned to mark the notion of requirement 
(the is to he), it is not unfrequently omitted, and such a question, whether direct or 
indirect, is put in the indicative future (as a question what will happen) : Ti oxiv 
7roirj(Toixfv ; noTfpov els ti]v tvoKiv TTcivras tovtovs Trapa8e^6fxeoa i] tovs fxiv, tovs 8' ov ; 
{PI. Sep. 3, 397.) Ap' ovv OrjaopeOa I'ufxov 8ui ravra fxrjbe to Xoinov i^elvai rfj ^ov\fj 
firjBe T<5 8r]fxa> fit'ire Tvpoiiovktviiv /:ij}re ;)(eiporoi'f tf prjdfv ; {Dem. 20, 4i; stiatl tre 
maJce a law /) Ovk i'xeTe, olfiai, o, n Trotijcrere (Dem. 8, 32). Hence the phrase i.s 
either ovk i'xo), o,ti ;cp>7crco/xai roi iwdpunrco, rw apyvpia {ichat to do tvitli — ), or, 
sometimes ;^pi7(ropni. (E'lTrwpfv ij aiyu>pev, fj ri dpaa-opfu ; J^ui\ Io7i, 758. 'Api\- 
XSivrai, oTTvTfpoi (f)dr]crovTai ttju nuXiv dyadov ti nodjauvTes, Isocr. Paneg. 79.) 

Rem. 2. In deliberating with oneself or others Avhat to do (say, think) now 
immediately, the question is sometimes put in the first person of the present 

' Viz. regularly ; of the subjunctive instead of the optative after a leading verb in 
a prffiteritum (§ 119, R.), see Ojjtailve, § 130 b, and also the following §§. 
CHAP. II.] H 3 



100 TJie Subjunctive and its Tenses. [§ 122. 

[§, indicative: najs ow, w 'AXKi^inSry, Trotoi'/xei' ; oiVcos ovVe rt Xeyojuei' effi r^ kvXlki 

121.] oi/r' eVaSoyLiei', dXX' are^i'wj wsTTfp ot St^'aii'Tes' TTto/ie^a ; (PZ. Cowc. 214. What do 
we then, Alcihiades ? Directly afterwards we have 'AXXa ri noia^ev ,-) 

Rem. 3. Of the dubitative question in the oi^tative with civ, see Optative, § 136. 
^ The subjunctive stands in propositions of intention [final sentences) 

122. with the conjunctions Tva, &>9 (poet, ocj^pa), ottw^, in order that (iva fir], 
(355) ft)? jxi], o7r&)9 [JiTj, sometimes simply ixi], that — not; lest) after a governing 
verb in the present or future. .'II? and ottw? in this sense sometimes 
take av, never 'iva or the simple nrj \ "Ottw? (without av) and oVft)? ixtj, 
however, sometimes take, instead of the aor. 1 of the subjunctive, the 
future indicative, whereby the thing" intended, is brought out more 
independently, as a thing that w^ll occur. (See note at end of following §.) 
BacTiXeu? alpelraL. ov')(^ 'iva eavrov KaXo)^ eTn/JLeXijrat, aXX. iva Kat, oi 
ekofxevoL 8i avrhv ev TrpaTTcoaiv {Xen. Mem. 3, 2, 3). AoKel /loi Kara- 
Kavaai Ta? dfxd^a<;, a<; e'^ofJ^ev, 'iva fiij ra t,ev<yri rjficov cnparrj'yf], dWa 
TpairdofieOa, ottj] dv rfj arparia avfi^epr] [Xen. An. 3, 2, 27). Ttcrcra- 
(f)€pvt]<i hiavoeLTai ttjv <ye^vpav Xvcrat t?j<? vvkt6<;, co? ixtj 8ia^rJT€, dW ev 
fxicra) dTToXTjcfiOrJTe rod TroTafiov koX t')]<; hi(apv^o<i [Xen. An. 2, 4, 17). 
Et? KUipov ')]K€i<i, OTTO)? T?}? Si/cT;? aKOvarj'i irapcov t?}? a/j,(f)t rod 7raTpo<; 
{Xe/i. C'y/r. 3, 1, 8). 'Eay tiV aot Kafivrj rcbv oiKeTcov, 7rapaKaXei<; 
larpoix;, oirwi /xr] dirodavr) [Xen. Mem. 2, 10, 2). Tauro. jijveTai., ovj(^ 
OTTft)? Tov<; avrov<i avXrjTa'; eTraivcoaiv ol TroXtTUL ovB otto)? rovi avTOV<; 
TTOirjrd'i dipwvTai, ovh^ 'iva Toi<i avrol^; ri^covTai, dW iva roi? vo/xoi'i 
ireiOwvTai [Xen. Mem. 4, 4, 16). Su, Si iral, dv a(xi<^povfi<;, tov<; 6eov<i 
'7rapaiT7]arj avyyvoo/xovd^; aot, elvai, et rt iraprifiiX'rjKa^ t?}? /u.7;Tpo<f, fxr) ere 
Kul ovTOC vofMl(TavTe<; dydpLarov elvai ovk edekoycnv ev iroielv {Xen. Mem. 
2, 2, 14). — TouTi Xapcov fiou to aKidheiov vrrepe')(e dvcodev., co? dv ixrj ^ 
IJb opMCTLV ol 6eol {Arist. Ares 1509). 'O rvpavvo<i iroXefiov^; Ttvd<; del 
KLvel, IV ev XP^^^ rj<yefJL6vo<i 6 hrjjxo'^ fj koX, edv riva^ inroinevr) eXevdepa 
<^povi]ixara €XOVTa<i /mrj irrnpe-^eiv avrw dpx^tv, otto)? dv rovrovi fxerd 
'Trpo(j)daeo)<; diroXXvrj, ivSov<; rot(; TroXefxioi'i [PI. Hep. 8, 567). — Ol 
avfifiaxoi ovSe St ev dXXo rpecfyovrai rj ottco^ [xayovvrai virep tmv rpe- 
(povroov {Xen. Cyr. 2, 1, 21). Xp; dva^i^d^etv eirl rov Tpoj(ov rov<; 

^ Where 'iva liv occurs, 'iva means ichere. With a>s and oiras, av effects no per- 
ceptible change of meaning. [But Hermann, ms, or onas, av eXdco, uf veniam si 
forte vetiias; that, if so he, may come. T. K. A. — Rather (comp. F articles, § 302), 
the av denotes that the thing intended will ensue — ottcdj eTv^w, that I may come, 
Buch being the intention whether realized or not ; but ottco? av 'ikQw, that / may 
come, as, in tlie case siqyposed, I shall: almost = so shall I come. So in the 
place cited, Aristoph. Av. 1509, ws av \ir] fx opwcriv ol BeoL, so shall the gods not see 
vie. H. B.] ^ 

" <os av fir] fi^ opojcriv ol 6foi, that, as far as this goes, tlie gods see me not — so 
sliall the gods not see me; without av, merely to the intent that they, &c. 

[part II. 



^ 123.] TJie Subjunctive and its Tenses. 10 1 

dva'ypa(j)6VTa<; {fopiit f/ie persons denounced upon fke rack), orrax; fjJj -rrpo- 
repov vv^ earai irplv irvdecrdat Tov<i dvhpa^ a7ravTa<i [Andoc, \, 43) . 

The subjunctive stands in object-sentences annexed by otto)? or § 
OTTW? /ti?? to the present or future of verbs or phrases denoting, to 123. 
endeavour {to take care, to toorJc iipon others) that something- may, or (354, 
may not, be done (as einixeXeladat, a-TTovSa^eiv, irapaa-Keuu^eiv, irpaTreiv, ^''^' 
jiriyavaaOai, Trapw^/yeXXecv, irpovoLav €)(€Lv, irepl ttoXKov iroieiaOai,, Trpo^; 
TovTo rov vovv exeiv, &c.). IBut the future indicative is also used, in 
order to mark the object prominently as something that will occur, 
or as a state that continues in the future, and this is the most usual 
form ; somewhat less frequent the subjunctive of the present and aor. 2, 
while that of the aor. 1 active and middle is even very rare in object- 
sentences with OTTO)?. Now and then civ is added to ottw?, and^ then 
always the subjunctive : "AXkov rov apa iirifieX'tjcrec i^ixiv ekOoiv iirl to. 
Tj}? 7roA,ea)9 irpd'yfxaTa rj ottco? otc /BeXrcaroL ol TroXlrai (bfiev ; {PI. Gor;/. 
515.) ^evdr}<i KeXevet B,evo(f)(ovTa irpoOvfJbeladai,, 07r&)9 Sca^fj to arpa- 
reufjia {Xen. An. 7, 1, 5). Et t/? aot, TOiv jvcopL/j-wv Kivhvvevu St 
evhecav d-TToXiaOaL, ovk olei croi a^tov ehao eirt.fieXridrivai, ottw^ Scacrcodfj; 
{Xen. Mem. 2, 10, 2.) ^/XtTTTro? wvelTat Tvapa twv irpia/Secov, otto)? fiy 
d-rriwixev e/c IMa/ceSoz/ta? {Bern. 18, 32).— ^'n?7re/3 rov irotfieva Set irri- 
fieXelaOai,, otto)? acoal re eaovraL al ole<; Kol rd eTrcryjSeia e^ovcrLv, ourco 
Kal rov a-rparrjybv eTTi/jieXeladai Set, ottw? crwot re oi arparicbrac ecrovrat 




hiearrovhaarai rot? vo^oi'^ ; "Ottw? /jltj <yevi]crovTac ot, irepi aXXi]Xou^ 
(f^ovot {Bern. 20, 157)'. — Ot vavraL rw vavicXi]pu) TvepiKexvvrai Seo/Mevoi 
Kal TTuvra iroiovvre^, 07rft)9 av (TCpcac ro TrrjBdXiov eTnrpe'y^r) {PI. Rep. 
6, 488). (El Tov ixdpov KaKcos TToirjTeov icTTiv, kukov Se fxiyitTTOv avTt) t] uSmia iarh 
fv r/; -^vx^ ivova-a [irjbe rificopiu eKKadaipofievrj, edv Tiva ahiK]] 6 ix^pos, ttcivtI Tpono) 
TTapaa-Kevaa-Teov, otto)? p.r]8e eXOr) napa tov diKaa-TTjv' iav^Se eX6i], fit]xavr]Teov,oTrcos 
av 8ia<pvyT] /cat /xr] Sw di<rjv, dXX\ iav re xP^'^''-°^ rjpTruKMS r) rroXii, pf] dTro8t.8u> tovto 
dW excov dva\i(TKi] ddUcos Kcil ddeas, edv re av davdrov a^ia rj8iicr]K0)i .^, on cos p-i] 
drrodaveiTai, pciKiara fiev pr]8e7roTe ciAX' dddvaros earai novrjpos u>v, el 8e fir], t ttcos 
0)5 nXelcTTOv xP'^vov ^lataerai, PI. GrO)'(j. 480.) 

Eem. 1. "Ottco? is originally an interrogative particle {how), in wbieli significa- 
tion it is frequently used. Verbs like aKondv, (dovXeiea-dai, &p., denote therefore, 
in the first instance : to consider tiow a thing inaj/ be done (as intention), in which 
sense the fut. indie, is exclusively used (AvdyKT] a-Koirelv, onm ra irpdypara 

' Sii/mTrei? Ttjaao-t'wva KeKevovai npoaTaTevaai, orrcoj eKTrXevcr// // arpaTid {jL.en. An. 
5, 6, 21). 
CHAP. II.] 



102 TJic Subjunctive and its Tenses. [§ 124. 

[§• (rcoBrja-erai, Dem. 9, 63. TiixoKpdrrjs rols irovrjpois, ottcos jj-t] fiwtrowcrt 81kt]v, 686v 

23.] 8eLKvv(riv, Dem. 24, 106); consequently, at tlie same time, to take measures that 
it may be done, in ^vliieli sense tlie subjunctive may also be used. (Oi fiovov 
yJMjcpL^ecrdaL Ti]v elpr)VT)v del, aXXa Koi ^ovXtveadaL, oncos a^ofxev avrrji' Koi pr] rraXiv 
els ras avTtii KaTa(Trr]a6fie6a rapaxas, Isocr. de Pac. 25. Tovro poi 8oKel aKenreov 
CLVai, OTToiS us eXn)(iq'Ta pev rpavpara XdlScopev, a)s e\d)(t<TTa de aaipara avbpuiv ano- 
(jiiWuypev, A-Cn. Jin. 4, 6, 10. '2KoTvel, onus prj e^apvos e'aei a. viiv Xeyets, PI. 
Ealhyd. 283.) ^ Then it comes to be used with all verbs which denote an endea- 
vouring and an acting in order to a piirijose, Avith loss of the interrogative sense, 
and consequently with mixed construction, rarely with aor. 1, which so much 
resembles the future. Lastly, it also denotes merely the intention (§ 122), in 
which sense the subjunctive predominates, and the fut. indie, is more rare. 

Rem. 2. This construction of ottcoj must be kept quite distinct from the relative 
oTra>s in the expression ovk. earip onas, there is no way in which — , it is not 
possible that (§ 102, b. R. 2), w^hich never has the subjunctive. 

Rem. 3. After verbs like (tkottw, jSovXevopai, &c., there may also be attached by 
OTTO)? a dependent interrogative sentence with (potential) optative and ch (see 
§ 137), of that which may probably take place : Skottw, ottcos av 6 pev nals obe 6 
cros Koi T] TTois rjSe cos paara didyoiev, ijpels 8' dv paXicrra ev(ppaii>OLpeda dtdipevoi 
avTovs (-STeH. Conv. 2). 

Rem. 4. Elliptically oVo)?, onas pt], pr]8eis, &c. stand often with the second, 
more rarely with the third or first person of the fut. indie, to denote a command, 
a prohibition, instead of the imperative {see to it, that) : "Otto^s ovv eaeade cwdpes 
a^ioi Tr}S eKevdepias, r]v KeKTrjade {JlCH. An. 1, 7, 3). 'Ottco? ene^ei ra piapa Kai 
pr] 8ia\va-T] {Dem. 21, 216. Prosecute the rascal, and make no terms^). "Onas 
Toivvv Trepl rov TroXepov pr]8ev epels' ov8e\s yitp ov8ev alriaTai Trepl avTov (re {Dem. 
19, 92). {TovTois eya> d'rroKpivovpat Kaff cKaarov aKpi^as' /cat o;ra)?, acnrep epcorcocri 
7Tpodvp<os, ovTa> Kal TToie'Lv edeXi](rovcrLV. Dem. 8, 38. ''Ottcds fie to avp^oXov XajSovres 
eneira ttXi^ctlov Ka6e8ovpe6a, Arist. Eccl. 297-) (The aorist subjunctive only in 
uncertain passages.) (Of another elliptic use of ottcos pt], see § 124, b. R. 1.) 

Rem. 5. After (iovXei, jBovXecrde (mostly interrogative) the aorist subjunctive is 
used with owcos omitted (never the fut. indie.) : BovXecrB^ ovv vplv avrovs rrapa- 
crx^apai pdprvpas tovtovcti, on Trdvra rdvavTia epo\ Kal tovtois nenpaKrai ; {Dem. 
19, 205.) 

Rem. 6. Rarely w? for ottois in object-sentences : Ot piv tovtov iwipeXovvTat, ios 
exj] ovTos, 01 8e ouk e-mpeXovvrai (Xew. CEcon. 20, 8). 

§ a) The subjunctive stands in propositions with yu.?; after verbs and 

24. phrases denoting" fear and apprehension (SeSot/ca, ^o^ovpiai, okvco, 

;54. (f)povTi^(o, ovSev Seivov, I// ere is no danger of, &e.), or taking heed and 

^ ' precautions against {(f)v\drTO/u,ac, evXa/Sovfiat,, opoi, (jKoiroi), to denote 



^ Cf. "SiKOTTOvcriv, e^ otov rpoTrov ol MeyaXoTToXlrai (piXoi vplv prj yevrjcrovrai {Dem. 
16, 19; shall he hindered that they may not become — ). 'AptOTeuj enpaa-a-e, onrj 
0)(f)eXeid Tis yevrja-erai {Thuc. 1, 65 ; negotiated hoio succour should come). 

' The i)reseut of eJpi is treated as future. 

[part II. 



§ 124-] The Subjunctive and its Tenses. 103 

that of which one is afraid, or ao-ainst which one is on his guard {ne ; \h 
IJbT] ov, ne lion) : opcb and o-kottco, ^irj often merely denotes a suspicion ^~^^ 
or surmise {see tvhether — not) . Of a fear, in reference to the past, fit] 
is mostly used with the perfect indicative : AeSooKa, fiij iinXaOcofieOa 
T»}9 OLKaSe 680V {Xen. An. 3, 2, 25). ^povTi^w, firj KpaTicTTov y fioc 
(TLydv KivSvpev'j} yap aTrXw? ovhev elhevai {Xen. Mem. 4; 2, 39). To. 
Trepl T7]<i ■^v')(ri'i ttoWtju aTriariav [mistrust and fear) 'Trape-)(et roU 
avOpoiiTOL'^. fi}], eireihav airaXKayfj rov a-coiiarof;, ovhap,ov en r) aXX 
eKelvi] rfi rj/J^epa StacpdeipTjrai Kol airoWvrjTaL, y av dv9pco7ro<; cnroOdvri 
{PI. Phced. 70).' Twv <j)vkdKcov iv eavTOc<i /9i] (TTacnatpvTWV, ovSev Seo9, 
jjLrjTrore rj dX\r] ir6\c<; Trpo? rouTOVi hi^oaTarrjar] {PL Phmd. 465). 
Eu^uSt/Zao? (puXaTrerai, /xi] So^rj rov XcoKpaTyv Bavixci^eiv iirl ao^ia 
{Xen. Mem. 4, 2, 3). "Opa ovv, p.i] tl koI vvv \\XKL/3LdSr)^ ipyda-rjrai {PI. 
Co?w. 213). — ^o^ovfieda, prj dp,(})OTepo)v yfxaprrjicap.ev {Thuc. ?>, 53). 
Rem. 1. Now and then yt^ with the future indicative stands after verbs denoting; 
a fear, to express rather a mere suspicion of what will happen, -ind^to give 
prominence to the notion of futurity : ^ojBovfiai, fxr] Tiva<: r]8ouas rjSovais evprjacfiev 
evavTias {PI. Pkit. 13). El nadfja-ovTm oi TroXe/xtot, x^P'^ yevofMevoi ol yev KaTa 
Tj-poscoTvov rjpiv, cosTj-fp vvv, evavnova-Bai, al S" e'/c TrXayiov, ai 8e Kai OTnaoev, opa, p.r] 
TToXkav eKcicTTa rjpaiv Kol 6(jida\pa)V Koi ^eipwi' dfi^aeL (JiTeH. Cj/r. 4, 1, 18). Also firj 
after opw stancls with the pres. indie, as a merely interrogative. particle {lohetJier) : 
'Opafiev, fif] NiKt'as olWat ti Xe-yeij/ koi ov Xoyov evfKa ravra Xtyei {PI. Lack. 12b). 
Eeh. 2. M17 stands elliptically with the pres. subjunctive to es|n-ess a fear, or 
usually merely a suspicion {if only — not; I fear that) : M17 aypoiKorepov y to akr]-^ 
6es elneiv 6kvS> yap Topylov eveica Xeyetv {Ft. Gorff. 462). 'AXXa p-rjov tovt ?/ 
XaXeTVOV, Bdvarov eKcf^vyelv, dWa ttoXv xa^fTrcorepoi', irovrjpiav' BaTTOv yap Gavarov 
eel (PI. Apol. 39. I fear the difficulty is not — ). 'AWap^ ovx ovtcos e'x??, « 
2a3KpaTes, dXX' dvayKalov fj eldora Tidecrdai rov TiBipevov to. ovopara {Ft. Crat. 43i) ; 
that tie u-lio gave the names must liave given them after knoiotedge of the things). 
See b. Rem. 

Rem. 3. From putting ovk {ovMs, ovKen, ovkow) before the elliptic pi] {prjivore) 
with the subjunctive, there results the denial of a fear {lam not afraid tliat = ovhiv 
huvov, pi], there is no danger, no fear, that — , or, of—), which is frequently used 
merely as a strong denial of the thing itself; a future with strong negation: Instead 
of the aor. subjunct. som.etimes (cf. R. 1) the fut. indie, is used without percepti- 
ble difference of meaning : 'EttI tovtov tov Ittttov kuX Biojkoiv, ov av OeXrjs,^ aipT]o-€t.s 
Kol dT70x(opo)v ov pr] 8eiaj]S tov noXepiov {Xen. An. 7, 3, 26). ^coKpdnjs, OTToaov av 
KfXfvr] Tis, eKTviiov ov8ev pdXXov pr]7ror€ pedva-dj] {Ft. Conv. 21'!). EavaTvo- 
yvwre Tr]v ypacj)r]V ruvrtjv, ciiravTes elaiv dTTr]XXaypevnL Kal hl.Kr]V ovbeh ovSepiav^ pr] 
8a> {Bern. 22, 39). — Tolovtov €aTepr]pai f7TiTr]8eiov, olov ov8eva pi] it ore evp^fra 
{Pi. Grit. 44). KaXXiKpaTi8as fiTrev, on rj 2ndpTr] ovSev pr] Kamov otfcteirat avrov 
dnodavovTos, cfjevyeiv 8' ala-^pov eivat e(j)r] {Xen. Sett. 1, 6, 32). 

Rem. 4. From the use of ov pi], explained in the preceding remark, we must care- 
fully distinguish the use of ov pi], with the second person of the fut. indie, (never 
the subjunctive) in questions expressive of a peremptory and veheinent prohibi- 
tion, the pi] with the verb forming a negative notion {wilt thozi not give over doing 
it — ? ^oilt thou not not-do it?). A positive command,in the shape of a question, may 

CHAP. II.] 



104 The Subjunctive a7id its Tenses. [§ 125. 

[■§ precede with simple ou, or follow with li^Xa : Ov ixfj Xrjprjaeis ; {Arist. IVuT). 367-) 

124.] OvKovv Kokfls avTov Koi fXTj atpTjcreis ; {PI. Conv.llo. Wilt thou not call /lim, and 
not let him (jo ? = call him, do, and don't let him go!) Ov ^i) XaXijcreis nXX' 
dKo\ov6r](reis e'/xol duvaas ti Sevpt doTTov ; {Arist. Nub. 505.) 

b) Instead of ix^], verbs denoting- to fear, be apprehensive, beware, 
fake care, take also ott&j? ixrj with the subjunct. or indie, fut. by § 123. 
Likewise otto)? fxi] is put after verbs denoting a prohibition {airayo- 
peuco). Ov (fio/Set, SiKU^o/Jievof; tu> Trarpl, ottco^; jxrj avoaiov irparjfxa 
rvyyavrj^ TrpuTTcop ; {PI. Eidlt^ph. 4.) ^vkaTrov, 6'7r(o<; ixrj rod ev8o- 
^eiv e7ri6v/j,(ov et? Tovvavrlov e\drj(; [Xen. Mem. ?>, 6, 16). Hi^ehoiKa, 
OTTO)? firj TrdvB' ajxa, oaa ov ^ov\6p.e6a, iroLelv rj/xlv avajKr] 'yevi^aerat 
{Dem. 9, 75). JLvXa/Selade, oiroo^ fii] eyo) iiiro irpoOvpiia^ a/xa eixavrov 
re Koi vp.d<; e^aTran'jcra'i ol')(i'}aopLai [PL Phad. 91). ATreiprjrai fioi, 
oTTCt)? fiTjSev ipco biv 7]<yovp.at [PL Hep. \, 337). 

Rem. 1. "Ottm? /atj is often put elliptically (see a. R. 2) with the fut. indie, 
(hardly the subjunctive) in the sense, see to it that — not : Et tu,v Sicokovtcov koi 
KaraKaLvuvTcov tovs rjnerepovs TroXf/xtovs ho^ojxev a/j-eXflv, ottcl>s /hi) cdaxpol fxev (fiavov- 
fieSa, oo-^emy 8' eaofxeOa, crvixp.dx<j>v aTropovvTes {Xen. Ci/r. 4, 2, 89 ; it is to be 
Jea^'ed we shall — ). "Ottuis fxij cOToXel p.aa-Tiyovp.fi'os, (Treidav o'lkoi fjs {Xen. Cj/r. 
1, 3, 18). Oifiot ToXas, 6 Zevs ottcos jir) p! o^erai {Arist. Aves 1494). With the 
indie, of a preterite b^'' a : 'AXX' oncos jirfv rois Tpi^cocriv ijKddrjvrai oi Xldoi {Arist. 
Ach. 343). 

Rem. 2. Verbs denoting a fear rarely take as (with the indie., as after the verbs 
denoting to think, be ofopinioji) : M/) delarjre cos ou;^ j/Seco? Kcidevdija-ere (Xen. Cyr. 
G, 2, 30), 

Rem. 3. (To § 123 and 124.) On the mood in object-sentences after a prae- 
teritum, see Optative, § 131. 

§ The subjunctive is used in conditional sentences with edv {ijv, av, 

125. from et dv), which are only used of that which is possible now or 

at a future time : "Aira^ Xoyo^, av dirfj rd Trpdy/jiara., fidraiov n <^alve~ 

rai Kal k6v6v {Bern. 3^ 12), "Hy Ti? dvOia-rrjrai, rreipaaofieOa -xetpovadai 

{Xen. An. 1, 3, 11). 

Rem. 1. 'Eay carries with it in a more marked way than d, the notion that the 
supposition is an indefinite, single case, of (merely) possible occurrence ^ : «/" = 
should it turn out to be the fact that ; but the difference is sometimes scarcely 
perceptible : 'E a y pkv ovv (6 "Afpo^os) dpyov (p jj yeviaOai to ipyaa-Ti-jpiov, \6yov 
avTos aTrevrjvoxfu dvaXafxarav els epya' e I 8' av yeveadai epyaaiav cprj cr e i, t5>v 
o epyuiv aTvpacriav eluai, Set dnnov rd y epya avTov OTroSeScuKora cbaiveadai {Dem. 
27, 20). 

Rem. 2. In the Ionic and Doric poets the subjunctive sometimes follows d 
without liv {Kiv): in the Attic poets (except in the Choral Odes), or in prose 
(except in the archaic phraseology of law) there are no sure examples of this. 

^ [According to Buttmann, idv puts the case as uncertain, but possible, and to be 
determined by subsequent experience. — T. K. A.] 

[part. II. 



§ 126, 12/.] TJic Subjunctive and its Tenses. 105 

The subjunctive stands with relative words (pronouns^ adjectives, ^ 
adverbs) which take av (09 av, o<iTi% av, olo<; av, oao^ av, &)? av, oirov 126. 
av, &c.). Hereby, in reference to the present or future, an individual 
conting-ency among- several that are possible, is put more prominently 
than by the simple relative [wJioever, ^vhosoever ; such . . . as). 2f/i- 
fia')^eiv Tovroi<i eOeXovaiv airavre<i, 0&9 av opwcn TrapecKevacrfxevov^ 
Kol TrpciTTetv ide\ovTa<i a ^p?; [Deni. 4, b). Ot civdpcoTrot, iv w av 
{so long as) iroXefjioicn, rov irapovra TroXe/xov uel fieyiarov Kpivovcnv 
[Thuc. V, 21). "Att' av aoc Xo'yi^ofievcp ^aivrjTat /SeXriaTa, ravTU roi? 
epyoL'i eVtreXet [Isocr. de Nic. 38). "Oaw av aKpi/Becrrepov ra meTrpa- 
ypjkva ixdBr]re, toctovtw hiKOiorepav OrjaeaOe rrjv '\\rrj(^ov {Bern. ?9, 4). 
"^ireade oirrj civ ri? yyijTai, KGcrfiov Kal cpvXaKrjv irepl 7ravT0<i TTOtovjjbevoi 
{Time. 2, 11). 

Eem. 1. Often the difference between o? and os nv is very small: Alria iariv, 
OTav Tis ■\//'iAw )(pr]<7dp.fvos Xoya ^r] Trapdax^Tai. ttiittiu, cou Xeyei, eXey^os 8e, orav, av 
av e'lTTTj Tis, KOL rdXtjOes ofjLoii dei^j} [Deiii. 22, 22). 

Rem. 2. In the poets this subjunctive is found with the relative put indefinitely, 
even without av ; e. g. Ttpovra S" opdnvv (pXavpov, 6s vios nfarj [Soph. Q^ld. C. 395 ; 
to raise up when old one lohofell when young). 

Eem. 3. Quite distinct from this use of the subjunctive after the relative with 
av (belonging to the relative) is the potential optative with av (§ 137), or the 
hypothetical indicative with civ (§ 117, b) in a relative sentence: "Ap^ofxat eV 
reiidev, odev Ka\ i)p.€ls pacrr av [iddoiTe Kayoi rdxicrT av 8i8d^aipi (Dem. 29, 5 ; from 
the point, from which you may most easily apprehend, and I most speedily unfold 
the matter). 

The subjunctive stands with all conjunctions of time to which av § 
is annexed {orav, bir orav, eireihav., iirdv, rjviK dv, ew? av, €<;t civ, fM€')(^pi'i 127. 
uv, fJ'e')(pi 01) dv, irplv dv) ; they serve to denote the indefinite point of 
time, and conting-ency in the present or future : ToOro Kal vvv ttoiovctcv 
ol ^dp/Sapot jBacnXel^, oirojav {whenever ; ivhen) arpaTOTreSevcovTaf 
Ta(ppov 7r€pi/3dXXovrat evireTCO'i Sid t7]v TroXv^eiptav {Xeit,. Cyr. 3, 3, 26). 
Eco? dv {so long as) au)^r]Tat ro aKd(j}o<i, rore ')(^pi] Kal vavrrjv Kal Kv^ep- 
vi^Trjv Kal TTcivr dvSpa e^?}? TrpoBvjjLOVi elvar eTreiSdv Se 1) OdXarra 
virepa'^^j}, /j,dTaio<i 7) airovhy] {Dem. 9, G9). ^vv fxev dTrei/xi ax; ^acrtXia' 
eTreiSdv Se BiaTTpd^cofiai, d Beofiai, rj^co uTrd^cov v/j-d<; et? rrjv 'EXXaSa 
{Xeu. An.. 2, 3, 29). Ovk civafiivofxev, eo)? dv {(ill) 77 rj/u,€Tepa %&)pa 
KaKOiTciL, dXXd (f)6dvovre^ tjStj Srjovfjuev rrjv rcov TToXe/JiLcov yrjv {Xe)i. Cyr. 
3, 3, 18). ^TTovhal eaovrat, /jii-)(^pi<; dv ^acnX^l rdirap v/jlmv BLayyeXOfj 
(Xen. An. 2, 3, 7). 'Edv (palvcoixat dSiKetv, ov -^pij fi ivdevBe direXOelv, 
"TTplv dv 8(o Slktjv {Xeu. An. 5, 7 , 5). 

Rem. 1. Without ilv these conjunctions stand with the indicative,'partly to denote 
the definite present time ("Ecos i'Ti vios elp,i, rijv ^vx')'' yvfivd^co. 'Ev piv rw arpa- 
CHAP. II.] 



io6 The Subjunctive and its Tenses. [§ 128. 

•[§ roTreSca o\ apypvT^s Trepieapaiv 'AXfctjStaSj/i' vtto navTcov TvpoTrrfKaKi^ojievov, e7reiS)7 te 

127.] vfios Set Trap' avrov hlKrjv \anj3aveiv, ^(apt^d/xei'ot ai^rw ■^evSop.apTvpoiKTi.v, Lys. 

15, 6; also eVfi, eVciSij, ore, oTToVe. in causal signification : since, irhereas) ; partly 

to denote a past time. Of -nplv with the infinitive, and its diiference from {ov — ) 

Tvplv av, see Infinitive, § 167. 

Rem. 2. Uplv, pexpi-, ecas/esre sometimes in the poets take the si;bjunctlve with- 
out av (Ml) (TTei>a((, TTp\v pcidrjs, Sojjh. Phil. 917) : irpiv and p-^xP'- (m^'xP' "^) 
also in some individual passages of prose wi'iters ; e. g. Ov Trporepov avrov utvoktiv- 
vvvac Sei, nplv dvdyKriv tlvci 6 6e6s iTnTTip.'\\rrj [PL Pliced. 62). ("Ore and eVet only 
in Ionic poets ; eVet re in Hdt.) 

Rem. 3 (to § 125 — 127). On the mood, in sentences of the kind here spoken 
of in the oratio ohliqua, after a prseteritum, see Optative, § 132. 

§ (The Tenses of the Subjunctive.) a) The subjunctive has no 

128, narrative tense, and no tense of the relative past, because it never 
denotes an action in reference to the past. The subjunctive has also 
no' separate future, as the reference to the future results from the 
construction of the sentence itself, and in some instances is made 
prominent by the transition to the future indicative (see § 123 and 124). 
The subjunctive of the aorist, as it does not at all express the past \ 
comes very near in point of signification to the present, and the differ- 
ence is only this, that the aorist denotes the action as single and 
transient, or as taking place at one definite instant distinct from the 
actual present, while the present denotes more in g^eneral the action 
and the state as going on, or at least not as occurring singly and 
with limitation to a point of time. Hence the aorist, both in object- 
sentences and in final sentences (of intention), contains a reference to 
the future (<^o/3oOyctat, /a?) <yevoii.iai, I fear I shall become, fit) yiyvcofxat, 
lest I become), and denotes, especially in sentences with idv, or with 
relatives or temporal conjunctions with av, a single and separate 
future action (like the Lat. fidurum exactmn in temporal and con- 
ditional propositions : OTav opoi, qunm, quofies video, orav i'So), quum 
videro). This reference, however, is not always made prominent, so 
that the present stands where the aorist might have stood, to mark the 
action as less transient ; and conversely the aorist is used of a present 
action, to denote it as transient and single. Sometimes the difference 
almost entirely disappears, ^epe, iMfiev. ^Avropo), rrfv aSeXcjiyp ottco^ 
i K 8 M (once for all) koI raXV oiroOev S co etc m (with continuance, and 
generally; Dem. 27, QQ). 'Eaf ti(; Kafjivp tmv oIketmu {is sick; Ka/xr}, 
s/iould become sick ; should fall sick), 7rapaKaXeL<i larpoiK;, ottox; /j,r) cltto- 
ddvr) {Xen. (Econ. 11, 9). Hovtov 7]fiei<i ^o/Sco/xe^a ; [Bern. 14, 36 ; are 
toe to fear ? 4>o/3rj6co/Jbe6a, are ive to take alarm at ?) 'FtiriaKOTrei rov<i 

^ [Of course, when ■=.fut. exactmn, it denotes a future action as completed. — T. K. A.] 

[part II. 



§ 128.] The Subjunctive and its Tenses. 107 

Xoyov^ del toj)? aavrov koX ra^ Trpafet?, iV ft)? e\a-)(^L(TTOL<i dftapTrjfiacrt t§ ^ 
TrepnTLirrrj^i [Isocr. de Nic. 33). 'TiroS/j/jiaTa viroBovvTaL, otto)? firj Sta 
ra XvTTovvTa rou? iroSaf; KwXvayvrao Tropeueadat {Xen. Mem. 1, o, 6). 
(Examples with orrorav and e&x? ay with the present, see § 127 ; with 
idv § 125, with 09 av, &c. § 126.)— SoO aKovaoiixev ; {Arist. Ach.l^h, 
single, transient act.) IloXXol dirodvi^aKeiv edekovaiv, Tva reXevr/jaav- 
re? eiratveOoiaLv {Lwcr. de Nic. 30). Sei;^?;? KeXevei 'Bevo(j)Mi>Ta irpo- 
OvfielaOai, oirco^; Bia^fj to arpdrevp^a {Xen. An. 1 , \, 5). Eu6vB7]p,o<; 
cfiuXdrreTai, fir] 86^r} tov 'ZoifcpaTrjv Oavfid^eiv eirl cro^la [Xen. Mem. 
4, 2, 3 ; not to get the appearance as though he — ). (So usually after 
(jjvXdrTOfiai, evXa/3ov/Jiai, of. onov fit], § 124, a. R. 3.) 'EireiSdv Scairpd- 
^(o/xai, a Siofxai, y^co dird^wv v/jbd'i ek Tr]V 'EXXdSa [Xen. An. 2, 3, 29). 
EtVo9, TOV<; \\di]vacov<;, orav yvwaiv ///xa? Terpv^onievov'^, TretpdaeaOaL 
V7T0 achat; iroLelaOai [Thuc. 4, 60). — 'EireLZdv av ^ouXr] SoaXeyeadai, 
60? iyo) Svvafiai eireaOat, rore aoi SiaXe^o/iai {PI. Frot. 335, of the 
being loiUing, as a continued state) . "Hi^ rt? dvdiaTTjrat, ireipaaofieOa 
'X^eipovadai {Xen. An. 7, 3, 11). Ovk dva/juevofiep €co<i av rj rjixerepa'^^copa 
KUKcorai, dXXd (fiddvovTe^; rjhr] Byovp-ev rr/y eKecvcov yrfv {Xen. Cijr. 3, 3, 
18). — Ot prj KaXM<; /Se/BovXev/Jbevoi, idv Kal KaropOcoacoai (as single act) 
•jrepl TLva<; to)v irpd^ecov, fxiKpov StaXLirovTe'i et? rd<; avrdq diropia'^ Kar- 
iaTi]aav {Isocr. Areop. 11). 'ETretSay al iTrtdv/xiacTravacovTat Karar€L- 
vouaat Kal "^oXdawaL, iravrdiraai to tov So(f)OKX€ov<; yiyveTaf SeaTroTMV 
irdvv TToXkoiv eaTi Kal fiaivo/xivctiv d7rrjXXd')(^9at {PI. Pep. 1, 329, said of 
something' that happens to the man at a certain particular point to 
which it is confined, have come to cease) . — "Hv rt a iycn <^ av oy KaKov 
7re7roiT]K(i}<;, o/jioXoyco dhiKeiv av jxevTOi /jirjBev <^alva)p.ai KaKov TreTron]- 
/c<w? fj,r]Se ^ovXT]6ei<i, ov Kal av av 6fj.oXoy/]aei<i p^rjSh' vtt ip^ov dSiKet- 
a6ai; {Xen. Cyr. 5, 5, 13.) (In ei/^ii, d^i, and other verbs which want the 
aoi'ist, the distinction falls away.) 

b) The subjunctive of the perfect serves to denote the action as past 
and completed, in opposition to the present, after Idv and relatives or 
temporal conjunctions with dv. In verbs whose perfect has the signifi- 
cation of the present, the perfect subjunctive is also used as present : 
'O Kvwv., ov dv yvdipiixov Ihrf, daird^eTat, Kav p,rjSev ircoiroTe vir avTOv 
dyaOov TreirovOri {PL Pep. 2, 376). "Orav ol SeairoTat iaTTovSdKcoai, 
KXavfiaB' rjplv (rot? SouA.ot?) ylyveTai {Arist. Pari. 813). — Tocrourco 
TrXeico ol @7]/3aiOL "TroujaovTat OepaTreiav vp,oiV {toill show you so much 
the more atteniion and regard)., oacoirep dv /xaXXov irepl acpMV avTMv 
BeSiCoaiv {Lwcr. Plat. 36). "" Kirk'^feaQe twv dXXoTpiwv, Xv dacfioXiaTepov 
Tou? o'iKovi T0v<; vfjt,eT6pov<; avTCOv KeKTrjaOe {Isocr. Nic. 49, from KeKTr]- 
/u-ofc, possess) . 

CH.A.P. 11.] 



ip8 TJie Optative and its Tenses. [§ 129, 130. 

-[§ Eem, Now and then the perf. subjunctive denotes as purpose the complete 

1 2b.] finishing of the act : Xpr) aKovfrai, a tou re biKaiov Koi top lihiKov Te\(VTT](TavTa nepi- 

fievei, Iva reXe'cos' eKarepos avTwv cnret^Tjtpj] to. vno roii Xoyov u(peiX6fji.€va {PL Sep. 10, 

614, mai/ have received). 



CHAPTER III. 

T/ie Optative and its Tenses : the Optative zvitJi dv. 

§ The Optative (on the meaning' of which see § 119) in independent 

1 29. propositions serves only to denote a wish that something- may happen, 
or not happen, now or in the future : often with prefixed el, el fydp 
if hut — .'), elQe {oh that — !) — (in Homer ai ydp, aWe). 'EvraSj; iravrwi 
bpoi vfxd<i, ^AOrjvaloi, wpfXTjixevov^ crrpaTeveiv, ^vveviyKOL tuvtu {Thnc. 
6, 20). TovTcov i<yoi) eXrjv [Ear. IP ere I but one of these !). Si) avTo<i 
airavTa eiriaTrjaet, av e'^oo (BouXoifiai. 'AXA,a ^Qv\7}6e[r}'^ [PI. Eidhyd. 
29G. Would that thou mightest tvill it!). Mj/re ^rj/SatOL irore irav- 
aaiVTO, el dp ev^aadai hel, toi/? eavTOv^ dyaOov tl 7roiovvra<; dTifJbd^ovTe<;, 
fjLTjB' vfieo^, ra evavrla tovtoi^;, tou? ev€p<yeTa^ rifiMvre^ [Bern. 20, 109). 
Ei'^', 6i Xware, av tolovto-^ cov (pi,\o<i r]p,tv yevoto [Xeti. Hell. 4. 1, 38). 
OvTQ)<i ovaiaOe tmv ovtcov dyadcov rj/jLLV., /jLT] nrepdhriTe pie diroXkvp.evov 
[JJem. 28, 20 ; so may you enjoy — , as you do not suffer me to — ). 

Rem. 1. Different from the simple wish is a question about possibility in 
the optative with av : 'i2 Zeii, ttws tiv tov a'lpvKcoTaTov oXeaaas reXos Odvoijii KavTcs; 
{Soph. Aj. 388. Ilotv may I find, a ivay to destroy that most crafty man, and then 
at last myself to die ? i. e. Might I hut — .) Has av oXoiprjv ; [Eur, Med. 97.) ' 

Rem. 2. A wish relating to the past which can no longer be fulfilled, is ex- 
pressed by e'ide with. the indicative : Et'^e croi rore avveyevoprfv, ore Seii/oraro? cravTov 
TJada {Xen. Mem. 1, 2, 46). By afpeXov {dehebam), eWe {el yap) axpeXov (might I) : 
negatively, prj a)(f>€Xov, with the infinitive, is expressed a wish that cannot be ful- 
filled, whether relating to the present or to the past. Et yap ucjieXov oloi re elvai ol 
TToAXof Tu peyiara kuko. f^epyd^fcrdai, Iva oioi re fjcrav av Ka\ dya6d to. piyidTa (viz. 
e^epyd^ea-dai, PI. Crit. 44). (El yap a)<{ieXov. O. if that could hut he ! I wish I 
mig/it ; PI. ^f^. 4, 432, with infinitive understood.) Mj^ttot' axpeXov XiTrelv rrji^ 
^Kvpov {So2:>h. Phil. 969 ; oh that I had only never — ). 

^ ei) The optative (by § 119 with Eem.) is used in dependent sen- 

130. fences which put something" merely as a thought, and belong to a 
principal sentence in the past (aor., imperf., jilnsquamp., or historical 
present) ; in this manner it is put first in object-sentences with on, 

^ In the editions often erroneously without the note of interrogation. 

[part II. 



§ 130.] The optative and its Tenses. 109 

ct)9 after verbs denoting" an expression, opinion or knowledge {verba t§ 
dedarancU et sentiendi) , and in dependent questions both about ^^^ 
what is, and what shall be. (After the present and the future, 
the indicative is used; in questions of that which shall he, the sub- 
junctive or the indie, future by § 121.) nept^X?}? irpo-qyopeve tol^ 
^ KOqvaioi^ ev rfj eKKXijala, ore A^T^iSa//,09 /jiev ol ^6vo<; elrj, ov fiivroi 
iirl KUKui 76 ri}? iroXeo)^ jevocro {TAuc. 2, lo). Upoayopevco, on — 
ecnlv — iyevero. KOpo? ixeTairefxy^dixevofi toik; rrrparriyov^ tmv 'EXXj;- 
vwv eXeyev, ort rj oSo^ eaono 7rpo<i ^aatXea fieyav et? ^a^vXoiva [Xeii. 
An. 1, 4, 11). 'Evrel Tavra eKripv^Orj, eyvcoaav 01 arpariMTai, on K€u6<i 
(f)6^o'i elrj [Xe)i. An. 2, 3, 21). 'ETret (xc^Ikovto ol 7rpecr/3ei<; otKaSe, 
TOP Tifxayopav direKTeivav ol KOrjvaloi, KaT7}yopouvTO<i rov Aeoz^ro?, on 
ixerd YiekoTTLhov irdvTa /SouXevoiTO [Xen. Hell. 7 , 1, 38 =: e^ovXevero in 
the oratio recta). 01 ^IvSol eXe^av, on 7re/My}rec€ a(f)d<; 6 'lySwf ^acnXev^; 
Kal KeXevaecev epwrdv, e^ orov 7r6A,e/xo? eti] M?;Sot9 re Kal 'Aaavploi<i 
{Xe?i. C//r. 2, 4, 7). Tore eyvooaOrj, on ol /Bdp^apOL rov dvOpwjrov 
vTTOTrefiyJracev {Xen. An. 2, 4, 22). Tfj varepaia rJKev dyy€Xo<i Xeywv, 
on 'Zvei'vecn'? XeXotTrtw? eh] rd dnpa {Xen. An. \, 2, 21). 'Yiacra^epvrj'i 
Sia/3dXX€L Tov K.vpov Trpo'i top dSeXcpov, co? eTTL^ovXevoi avTut {Xen. An. 
\, \, 3). — 'HpcoTcoi/ YioXvKXea, el dvaTrXevaecev {lie had put to sea) 
e'^cov dpyvptov {Bern. 50, 55). "ESofei' avTol<; Treipdcrat,, el Svvaivro 
CTTLCJiXe^ac ryv iroXtv {Thuc. 2, 77). 01 'FjTnSdfivLOLTrefM-ylravTe'; e<; A.eX- 
<^ou? Tof 6eov e7r7]povro, el irapaholev \\.opiv6[oi<i ryjvTroXiP {Thuc. 1, 25 ; 
tohether the// should deliver). ^AXKc/3idSr}<i diropwv, o.n j^pi'jaaLTo roU 
Trapovcn KaKol<;, reXevTwv eirl AaKeSaLfiovLOVi rjvayKdaOi] Karacjivyelv 
{Isocr. de Big. 9). 

Eem. As the perfect denotes the past in reference to the present (as a still 
existing result), a dependent sentence after the perf. does not take the optative: 
i2? Tjdpoicrdr] Kvpco to ''EWrfviicov, ore enl \\pTa^ep^r]u icTTpareveTo, Koi ocra iv T>j 
av68(o €TTpdxdr], Kal cos J] pa)(rj iyivero, iv rw epnpocrdev Aoyw SeS/jXwrat {^en. An. 
2, 1, 1). The historical present, in reference to the dependent sentence, may be 
treated, as present or as a praeteritum. An infinitive with a participle or a pra?- 
teritum itself acquires the force of a prgeteritum. 

d) Often, however, the speaker, instead of denoting" the relation of 
the dependent sentence, puts this in a livelier way immediatelv in the 
mood and tense which it would liave in the oratio recta ; consequently 
in the indicative (in questions of what shall de, is to be, in the subjunc- 
tive or future indicative) : el-rrov, on €Xev0epo<i elrjv and on eXev6ep6<; 
el/xi. Where in the oratio recta the present indicative would stand, 
sometimes the imperfect is put (of that which coincides in time with 
the principal sentence), so that the mood, but not the tense, is 
retained from the oratio recta : yBeiv., otl i-^evSou. "EXeyov ol eirLr/]- 

CHAP. III.j 



no The optative and its Tenses. [§ 130. 

[^ H Seiot ixov, &»? ekiriCpvai rrjv ttuXiv e^eiv fioi xdpiv virep twv elprj/xevcov 
"^ {Isocr. Phil. 23). 11 oXXa/ci? edavfxaaa, riaL nrore Xoyoa ^ AOtjiulov'; 
eireiarav ol <ypa-\lrd/jievoL 'S^coKpdrrjv, &)? d^LO<i eXt] Oavdrov [Xen. Mem. \, 
\, 1). "Ey^o) ^Apx^^(^f^o^, orv ol ^A.6r]valoi ovSev ivBwaovcriv {T/mc. 
2, 12). "HtSei "A(/)o/3o9 aa^w<i, otl e^eke'y')(6i]a-erai [Beui. 29^ 9). 
^i^Kev dyyiWcov Ti? tt/oo? toi)9 Trpvrdvei<^, co? 'EXareta KareiXTjirrat [Bern. 
18, 169) . ^ Xuhporioov eroKfxa Xiyecv, &)? uTrep l'/hwi/ /cat St' vp.d'? ixOpov<; 
6(f) iavTov etkKvae koL vvv iv rot? ecrxdroL^ ecrrl Kivovvoi^i {Bern. 22, 59). 
^Hnida-aro fie ^Xvhporlwv, a ical Xejeiv oKvi^aeLe Ti<i, tov Trarepa co? 
direKTOva iyo) tov ifMavTOV {Bern. 22, 2). UoXvv ^P^^^^ r^iropovv, ri 
TTore Xe'yei 6 6e6<i [PL Apol. 21). Uepiovaiav xPVH'dTODV ol Trdkaiol ov/c 
elyov ovSe 'yr]v icpvTevov, d^JjXov 6v, oiroTe tl^ eirekOoiyv dX\o<i d(pai- 
pi'^aerai {T/nic. 1, 2 ; since tiieij could not fell toheii . . .). '^LjxixLovXe'yovro^ 
irdvv i6aup.a^ov, et rt e|et Tt<f ;)^p?;o-acr^at tc5 \6jo) avrov [PI. Pliml. 95). 
'Hp6yu-7;y "A(f)o^ov, el Tti/e? irapi^crav, ore TTapeXd/Lt/Save t7]v irpolKa [Bern. 
30, 19, = 'Apa iraprjcrdv rt^e? — ;). IleXoTrtSa? elx^ Xiyetv, otl fiovoc 
TWV '&0^i]vo)V (SaaiXel avve/xd^ovro iv UXaratal^ [Xen. Hell. 7, 1, 34). 
— "Ei'ypa<j)ov dv hiap'p')]hiiv ojXiKa vfid<i ev iroLi'jau), el ev jjBeiv koI rr/y 
avfifiaxlav p-oi 'yevT)aop.evr]v {Bern. 19, 40) '. — 01 UXarairj^; i/3ou- 
XevovTO, elre KaraKavawcnv [in or. red. KaraKavaco/jLev ; subj . duhifat.'] 
TOV<i @7]/3aLov<;, w?7rep expvcnv, e/x7rp)]cravT€'i rb o'lKruxa, eire tl dXXo 
XP'^icrcovTaL [Time. 2, 4). — Karavowv Kvpo<i, co? ev /xev avrw elj(0VTa 
adifxaTa ol arpaTiwrai 7rpo<; ro Siivaadac Trovovi (^epetv, ev he rd^ yjrv'xd'i 
Trpo? rb Karaippovelv twv iroXefilcov, €Tre0v/u,ei tl i]8r} 7rpb<; toi'9 iroXepLLOv^ 
TrpdrTeiv {Xeu. Cijr. 3, 3, 9, = ev eyovaiv). 

Reji. 1. Now and then tbe indicative and optative alternate, and are coupled 
together : IIpoKX^s Kai rXoCy eXeyoi^, oVt KCpo? }xkv re dvrj Kev, 'Aputios Se neffjevyas 
iv ra ara6fjiu> e'lrj jieTa rav /lAXwi/ j3np^dpQ>p (JlOI. An. 2, 1, 3). Ilepl ru>v aKevcov 
{concernhuj tlietacklhicj) rjpcoTcdv HoXvkXtj, rrvrepov TrapaXr]''y€Tai nap' epov rj iSia 
CTKevr] i'xav fjKoi inl ttjv vavv {Bern. 50, 33). ''Eyi/o) <tpvvixos, otl eaoiTo nepl ttjs 
TOV 'AXKLJiidouv Ka668ov \6yos kul otl 'A6r]i>aL0L ivbi^ovrai uvttjv {Thuc. 8, 50) *. 

Eem. 2. In this use of the indicative, the special notation of the^r«.?ew.?, J9r<s^<?- 
ritum, ox futurum inprcEterito consequently ihlls away, except where the imperfect 
is put for the present of the oratio recta. The beginner must especially notice 
how the aor. is retained from the oratio recta where we expect the plusquamperf : 
"Eyi/coi/, oTi UpcoTayopas ovk rjpeaev avTOi avT<a Tois dnoKpi(T€(n rals epirpoaOev {PL 
Prot. 335). 'E-TTJjpov pe, e'l t'i poi 6 StSdcTKaXoy vyifias irepi eXe^ev koX paprjs {X.en. 
Cyr. 1,6, 12). 

* So always after a hypothetical imperfect or aorist (with civ, or in the sentence 
with el). 

- Tore brfkov iyeveTo, ov eveKa ol QpaKes Tcts ciXunvfKidas eVt tois K((pa\als (popovaip 
{Xen. An. 7, 4, 4 Statement in the praeteritum of a relation existing in the present 
time). 

[part ii. 



§ 131.] The Optative and its Tenses. 1 1 1 

Rem. 3. A hypotlietical indicative with av (or an imperf. without av, put hypothe- [§ 
tically) never passes into the optative when the verb of the principal sentence he- 130-] 
comes a pneteritum, because this would obscure the sense : QefjLiaroKKrjs dneKpivaTo, 
oTi ovT av avTos '2epl(l)ios u>v ovofxacrTos iyivero ovr (Kflvos, 'Adrjvaios (viz. wv. PI. 
JRe]}. 1, 330). Aiowcrios 'fkeyev, on dva-Tvxfo-TdTrjv €K(ipr]v elrjixev a-Tpareiav iarpa- 
TfVfievoi, Kpe'iTTov K rjp {ivould have been) avTa Tore (viz. eV tco TroXf/xcp) anodavelv 
Tj o'lKud' f\06vTL ToiavTj] TV)(rj x^prjcrdai {Lys. 10, 25). 

Rem. 4. To an object-sentence with ort or as in the optative, or in the indica- 
tive instead of the optative, a continuation may be added in the optative by ovv, or 
wsre {so that — , with indie, in oratio recta; see Infinitive, § 106) : 'AnoKpiverai 
nooretSiTTTToy o KVJBepvi'jTTjs, on rpirjpapxos re eyw rrjs vecbs eir]v Koi tov fxicrOov irap 
e/xoD \ap.^dvoC TrXevaotTo ovv, 01 eyo) KeXeva, fls Qd(rov {Dem. 50, 50). AcpiKvovvral 
nv£s dnayyeWovTes, on 6 iranip p-ov dc^etrat {ivas set at liherti/) Ka\ ^arvpw ovtcos 
IJ.eTap.e\ei roiv Trenpaypevcov, cosre Triareis Tas fXfyL<TTas SeScoKws' e'tr] [Isocr. Trap. 11). 
A continuation of the reported speech or opinion, with yap, also stands after an 
optative in the optative, after an indicative either in the optative or in the indica- 
tive : "Hkouov eyuye, w Sco/cpares, (KCLCTTOTe Vopylov TToWaKLS, cos i] rov neWei-v 
{T€)(yrj) TToXv Siacjiepoi TracrSyv rex^SiV Ttavra yap vcf)" avrfj 8ovXa St' eKovrav {with 
joeople's consent) dXk' ov did (Bias ttoloIto {Fl. Phil. 58). "Hi^etv, on Iio\vKKr]s 
TTapaXai3(ov Trjv vavv kokms TJp.€We rpiT]papxr](Teiv' ovre yap toIs eTrt/Sdratj ovre tj] 
vnrjpecria. xp'fjO'ot.TO' ovdels yap aiiTa Trapap,evfi {Dem. 50, 44). 

a) The optative stands in sentences of intention (/;?a/ sentences) with ^ 
iva, a)<;, ottco? (poet. 6(f)pa) , and in object-sentences with ottco? and '/xij after j ^ i . 
a principal verb of past time (in aorist, imperf.^ plusquamperf., or histori- 
cal present). (After a present or future, the subjunctive is put, or in 
certain cases the indie, fut., § 122, 123.) Mevcov 6 SerraXo^ BfjXo^; rju 
imOv/jioJV iJ-ev irXovrelv la-)(ypo)<i, eTnOvjJLwv S" cip^eov, 6'p-oi'^ irXeioi Xa/j,- 
/3dvoi, eiriOv/jLcbv Se ri/xdaOai, iva TrXelco KepSalvoi' ^tA.o? t e^ovXero 
elvat rol<; jjbe'yKjra 8vvafj,evoi<i, tva aSiKwv fxr] SlSolt] Blktjv {Xe/i. An. 2, 
6, 21). Kvpo<; ^iXcov (pero helaOai, co? avvepyou^ exot {Xe)t-. An. 1, 
9, 21). — 'E7re/ie\etT0 KOpo?, ottw? pbrjiroTe avihpuiTOi, ol crTparuorai. eVt 
TO apicTTov Kol TO SeliTvov ekioiev [Xeii. Cijr. 2, 1, 29). KXea/j^j^o? 
aireKpivaro Kupw, otl avra fxeXoi, oVo)? kuXw e^oi^ (Xe/i. An. 1, 8, 13). 
"ESetc7ay 01 "EXXijve^, fjbt] ol Uepaai 'nrpo'^ajd'yoiev irpo^ to Kepa^ {Xen. 
An. 1, 10, 9). (PlXiTnro'i iv (})6^^ ical TroXXfj dywvLa rjv,ixri eKcpvyoi, to, 
irpdj/jiara avrov [Bern. 18, 33). "ESeicray ol l^epaaovvnoi, /X7] Xvcraa 
Tt9 co<imep Kvcrlv rjixiv i/JLTreTrrcoKot, {Xen. An. 5, 7, 26, ^ehoiKa, /u,rj — 
ifiTriirrcoKe, § 124). Et /xt] i]8r]crda aacficb^ to t6 oaiov koX to dvocnov, 
Toy? deov'^ dv eSetaa^; irapaKivhweveiv, ^irj ovk 6p6o)<i 7roir]aoL<? inrep 
dvSpo'i OrjTO'i dvSpa 7rpe<;j5vTriv Trc.Tepa StcoKdOcov <p6vov {PL Huthjphr. 
15). (After a wish in the optative: Qvpov yevoiro x"p'' TrXrjpaxTai iroTe, Iv al Mu- 
KTivai yvolev, on x^ '2Kvpos dv8pa>v aXKipav prjrrjp e<pv, iSoph. Phil. 324.) 

Rem. 'Ottw? with the optative in a sentence of intention or an object-sentence 
rarely retains the av (ofteuest so in Herodot.) : IlpoedvixieTo Ao^las okcos dv Kara 
CHAP. III.] 



112 TJie Optative and its Tenses. [§ 131. 

[§ Tov^ nalbas tov Kpolaov yevoiro to '2ap8ia>v nudos {Sdt. 1, 91). Ot 'EvpaKovcrioi ras 

IS'-] 7rp(j)pas KaTefivp(T(x)(xav, ottcos av airokia-Bavoi rj ^elp iin^aWopivrj [Thuc. 7, 65). 

b) Often, however, after a prseteritum, the sentence of intention or an 
object-sentence with otto)? or fxt], is put in the subjunctive (indie, fut.) as 
after a present, the sentence being so put as not to mark that it forms 
part of a representation belonging to the past (cf. § 130, b) : 'Ett/- 
TTjSe? ff e ovK i]'yeipov, 7va &)? 7]Siara SLd<yr]<i {PL Grit. 43) . ' Apicrrei;?, 
a'iTorei')(ia6 eia7]<; IIoTtSa/a9. ^vve/SovXeve irXrjv TrevjaKocr iwv roL<i aXX.oc<i 
{with ihe rest of the soldiers) eKirXeuaai, otto)? eVt irXeov 6 ctlto^ avTi(T')(r] 
{Thuc. 1, 65). W^poK6/xa<i ra irkola KareKavaev, iva /xr] KOpo? Sia/Sfj 
{Xen. An. 1, 4,18). — YlepSLKKa<; eTrpaaaev, oirco^; 7r6Xefio<; yev^jrai, ^A0t]- 
vaLoi<i 7rp6<i TleXo7rovv7]aLov<; {Thuc. 1, 57). Alcr'^ivrj'i to KaB' avrov, 
OTTco^ eVl Tot? i-^dpol^; i) ito\.i<; earat, irapeaKevaaev {T)em. 19, 250). Ot 
KOrjvaioi rov<i ^vixp.d')(ov<i ehehieaav acpayv, fir] diroaroiaiv {Thnc. 5, 14), 
K{;po9 BrjXo^ rjv irdaiv on VTrepecpo/Selro, fxi] ol 6 iraTrTTO'^ cnroOdvr] {Xen. 
Cyr. 1, 4, 2). Et ^r/ ^uvrjSeiv XcoKpdret re Kal ^Ayddcovi, SeLPot<; oven 
Tvepi ra epwTiKa, iravv av i(f)o/3ouiji7]v, /jlj] drropTi^awai Xojojv Sid to ttoXXo, 
7]h7] elprjoOac {PL Conv. 193) \ 

Eem. 1. Occasionally the optative and subjunctive alternate and are coupled 
together : Ti/zd^eos' Bavei^erai {/list. j)rcBS^ x'^^^'^^ 8pa^pas Trap' 'AvTi(f)avovs, tva 
8ia8i8otT] TOLS BoiQiTiois Tpirjpap)(OLS Kai Trapapevcoaiv ecos av avra i) Kpiais 
yevrjrai {Dem. 49, 14). Ilapavla-xov (tikeirise Vifted iiji) km ol eK t?"/? TroXew? 
IlXaTai7]s cmo tov rei;^otij (ppvKTovs ttoXXovs TrptiTepov TrapfCTKevaapevovs (plusquara- 
perf.) eV ai'TO tovto, ottoh daacprj to. arjpela ttjs (ppvKToipLas toIs TroXepioLs i) /cat pt] 
l3oT]6ohv {Thuc. 3, 22). 

Eem. 2. Some writers, as Thucyd., use the subjunctive (indie, fut.) oftener than 
others. 

Rem. 3. In stating why something that has not happened, ought to have taken 
place, or was to be wished, ha (o)?, ottcds) with the indie, imperfect or aorist is put 
after a praeteritum : Et yap a>(f)e\ov oioi re elvai ol ttoAXoi to. peyia-Ta KaKa i^epya- 
^eadai, 'iva oloi t rjaav av /cai Ta ayaOa to. piyiara {e^epyd^eaOai, Pt. Crit. 44). 
Kat priv ci^iov y rjv aKovaai. Ti Se ; rjv S' eya. {Sow so /) "iv I'JKOva-as { = ttiat 
you might liave heard') dvhputv diaXfyopevav, ol vvv aocjpcoTaTOL fieri Tav Trepi tovs 
ToiovTovs Xoyovs {PI. Euthyd. 304 ; of those wlio have to do with — ; wtto occupy 
themselves with — ). 

Rem. 4 (to § 130 and 131). When to an object-sentence or sentence of intention 
dependent on a praeteritum, another such sentence is attached and made dependent 
on it, the latter, as a general rule, also takes the optative, but may also take tht. 
indicative or subjunctive : Kt'pos T7posKa\a>v tovs (J)lXovs ecFTtovSaioXoye'iTo, cos drj^olrj, 
ovs Tipa {JKen. A.71. 1, 9, 28). Toi/ a-o(pL<JTrjv e'tnopev, on dwopolpev, fls onoTfpov 
Tolv dvolv fl8o'iv drjaopev {PI. Soph. 264 ; tee shoutd put) ; but when the first passes 
into the indie, or subjunctive, the latter is also treated as after a present: Ou 

' So for the most part after a hypothetical imperfect or aorist. 
" [Properly {where = ) in which case you heard (for conditional, would have heard) .] 

[part II. 



§ 132.] The optative and its Tenses. 113 

TOVTov ev€Ka ifp-x/t^eda diaXeyufxevoi, li>a evpcofxev, tI ttot ovk eVr' eTnari] fxrj , dXXa ri 
earn- {PL T/tecet. 186); 

a) In dependent sentences with relatives or conjunctions which are § 
accessory to an object- sentence, or sentence of intention, or infinitive 1 3 2. 
clause, or sing-le infinitive, and are pvit as forming- part of the object 
(the thing- said to be spoken, thoug-ht, perceived, &c.), or of the thing 
intended, and which in the orafio recta would stand in the indicative 
of the present, future, or perfect, or in the subjunctive (with av after 
the relative or conjunction), the optative is used (without av), when the 
principal verb on which the on, 67rQ)<i, &c., depends is a prseteritum, 
and so the following verb would regularly be in the optative by § 130 
and § 131 ' : "HcSec Kypo?, on, el n /U'd-yrj^i hevjcroL, e« rwv (jtlXcov aurm koL 
irapaa-Tdrm koX eivLcrrdra^ XrjTVTeov eir] [Xe/i. Cyr. 8, 1, 10 = Elf n /a. 
8e}jaet,\)']'\lrofj,ai). @i]pa/JLevrj(; elirev, oti ouSev avrco fxeXoc rov u/xeripov 
OopvjSou, eTrecBrj tto/V/Voi)? fxev ^Adrjvaicov elBeiT] tov<; to, 6/j,oia TrpaTTOVTW^ 
avToi, SoKovvra 8e AvadvSpM koX AaKeSat/jLOVioa \eyoc [Lj/s. 12, 74 = 
Ovhev /not yueXet — , eVetS?) — olSa — Sokouvtu Se — Xejco). W^va^l- 
^L0<; direKpivaTo, on, /SovXevaotro irepl tcop arpanoiToyv, 6,n hvuano 
dr^aOov [Xeii. An. 7, 1, 35 = ^ovXevcro/jiai, 6,n av Svvcofxai djadov). 



^ [These rules have been defended bj- Madvig in a separate publication, where he 
lays them down thus : a) In the oratio obliqua, clauses dependent on an historical 
tense jjass into the optative; but not, if in the oratio recta tJiey would liaoe the 
imperfect or aorist of the indicative ; for then these forms of the verb are retained; 
b) except in clauses ivith on (= because ; therein that — , in that [he &c.]), in tohich 
even these tenses pass into the optative. 

a) Thus whilst the sentences Stocrw a bvvfjaofiai or a av evpco, St'Sw/x' a e;(ca, 7r6/ii|r&) 
orau 8vvrjdCo become i'ef>'nlarly eXeyfv on 8a>o-oi {e<pT] Soxreti') a Bwrja-oiTo, a evpoi' 
k'(f)T] SiSovat a ('xoi, nepyj/eiv ore dvvijdeuj, but may also, from the freedom of 
Greek construction, be expressed thvis : eXeyev on Scotrf t a dwrja-eTai, a tw evpif 
€(f)ri TTtpyj/eiv, orav 8vvi]6fj' on the other hand the sentence fduxa a fl^ov can 
appear in no other form than 'i\eyev,'6n. Soir] (edcoKev) a eix^v: and so, ere 
€T7ep,\l/a rov ciyyekov, ovttco ravra ijdav, becomes eXeyev, on ravra ovircd j'/Srj 
{eldelr}), or e7re/x\|^e rov (iyye\oi> : or, ((prj, or €T7€p,'<^e top ayyeXou, oi/'ttco rai-fa 
elBevai. 

b) He has convinced himself, he says, of the limitation expressed in b, since the 
publication of his Syntax, from a comparison of the two following passages, to 
which at present he cannot add a third. S^en. Sell. vii. 1, 34 : et;^e yap Xeytiv 
{neXoTrldas) as AaKe8aip6vioi 8lu roiiTo TroXefx-rjcreLav avTo7s (rols QrjIBaiois), i'm 
oiiK eSfXriaaKV per 'AyrjacXdov eXdelu in avTov {rov (iacnXea) ovde dv(rai edaeLev 
aliTov iv AiXidi Ttj 'Apreptdi. The other passage is Herod, ii. 121, 5: ott- 
riyrjcao'dai avrov {(paaiv), ws dvoaioiTarov pev firj fLpyaap.evos, ort [in our edd. 
ore, which would be ar/ainst the rule, but Madvig ' has no hesitation' in reading 
ort] rov d8eX(p(ov . . . dnordpoi {= in \Jiavin(j cuti cutting off — ) rrjv Kf(paX^i , 
<ro<pa>TaTov 8e, ort rovs (pvXdnovs KarapeBvaas KaraXvo'ete rod aSfX^eoO Kpepd- 
p-evov rov viKvv.^ 

CHAP. III.] I 



114 TJic Optative and its Tenses. \h ^Z~- 

! > KXeaz/8po<? dizev, oti Ae^iTnrov ovk eiraivolii, el ravra ireiroirjKCD'i eirj 
^■^"■^ {Xen. An. 6, 4;, 2b. Ovk iiraivo), el — TreTroirjKev). 'Ecr/covrei Meye/cX?}?, 
0776)? /JiT) ecTOtTO uTTai^ okX eaoiTo avTW 6<;tc'; ^toprd re j7jpoTpo(f)r](TOL Koi 
reXevTi^a-avTa dd'ylroi, {Is(P.. 2, 10. 'Ekottw. oirco'i earaco'iTi'i — <yr)poTpo- 
^■qcjei — 6d-^€L). Ot 'KdrjvaioL eV/Sat-re? e? tj^v ohov t7]v 'FAwpLvi^p iiro- 
pevovro, ottco';, eVeiS?; 'yevoi.vro nrapd rw rroTa/jia) too Is.aKVTrapei, irapa top 
TTOTa/JiOP LOiep dp(o Sid fxeaoyeia'; [T/z/ic. 7, 80 = ottw?, iireiBap — yepco- 
fieOa, icofjbev). Of UXaraii]^ dcra(f)y] rd ai^ueia TohiroXe/j^LOKiTroielp ifxr]- 
yaPMVTO, OTTw? fir] j3o7]6dlep, irplp acfiMP ol dpSp€<; ol e^LOPre^; Btacpvyoiev 
[T/inc. 3, 22 = ixrjyapdiiJieOa, ottco^; jxtj — /Sorjdcoai,, irplp dp — hia^v- 
ycoaip). Tecofxerplap '%wKpdrrj<i [le^pi tovtov ecjir] SetP fiap6dpeip, eo)? 
iKapof; Tt? yevoLTO, eliroTe hei'jaeie, yr^P /xerpo) 6pO(b<i i) irapaXajBetp i] 
irapahovpai i) Siapei/xai {Xen. Hem. 4, 7, 2 ; = Set, eft)? dp — yepr)Tai, 
tiTTore SerjaeL. — ). T La-(7a(j)epp7]<; M/jboa-ep ^AyrjaiXdo}, el aireicraLro, eo3'i 
eXOoiep, ov<i iTeix-\\reie irpo'^ 0aaiX,ea dyyeXovq, BiaTrpd^eaOai avrm, aj>G- 
6r}pai avTOPQfiov<i rd^ eV 'Acrta TToXet? 'EXA-T/f/Sa? {Xeii. Ages. 1, 10. 
Rdp (TTTeiay, eco? dp eXdwaiP, ou? irefi'^co — , SiaTrpd^ofxao) . 

Eem. 1. If, on the other hand, the accessory sentence in the oratio red a would 
stand in the aor. or imperf. indie, this is retained in the oratio ohfiqua, hecause the 
optative would not express the proper relation of time. We even find, not 
nnfrequently, the aorist indicative, where the oratio recta would have the perfect 
indicative (and where, consequently, the optative might stand in the oratio ohliqua) ; 
cf. § 112, R. 1. Ol AaKeSaijuoi-iot f'keyov. fjir] eTrqyyekdai ttw is AaKedaijiova ras 
(TTTovdds, 0T€ is€TvijX'^av rnvs ott^itus es XtTTpfov {Time. 5, 49). 'Hpo/xjj;^ et nvfs 
(lev fjidpTvpes. Siv ivavriov cn^ibocrav {Dem. 30, It). ' Kpa rives fidprvpes elatv, — 
oTveBoTe ;). "Hkoikto, oti UepiK\i]S ttoXKcis fir'iaTmTo enaBds, cis enadcov tj] ttuXo. 
eTToiei avTtjv (})iXfiv avrvv (A'e«. Mem. 4, 7, 2). Xeyoval rives Qep.i(TroKXea eKovaiov 
(fiappi'iKCO dnodavelv, d8vvnroi' vopicravra (ivai eVireXeVat jSaaike'i a VTreax^fo {Thuc. 
1, 138. 'ASwaroi' eariv en. a virlcrx'JP-ai). 

Rem. 2. Sometimes the optative stands even in a sentence dependent on an 
ohject-sentence or sentence (f intention (one with on, ottos, &c.), which has itself 
not taken the optative : '£877X030-6 Kvpos, on eroip^s eVri /xaxfcr^ai, el' ris e^epxoiTo 
{2^en. Cyr. 4, 1,1). '"Ecfjo^e'iro QepicrroKXris, pi) 01 AaKe8aip6vioL (TCpdSjOnoTf aacpois 
oKovaeiav ra Trepl ro relxos, ovueri d(f)coaLv {Time. 1, 91). Usually, however, in 
this case the indicative or suhjunctive is used. 

b) Often in such sentences the same form is retained as they 
would have in oratio recia (cf. § 130, b, and § 131, b). But instead 
of the indie, present sometimes the imperfect is put (in the same 
tense with the governing- verb; cf. § 130, b) : Tipovkeyop, Sil^diKpare^, 
OTI Trdpra /udWop 7roi7]aoL^ yj diroKpiPolo, d rtV ri ere ipo)Ta [Fl. Rep. 

1, 337). "EA,e7oi/ ol dyyeXoL, ore 7]/coiep rjyejjLOPa'i exovre^, ol avTOV^, 
edv al (TTTOphal yepcoprai, d^ovaip, epOep e'^ovac tu eTTLr/jSeia {Xen. All. 

2, 3, G. Regularly, o'l, el — yepoivro, dhiep, epdep e^oiep — ). Kvpo? 

[part II. 



§ 132.] The optative and its Tenses. 115 

eTTijpcora top Tiypdvrjv, irola eh] rwv opecov, oirodev ol ^aXSaloi, Kara- [§ 
deovre'^ Xrjt^ovTai [Xen. Cyr. 3, '1, 1). ITortSaiaTat rjXOov e? Aa/ceSat- ^^^' 
fiova fxera l\.opiv6to)v, ottoj? kTOifjidaaivTO Ttficopiav (= /SoyjOecav), rjv 
8er] [2V/ZIC. 1, 58 = el Bei'jaoi). Ol arpariwrai Karaa-^lo'eiv ra? iruXw^ 
e^aaav, el [xr] e/coi/re? ol evhov avol^ovcnv [Xen. An. 1 , 1, 16). Oi 
nXarai?}? rot? Qi](3aloi<i eXeyov ra e^co t?}? 7r6Xea>9 firj aSiKelv el Se fiij, 
Koi avTol ecf>aaav avTcov roi)? dvhpa<; uTroKTevecp, ov<; e')(ovcn ^Mvra<; 
{T/iKC. '1, 5). Yiapi'iyyeiXav ol arparrjyoi, iireiSi] Sec7rv)]aeiav, av- 
aKevaaa/jievov<; iravra^ avairaveadaL kuI eireaOai, rjvlK dv ti<; irapay- 
yelXr] [Xen. An. 3^ 5, 18; observe the alteratiou of the two forms). 
0/ crrpaTicoTai ovk €(f)aaav levai, edv fit] ri,^ ')^pTJjj.ara 8tSw. 'O Be Kupo? 
vTTea')(ero dvSpl eKaaTW Bcoaeiv TrevTe dpyvplov fivd<i, eirdv el'^J^a^vXwva. 
rjKOiCTLV [Xen. An. 1, 4^ 12 and 13). KA,ea/3;^o? e^ri y^prjvai, o'l dv 
e^eXey)(6o)ai, SLa^dXXovTe<; [ilwse 2vIio should be convicted of circulating 
calumnious reports^, co? TrpoSoTa^ ovTa^ TCfxojprjdrjvat [Xen. An. 2, b, 27). 
^iXiTTTTO?, el TovTo TMv TTap eavTov 'jrefiTTOfievaiv lepoixvrnxovwv et'?- 
TjyoiTo ri<i, vTToylrecrdaL to 7rpdyfj.a evo/jLL^e Kol rov^ Qrj/3aLov<i koi toj)? 
%eTraXov<i, r)v 8' ^ KOrjvalo'i rj 6 tovto Troioiv, evTropco^ Xi^aeiv [iJeni. 18, 
148). — Kvpo? vireayeTo toi? MiX7;cr/ot9 ^vydcnv, el koXw^ Kara- 
Trpd^eiev, ecj) a earparevero, fii] TrpocrOev iravaeaOai., irplv avroi/^ 
KUTaydyoL olicaBe [Xen. An. 1, 2, 2 = rjv KaraTrpd^o), e^' a aTparevofiai, 
ov — Travao/Jiat, nrplv dv Karaydyoi). Isleya to Seo? eyeveTO, fxi] ol 
TLeXo7rovv7]aioL, el koI yu.7) ScevoovvTO jxeveiv, TropddxrLv dfxa Trpo'i- 
'jriiTTovTe^ Td<i TroXet? [Thuc. ?>, 33). 

Eesi. It is a rare anomaly, when an accessory sentence passes into the optative, 
and yet civ with the relative or conjunction is retained : OvSety oynj ovx_ riyfiro 
diKTjv fie XTj^lreadat napa tuiv iviTpoTTcov, eTTfiSai/ Tci^iaTa dvrjp eivai boKiiiacrdiinv 
[De7n. 30, 6 =: erreidav SoKt/zaa^co or eneibTj SoKifiaadeirjv). [Soj)h. Track. GS7.) 

c) The same rule and exception hold for accessory sentences de- 
pendent on a participle which has the force of an object-sentence (see 
Participles, § 177, b. 178) : 'H ahla TrpoSr^Xo? rjv eir eKelvovi ij^ovaa, 
ei TL irdOoL 'KaplSrjixo'i [Dem. 23, 12 = TrpohjXov rjv, otl — V^oi) . — 
Tovto 7rp687]Xov rjv iaofcevov, el fxi] v/xeU KcoXvaeTe [JEsch. 3, 90). 

d) Likewise the optative stands in dependent sentences which 
are so immediately attached to a leading- sentence whose verb is a 
prseteritum, that they form part of the thought of the person men- 
tioned in the leading- sentence (of something then present, or future, 
or so past as to be still present in its results — the perfect), especially 
with e\, with oti [because., for that^), \^A\\\ eco<i, t^^'XP'- °^ [wntil — 

{} " This mode of expression is usually met with only with reference to what is 
CHAP. III.] I 2 



ii6 TJie Optative audits Tenses. [§ 132. 

[§ could), and with relatives : Ot ^lev evxovro, "Eepiav Kal Uaalcova 
132]. ft),j SoXtof? 6vra<i XTjcpdfjvai, 01 Be wKTeipcv, el clXolxjolvto {Xen. An. \, 
4, 7 ; felt compassion at the thought — ). Ovk. r]v tov Trpo? i)/xa<? 
TToXe/xov Trepa? ouS' airaWayf} ^lXIttttw, el fit) ©rj^alov^; koX SeTToKoi/^ 
e-)(9pov<; 7rou](Teie rfj iroXet {Bern. 18, 145 ; Fhilij) had, saw mo means of 
endlvg — ). Oi ^Adrjvcuoi, Uepi.KXia eKUKi^ov, oti, arpaTrjyoii mv, ovk 
iire^dyoc iirl tov<; TroXe/ziou? [Tht/c. 2,21). AepKuWlSa-i Kal Ticraai^epyrj'^ 
(T'TrovBa'i aA.X?;Xoi? eiron^cravTO, ew? arrayyeXdelr] ra \e')(6evra e? AaKeBal- 
fiova Kal eVl /SacriXea [Xen. Hell. 2>, 2, 20) . "AvSpa ovBev evTOirov eoopcav, 
6sTL<i dpKecreiev [Sojjh. Phil. 2^0; from whom I could expect help) . 'Itt- 
7roKpdTrj<;, owore Kaipo^ etrj, e/xeXXe arpareveiv e<? tou? Botwroi;? [Thuc. 

1, 77; intended, when it should be the Jit time). But sometimes 
here also^ especiall}'- with el and in relative sentences, that form (pre- 
sent^ future, or perfect indicative) is retained, in which the person 
mentioned would himself express the thought : 'RfMaKapiaa tov ^ijrjvov, 
el ft)9 aXr]6a)<; e-)(^et Tavnjv ttjv Te')(yr)v [PI. Apol. 20). Tw pur^Bev eavrm 
avveiSoTt Beivbv ehrjec {it seemed^ hard), el irovrjpcov epycov ho^ei 
KOivcovecv TM (TLoyTTrjaat (Dem. 19, 33). — (For the indicative present some- 
times tlie im])erfect is found : 'iLfiavTov aTTa>\ocf)vpdfxr}v, osris tovto fiev {on the one 
hand), iv u eSoKei 6 trjfxos KUKOvaOai, iyco clvtI tovtov {therefore) kciko. elxov, tovto 
8e, fTTfihf] e<paiveTo ev V77^ ijxov TTfTTOvOms, iraKiv av kcli 8ia tovt e'yo) a.TTo\oljji.r]v, Andoc. 

2, 16.) 

Rem. 1. On dependent sentences with a hj'pothetical imperfect or aorist indica- 
tive, see § 117 a. E. 2. 

Rem. 2. If the leading sentence contains a wish in the optative, a sentence 
dependent on this also takes the optative : "oXoio fxijTTO}, Trplv padoifj.' , el koI naXiv 
yv6}[ji.T]v iieToicreLS {Sojyh. Phil. 961).^ 

present or future, as compared with the time of the principal action, except in two 
cases. (1) One of these is again (cf note on p. 113) that of clauses introduced by 
vTi. And since here no change or ambiguity is possible, I assert, without hesita- 
tion, though I have not any example at hand, that as Thucyd. 2, 21 says Ilepi/cXea 
imKi^ov, oTi, OVK eTTf^dyoi fVl Tovs TfoXepiovs, SO he might have said oVt ovk t^aydyoi, 
in the sense of because he had not led them out." 

" (2) Then an additional thought, referred to the person sjiol-en of, may be 
attached, by means of a relative pronoun, to a single definite notion ; and in this 
added thought, that which would have stood in the aorist of the indicative, if there 
were no intimation of its being the thought of another, may be expressed by the 
aorist of the ojitative, because here, in the case of a principal verb in the present, no 
OS liv with aorist of the subjunctive is conceivable, and therefore no confounding with 
an aorist of the optative, as representing an o? av c. aor. subj., can take place. The 
only instance I can at present produce is Soph. (Ed. Tyr. 1246: \ivr]\ir]v ■nciKaiav 
(TTrepficLTOiv exov(T, v(f)' hv ddvoi fxev avTos' rrjv 8e TiKTOvcrav XIttoi Tots oicrti/ avTou 
hva-TiKuov irai^ovpylav." Madvig, p. 17. j 

^ Occasionally the optative is put, irregularly, in sentences dependent on an 
infinitive in general reflexions : Tov avTov Xeyew, a prj aacpws eldelrj, (j)f[8ecr6ai del 

[part II. 



§ ^33> 1 34-] The Optative and its Tenses. 117 

The o^jtative fp resent or aorisfl stands aft.er con junctions of ti me § 
( without av\, relative words (without ai'lj^andjet. {if, i. e. as often as), 133. 
in conne xion with a leading- sentence whose verb js a prseteritunij 
when the thing denoted is, not what took ])lace in a certain individual 
case, or with a certain individual person or thing, but what_ rexiurred 
and wa s repeated so often as .a_case beMl^ or a p erson or thing of a 
certain kind occurred [opt. o^ indefjule__Jregiijeju^ . (OiroTe cKpiKoiro, 
wlien he came, if lie did come, whenever he came ; ore d(piK€To, ivhen he came, orav 
d(piKr]Tai,, tvhen he comes : "Oaovs eUov, so many as I satv on the wliole ; oaovs '1801^1, 
so many as I saw from time to time, so often as I saw any.) Ki}f>09, iTapeKavvojv 
TOP Tinrov eU rb TrpoaOev •S^o-vy^O'^, KareOearo ra? Td^eL<;' Kal ov'i fiev 
IZoL evTUKro)^ Kal cncoirf} lovra^, irpo^eXavvoiv avTol<;, rlveq re eiev, 
rjpejo Kal, eirel ttvOolto, einjvet' el 8e Tiva<; dopv^ov/u^evov^ alaOono, 
TO a'iTLOv TOVTOV aKOTTcov KUTaa^evvvvaL ri-jv Tapa^ijv eiretpaTO [Xen. 
Cyr. 5, 3, 55). ^oXwv iv airaaiv, oh eTidet, v6/JL0L<i Trepl t}}<? TroXixeta? 
fiaXXov iairovSa^ev rj "Trepl tov Trpdy/xaTO'i avrov, ov TiOeir) top vofiov 
{Dem. 32, 30 ; about lohich, whatever it was — ). Ot ovoi, eirel Ti? 
8i(oKoc, 7rpoSpa/jL6vTe<i av elaTr^Keaav Kal iraXtv, eirel ifXTjcyLd^oi o 4777709, 
ravTov eiTOLOvv [Xen. An. 1, o, 2. Ofay, see § 117 b, E. 3 ; ela-njKeaav 
counts as an imperfect) . nepie/jbivo/xev e/facrroTe, eo)? dvoL')(6eL7} to SeafMco- 

TWLOV [PL Phced. 59). ('OTroTe '4\6ouv,ov avXiCeadai 8ioi, (f)v\aKas Ka6i(TTa(rav, 
with the relative sentence necessary to the completion of the notion likewise in the 
optative.) 

(The Tenses of the Optative.) a) In object-sentences with on and § 
o)?, and in dependent interrogative sentences, which in their inde- I34- 
pendent form would have the indicative, the tenses of the optative 
correspond entirely with the same tenses of the indicative (so that the 
a j)rist ij^ a prc^teritum ) , yet so that the present at the same time com- 
prises the imperfect, and the perfect the pluperfect. In connexion, 
therefore, with the same leading verb in the prseteritum on which the 
optative sentence depends, the present acquires the sense of the pra- 
sens or imperfecturn in prceteriio, the aorist and the imperfect that of 
the prateriium in prcetenfo (but with the same distinction which ap- 
pears in the oratio recta between the aorist and the perfect), and the 
future that oiXhafutunim in preeterito. See the examples in § 130, a. . 
(But in a dependent question which in the or«i/o recta or after a present might have 
the subjunctive, the aorist has not the signification of a prseteritum: Oi 'E7rt8a/xrtoi 
Toviv AeXcpols deov eirrjpovTo, el TrapaSolev KopivBlois ti]p ttoXiv. Thiic. 1,25 ■=■ napado)- 
jj-ev or napaSdiaopev.) Xen. An. 7, 4, 10. 3Iem. 4, 2, 10 {ctkottcov o,ti dnoKpivcuTo) 
and Herod. 5, 67, ixpw'^^P'^'-^C^'^o f' iK^akoi (where even Dobree, with Werfer) would 
read cK^dWrj. 

{Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 19 ; what one does not himself knotv). eIktj Kpdria-Tov ^v, ottw? 
dipaiTo Tts {Sojjh. (Ed. B. 979). 
CHAP. III.] 



ii8 The Optative a7id its Tenses. W 134. 

[§ Eem. As in the indicative the aorist stands now and then where we shouki expect 

134.] the perfect (§ 112, R. 1), so also in the optative : Oi nXarnifJy KrjpvKa e^iiTep.i^av napa 

Toiis Qrjdaiovs, on ra TT(TTOirijj.iva ov^ ocriai dpdaeiav (Thuc. 2, 5; almost = SeSpd/care). 

b) In the sentences treated of in § 133 (optative of the thing 
repeated [indefinife frequency']) , the present optative corresponds with 
the imperfect indicative, and denotes the action in the dependent sen- 
tence to be contemporaneous with that in the leading- sentence ; the 
aorist with the aorist indicative after conjunctions of time (§ 114, c), 
and therefore denotes the action of the protasis as a single act recnr- 
ring each time before the action of the apodosis ; often, however, the 
difference is very slight : 'OTrore olrore ^aatXeuovre'i avTov fiev £1)076- 
pav 6 p a>€ V, i^€7rXi]TT0VT0 Kai €(f)o^ovvTO Trepl t?79 apyfif;, oirore Se et? 
Tov<i rpoTTov; airo^Xe^aLev, (T(f)6Spa eiTLcnevov [Isocr. Evag. 24). 

c) In all other sentences the present and perfect of the optative 
answer to the present or j)erfect of the indicative or subjunctive, the 
future optative to the future indicative (therefore never in sentences of 
intention after Xva or w?). The aorist answers to the aorist subjunctive, 
therefore loses the sense of a pra>teritum, and differs from the present 
only as giving prominence to the consideration of the action as trans- 
ient and oecu])ying a single point of time, usually with more express 
reference to the future. (Cf. § 138.) "Mevoiv iiredv/xei ap'^eiv, oTTcof 
TrXelco Xau^dvoi {Xe>i. An. 3, 6, 21 ; to get more, in general or for 
ever). "ESacray ot "EXX77i/e?, /u,^ ol II epcrat 7rpo<;ayd'yoLev'7rpo'i to K€pa<; 
{Xen. All. 1, 10, 9). "HtSei Ku/ao?, otl, el Tt/u,a;Y';9 TTOxe hei'^croi, eKTCov 
cf)i\,a)v avTQ) Kol 7Tapaardra<i Kal eTTiaTcira'; XrjTTTeov eirj {\e)i. Cgr. 8, 1, 
10). "ESeicray ol Kepacrovvrioi, pyj Xvaaa rt? co^Trep kvctIv rjplv ipire- 
TTT(i)Koi [Xe)i. An. 5, 7, 26). See further examples in § 131 and 132. 

Rem. 1. As in certain sorts of sentences the distinction between future indie, 
and aor. subjunctive is but small (with oiras in an object-sentence, d baxru) 
and (av hm), so in the same sorts of sentences the distinction is also but small 
in the optative between the future and the aorist. It should be remarked, 
however, that in object-sentences in the optative with ottcos, the aor. is much 
more frequent than the future. (Both tenses in connexion : Tov epirpoadev 
Xpovov i'^cov VTTO TToXkrjS eVt/xeXeta? oirays cos eXd^iara pev uyJAoipTjv, {\d)(irrTa S' 
dKov(Toipr]v, eXd^KTra 8' epoiprjv, X.en. CEcon. 7, 5.) Even more rare than 
in such sentences is the optat. future in sentences of intention with oVcos 
or pT]. ( Ayapepvcov rjypiaivei' evreXXopfi'os ^pvcrr] vvv re cmuvai Ka\ ai/dis p.rf 
eXdflv, prj avra rd tov 6eov areppara ova iirapKea-oi, PI. Hep. 3, 393.) In con- 
ditional sentences in the oratio ohliqua after a prasteritum, el with the aorist rather 
denotes the action as a condition going before (ei hoirjy, si dedissem =■ idv ba, si 
dedero), the future, on the contrary, denotes it merely as going on at the same 
time {el baaoipi, si darem =z ei daa-a, si dabo) ; sometimes, however, the future 
(occasionally even the present) is put where the aorist might stand : ''Ev6pi(e 
Ylaa-iav d pev iv 'Adijuais pivetv emxeipoirjv {immediately, ivliere I already 
was), SKdodrjaeadciL p' inro rrjs yjoXecoy Earvpa, el S' uXXocre ttoi TpaTroiprjv, ov8ev 

[part II. 



§135-] The Optative and its Tenses. 119 

\i{Kr](jiLV avr&j (tc5 Tia(T\.u>vi) rayv e/xcoi' Xilycov, el 6' elsn\ev(TOifj.r]v fis tuv TIovtov, [§ 
inrodavela-dai fie ^era tov narpos vtto Sarupov {Isocr. Trap. 9). 'O ijyepcov i'<pr] I34-] 
(hai I'lKpov, o el prj ris (one) it poKaTa\i)i\fijiTo, a^vvarov ecrecrBai TrapeXde1i> {JCeii. An. 
4. 1, 25). In relative sentences 6? bmuoi and 6? Soi'r; differ, as os haxrei and os av 
fia. Therefore, "EXeyev a^eiv avrovs, evOa \r)y\foivTo to. einTrjdeia, and elnuu 
Ttves, OTi e'irj HayKkeavi dSeX^o?, osrts' e^aiprjaoiTo avTov els eXevdepiav [Lys. 23, 9), 
because representing a£co, eV^a Xrj^eaBe, and ecrrn' dSeX0o?, osris e^aLprjaerai. 
But ec^Tj Ttapap-eve'iv, eas eXdoiev ovs irefxy^eiev = ovs civ T;eii-^i]S (§ 132, a, last 
example). 

[Rem. 2. "In fact the future of t/te optative is formed and used for the sole 
purpose (to which it is most strictly confined) of i-epresenting the future indica- 
tive in the oratio ohliqua after a prceteritum. — Hence it appears (1) in clauses with 
on, wy, and in dependent questions : (2) in con,j unction al and relative accessory 
sentences of the oratio ohliqua after a prceteritum ; and also in such accessory 
clauses as are immediately attached to a principal sentence {in prater ito) of the 
oratio reo^rt\ whilst they themselves, as orat. ohliqua, form a member of the 
thought attributed to the person spoken of: ol p.ev {k.t.\.) . . . ol 8e aKTeipov, el 
d\ CO (T ivT = felt compassion for them at the thought — ). — (3) in sentences 
with O7I-C0? ( = hoif, that — [not after oti-ws', as final particle, = ut, cf. (5)], in- 
asmuch as here the future of the indicative may follow a present. Here, however, 
it does not occur often (usually the aorist) : tovtovs, Sttcos as IBeXriaroi eaoivro, 
avTos eaKcTTei {Xen.). — (4) Very seldom, with /x)'; (without oirois) after verha timendi. 
I have only remarked PL Euthyphr. 15, D ; and Xen. Hellen. vi. 4. 27. — (5) In 
final sentences after ottws (ottcos /xij), the fut. of the optative must be looked upon 
as douhtful." (Madvig.)] 

(Optative with av, aud in conditional sentences in the oratio recta'.) ^ 
a) With av the present and the aorist stand in the optative (now and 135. 
then also the perfect as denoting* the now existing" result, besides the 
perfects which are present in signification) to express a possible con- 
tingency, which will be actual under a certain condition, whicli it is 
admitted does not at present hold, but is easy to be conceived as 
occurring-, and which for the moment one chooses to assume and pre- 
suppose. The condition is expressed by el, with the optative of the 
present or aorist. The apodosis here approximates sometimes to a 
simply conditional apodosis in the indie, future, sometimes to a hypo- 
thetical apodosis in the imperf. indie, with av, zo that the thing put 
as contingent is more opposed to the actual state of the case, yet with 
a certain reference to what is still possible or probable; sometimes 
this form is merely a more delicate mode of expression instead of the 
imperf. with av. The aorist differs from the present only in the way 
explained above (§ 134, c) : "Oaov al jiovap'x^iai irpo^ to irpa^ai tl twv 
8e6vT(ov SLacjiipovaL tow oXLjap'^icov Kal rcoy SyjfioKpaTiMV, ovTW'i av 

^ Printed ohliqua in Sehneidewin. 

- Not to be confounded with the optative after el in oratio ohliqua after a pras- 
teritum (§ 131, 132) and the optat. of recurring acts (§ 133). 
CHAP. III.] 



1 20 TJlc Optative and its Tenses. [§ i 



0^- 



f§ KaXkiaTa Oewp/jaai/jiev, el- ra'^ /xeyLara^ tmv irpd^ecov Trap" dX\.')]\a<; 

^35] TiOevret; e^erd^eip eTrix^ipijaaL/ui-ev {Zsocr. Nic. 17 ; we m'n/Jit perhaps 
hesf see, if — ; and therefore v:e ^viIl do so). Et ufjiekrjcrai So^aifiev 
TaSdra, tov roaavra rj/jid<; 0)<p6Xr]K6T0<;, iroioL'i Xoyoa dXXov<; Treldocfxev 
av 'xaplt.eo-Oal rt r^pblv ; [Xen. Cyr. 5, 3, 33. And therefore we will 
avoid this appearance). Xp^ vixa<;, m ^AOrjvaloi, rotavra <ppovelv irepi 
r6)v drv^ovvTcov hi'j^JLWV, oldirep dv tou? dXXov^ d^iuxraire (ppovelv irepi 
ij/xcbp, et 7rod\ jxi-j yevoiro, tolovto tl av/x^aLr] {Deni. lb, 21 ; as you 
mir/ht look /or from them, if tee imaffine that — ), 'ETriXi'jafxcov dv el'rjv, 
0) W.yd6o)v, el, I8a)v rrjv o"j)y dvhpelav, ^Xe-\^avTO^ ivavrla roaovrq) 
Oedrpw vvv olrjOelrjv ae dopv^y']crea3ai eveKa t'lfxthv, oXljuiv dvOpctiitcov 
{PL Conv. 194. I must he forgetful, if I were to think — ). Ei, kni nvp 

(\66vTos (TOV kai jxrj ovtos nap" ifioi, aAXocre rjyri<Tap.rjv, OTPoBev (Toi f'lr) Xajdelv, ovk av 
ep-ifxcpov jjLOL. Kai el, ^ovKojxkvov p.ovcnKi]v paBetv crov Trap' epov, 8e[^aipi croi ttoKv 
^eivorepovs ipov Trepl povai.K>)v Kai aoi X''P"' "'' f'Soray, el eBiXois Trap avTwv pav- 
6uveiv, rl av en pot. pep(f)oto ; Ourcos ovv /cat nept rrjs olKovopiKrjs ttoitjo-co (JLe«. 
(Econ. 2, 15). 

/;) The condition, instead of being" expressed in a sentence of its 
own, may be intimated by a sing-le word, or by the context : 'E/c rci)v 
ifJLiiopiwv Tf)? Xeppovi]crov, d tot dv KXeicrdeiT] [tohich then, i. e. in 
case Kersotjleptes should conquer the Chersonese), irXeov rj TpcaKocria 
TdXavTd icrd' 1) Trpo^oSo? [Deni. 23, 110). 

r) The protasis retains its form^ when the apodosis passes into the 
infinitive or the participle : 'JLXiri^o), el ti]v tt^o? efe ohov TpdiroLo, 
(T(f)68p' dv ae Tcop naXoyv Kai crep-vcbv epydTrjV dyadov yeveaOat (Xen,. 
Mem. 2, 1, 27 = crcfioBp' dv dya96<i ipydT7]<i yevoco) . See Infinitive 
and Participle with dv. 

Eem. 1. As this form of hypotlietical declaration differs but little from a simplj 
conditional statement which refers to the future, it sometimes happens that 
both forms are combined : 

a) The condition is expressed absolutel}' in the present or fut. indicative, or in 
the subjunctive with edv. but the apodosis nevertheless stands in the optative 
with av as something possible and conceivable : Ov dava av eyco Trddoipi, el px] 
e^earai poi dnievai ku\ prj ciKoveiv crov ; [PI. GrOTff. 461.) IIoXX)) av tis evdaipovia 
fir) TTepX Tovs veovs, el eis pev povos avravs Siacjideipei, 01 S' oXXot d><peXov(Tiv {PI- 
.Apol. 25). Wv <p0dacopev, nplv roi's TToXepiovs avWeyrivai, dva^dvres, apax^el 
Xd^oipev av to oKpov (JXTew. Cyr. 3, 2, 5). The apodosis sometimes expresses, not 
a direct consequence of the condition, but something which even then is only 
pofisitjle, so that the optative with av is purely potential, as in the following § : Et 
BeXere (TKe^aa-6ai nap" vplv avrois, rl 8ovXov 1) eXevdepov eivai 8ia(j)epei, tovto peyiarov 
av evpoire, on rois pev 8ovXols to acopa Tav dSiKripdrav TrdvTo)v vTrevavvdv ecm (/s 
(insiverahle for, must atone for, § 63, d), roT? 5' eXevOepois vaTUTov tovto irposrjKfi 
KoXd^eiv {Dem. 24, 167). 

b) The apodosis is put in the indicative, as simply conditional, while the pro- 
tasis is marked by the optative as an assumed possibility. Often the former is, pro- 

[PART II. 



§136.] The Optathw and its Tenses. 121 

lierly considered, an unconditional and general assertion, and the optative with [§ 
61 only assigns a possible case in which the assertion will apply :^ TtVa fvprjaofxev 135.] 
Tcov Tols TpcoLKols xfiJi'ot? yevofxtvcou, d tovs fivdov? dcpevres ttjv aXijOeiav aKonoLnev, 
ToiavTu humfiTpayjXivov ola 'Evayopav; {Isocr. Evag. Q(^.) Ei ideXots Tpeis roiov- 




thing Iiaj)j}eni))g). "'Eariv oiKovoplav eTTia-Tapevw, koI d p.T] aiiTos ru^^ot ^pT;/xaTa 
ex(ov, TOP "tXXov oiKov oiKovopovvra picr6o(j>opf'iv [Xen. (Econ. 1, 4; even if he him- 
self should possess no -property). (So likewise where the apodosis becomes in- 
finitive: 'Wyovpai, d Kai prjSfvbs aXkov pvri(r6dr]v dXX' ivravda KaTaXei7T0Lp.L tov 
Xo'yoi^, padiov eK rovrav fivai yvu>vai ri]v dperrju tov Evayopov, Isocr. Evug. '60. 
I take it to he easy, even if I should mention nothing more — .) ^ 

Rem. 2. Other quite occasional and isolated deviations from the regular^ form 
of hypothetical statements rest upon an inaccuracy in the expression. On d with 
one indicative and one optative, when a judgment is pronounced on the connexion 
between a past fact and a possible action which has not yet occurred (Aetm av 
e'irjv dpyao-pevos, d Tore pev epevov, vvv be ttjv ra^iv XinoLp.!.), see Connexion of 
Sentences ivith pev — 8e, § 189, a. 

Rem. 3. El with the optative, is used in sentences of comparison, which denote 
something merely thought, but j-et possible : Ot toiovtol opoiov epo) doKovai nenov- 
Bivai, olnv ei' rty ev (nveipav Km ev CJJVTfvcciv, onore KapnovcrOai ravra fieot, ear] tov 
Kapnov aavyKopiUTov els ti]v yrjv rrdXiu KaTappelv (JTew. Cyr. 1, 5, 10). (A direct 
opposition to reality is expressed by the imperf. indicative : Ovbev ti 8cd<popov 
Trdcrxei- rj el povos ecTTpaTeveTO, Xen. Cyr. 5, 4. 20.) 

Without any definite condition either expressed or implied in the ,5 
context, the optative with du (present^, aorist, sometimes perfect) is 136. 
very frequently used to denote something' as what is conceivable, 
and, under certain circumstances, could and might easily occur, or 
to which some person might be inclined ; in general, as the form of a 
modest expression of opinion on the present or the future. {Opfa- 
tivns pofentialis, dubUativus. The aorist, of that which is single and 
transient.) "Upa av yfilv avcTKevd^eaOai, etr} [Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 41). 'Io-&)<? 
av ovv Ti? eirnifjurjcreLev TOi<i elpr^fjuevoi^i, on Ta<; fiev irpd^ei'i eiraivSi, rd-^ 
S' aLTia<; ov (ppd^oi {Isocr. At'eop. 36). Tavd' w? ov irapd tov vofiov 
iarlv, ovT dv 'AvSpoTLwv e^oc \ejetv ov6' u/zet? ireiadeLrjre av {Bern. 
22,, 17). 'HSeft)9 dv ejcoj ipotjj^ijv AeirTivrp', T19 avTT] rj aTeXeid {e.v- 
emption from taxes) io-Tcv {Bern. 20, 129). {Bov'X.oi/xrjv dv, velim.) 
'Ap' ovv edekrjaaci dv, <y Topjla, oiairep vvv SiaXeyofieda, ScaTeXeaaL to 
fiev ipcoTMV, TO S" diroKpt-vofjievo^i ; {PL Gorg. 44-9. Should you feel 

' Oi "ltttvoi Toh Ilepa-aisirvKTns wseirl to ttoXv 7T€7rodi(rpevoi el(ri,TOv pr) (fjevyeiv eveKa, 
el Xv6eii]iTav {Xen. An. 3, 4, 35 ; that they might not run away, if by chance they 
should get loose). 

CHAP. III.] 



122 TJlc Optative and its Tenses. [§ 137. 

[§ incl'mecl ? should you mind (doing- it) ?• modest request.) 'Apa edeki'^- 
'■■^ ■-' aeLev av Topylwi r}[uv Sia\e')^6i]vaL ; {PI. Gorff. 447.) no! ovv, ecprju eya>, 
Tpanoi[j.€6' av en; {PI. JEu(/u/d. 290. IJliifher then should we \_can ive, are tve to] 
turn ourselves? cf. § 121.) Uas av oXoinTjv ; {Eur. 3fed. 97, expressing, virtually, 
a wish.) Xcopo'is av e'laco {So2)h. Phil. 674. Tkoti mightest go in; S^you may go i7i\ 
approximating to the imperative). AeXrjde ae, on Ka\ oi payj/abol Trdvres iniaravraL 
TCI 'Oprjpov eTTt] ; Kal ttw? av, e<})r], \e\-i]doi, aKpotlipevov ye avribv oXiyov dv eKd(TTr}v 
Tjpepav ; {Xen. Conv. 3, 6.) 

^ The potential optative with av stands, not only in principal sentences 

137. but also in accessory sentences, which admit of such a conception and 
mode of expression, especially in declarative object-sentences with on or 
ft)?, in dependent interrogative sentences which would have the same 
form in the oratio recta (without reference to the time of the principal 
verb), and in relative sentences (with pronoun or relative particles) : 
^ KireKplvaro KXedvcop, ore irpoaOev av airoddvoiev rj ra oirXa irapahoZev 
[Xen. An. 2, 1, 10 = Ylpoadev av d7ro6dvoLp,ev i) — Trapadoifiev) . 
^^vvoelre (imperat.), on 7]ttov dv — ardai^ eh] ev6<i dp')(ovTo<i {Xe)i. 
An. 5, 9, 29) . 'Ecr/co7rof t*, riv dv rpoTrov rjavxmv tyetv 'AdrjvoBcopci 
dvajKaadeiT] {Pern. 23, 11). 'Hpdorcov ol Trpecr/Set? tou? arparri<^/ov^, 
el Solev dv tovtcov rd irtaid [Xen. An. 4, 8, 7 = 'Ap' dv ho'vqre — ;). 
QvK. olS", 6,Ti dv Ti? ')^pi']aacTO aTpaTicoTac<i ouro)? d6vp.co^ exouatv [Xen. 
An. 3, 1, 40). Xp/; TOL"? fxi'^a (ppovovvra'i yu,?; toU toiovtol^ iirtx^ipelv, 
d Kal roiv tv')(ovtu)v dv TL<i Karairpd^eiev {Pocr. Phil. 41). JLlirare fioi, 
et TLva ejo) vvv tcov ipcjv dTroareXXoifii irpb^ rov ^IvSov, av/JLTre/jb^lratre 
dv fMOL TMv v/uLerepoov 0Lrive<; avru) rrjv oSov rjyolvTO dv ; {\eu. Cj/r. 3, 2, 
28 ; who could show him the ivai/.) "Aipo^o'i t7]v ovalav /moi, ovto)^ 
8ia)K'rjKev to? ovS" av 01 'i'^OiaToi BLOLK^aetav [Pem. 27, 48). HAavla top 
MeiStay r]a7rd^ero, oi^rrep dv 'yvvrj <ydfi/3pov daird^oiTO {Xen. Hell. 3, 
1, 14). 'O 'Apfxevio'^ rd /SaauXeia oiKohojxelv ?;p;^eTO ft)? dv iKavd diro- 
fid'^eaOai eir) {Xen. C//r. 3, 1, 1 ; in such toise as iJieij might he ; i.e. 
so that — ). 'T/zei?, «w ^ XQiqvaXoi, ft)? \x\v dv eliroiTe hiKalovi Xoyovi, 
djxeivov ^iXiTTTTOu TrapeaKevaade, 00? 8e KooXvaair dv eKelvov Trparreiv, a 
^ovXeTai, iravreXSyi dpjc!)^ ^x^re {Pem. 6, 4. You are prepared for this, 
how you might he aide ; i. e. to he aide. So co? frequently with the po- 
tential optative, and an accessory signification of a purpose or aim) . Ata- 
cf)op6v Ti TToiet?, et tou? T0L<i vofioa TreLdop.evoV'i <^auX/^et?, on KaraXvOelev 
dv olvo/jLOL, i) el . . ■\|re70i? {Xen. 2[em. 4, 4, 14; hecause the laivs might pos- 
sihly he annulled). (Potential optative in a conditional sentence: 'AXAa ^171', 
e'i ye p.t]de douXov aKparrj de^aipfd' av. ttco? ovk u^iov avrou ye (jivXa^aa-dai toiovtov 
yeveadai ; Xen. Mem. 1, 5, 3 : if we should not even receive. Cf. § 117 b. E. 1.) ^ 

^ El 8oKoir]v, onov 8vvaipT]v, aKvpov noielv to AaKe8aipovia)V d^ia)fxa, evvoa>, pt] Aiav 
lii/ Toxv (TcocppovLaBeirjv {Xen. An. 0, 9, 28 ; I fear I should hut too soon he brought to 

[part II. 



§138.] The optative and its Tenses. 123 

Relative and conjunctional sentences wliich are appended to a sen- § 
tence in the optative with av, or to a conditional sentence in theopta- 138. 
tive, to define the hypothetical statement more accuratel}^, without 
being- predicated for themselves as actual, and which belong to present 
or future time, are themselves (as denoting something assumed or 
possible) put in the optative (as in oraiio oUicpia after a prseteritum, 
§ 132). On the other hand, declarative object- sentences and dependent 
interrogative sentences stand in the indicative, as after a present or 
future nulicative (from which the optative with av in a principal sen- 
tence, deviates only in form). In object-sentences with ottw?, and 
in sentences of intention, the subjunctive is also usually put, but also 
the optative : (a) lim av ti<;, a ye jjltj eirlcnaLTO, rama aocj^o^ elr] ; 
[Xeii. Mem. 4, 6, 7.) Xpi-jfiaTcov 6 tolovto'; avrjp veo<; fiev mv Kara- 
(f)povoc av, 6(T(p 86 TTpecrjSvrepo'i yevoiTO, fMoXXov «el aa-ird^oiTO av [PI. 
Hep. 8, 54-9). ' OuTw yiyvop^ivwv {if such becomes the state of the case) 
aa(f)(b<; olSa, on 6 (ppovpapxo'i Beoiro av TaSaTa fievecv, eco? av arreX- 
6oi<i [Xen. Ci/r. h, 3, 13). Et a'noQvi](TK.oi [xev iravra, oaa rod ^rjv 
fieraXd^oi, i'rreiSr) Se diroddvoi, pievoi ev tovtm tw axW"''^'' f^^"} 
pbT) TrdXiv dva^icoa-KOLTo, ap ov ttoWi] dvdjKT], reXevrcovTU nrdvra redvd- 
vai Kal yu7;Sey ^t]v ; {PI. Pheed. 73.)' — (b) Oi)S' dv^^h avjemoi, w^ 
ov avfX(f)ipeL ttj TroXet, Kal Kaicehaiixovlov^ dcrdevel^ elvat Kal ^rj^atovi 
{Bern. 16, 4). Et rt? Xkyoi dvQpwirov karvnora, Ktvovvra 8e Td<i x;ei/ja9 
re Kal t7]v Ke(j)aXi]v, on 6 avro-i earrjKe re Kal KivetTat, ovk dv d^tolixev 
ovTco Xeyehv Selv, dXX' on to /jiiv ri avrov ecTTrjKe, to Be n KcveoTai {PL 
PejJ. 4, 436). 'O Trpoipeix; ri]<; veo)<; ovrco^i iirio-TaTat eKdarcov roov ev 
TM TrXoLcp Ti-jv x/^pav, w?Te Kal diroov dv eXrroi, oirov eKacna Kelrai Kai 
biTOcra eariv {Xen-. (Econ. 8, 14). Ovk dv exoip-l y elirelv, on ov 7rpo<;- 
el^ov Tov vovv ^vdv8i]pi(p Kal t^iovvaoBciopw {PL Euth//d. 272). — 
(c) M.eya dv ovijaacre to aTpaTevfia, el iTri/xeXTjdeLrjTe, 07r&)9 dvTl tmv 
dnroXwXoTwv &)? Td^i'^''^^ aTpaTTjyol KaTaaTaOoiatv {Xeii. An. 3, 1, 38). 
'Okvoltjv dv ek to, irXola i/x^alvecv, a Kvpo<; tj/mv Bolt], fxrj r)p,d^ avTal'i 
Tal<i Tptrjpeai KaTaBvar) {Xen. An. 1, 3, 17). — 'H efxi-j (pvXaKr] tmv evBov, 
etprj 7) yvv/j, yeXoia rt? dv ^alvoiTO, el /jltj av ye eTTtp.eXolo, oVo)? e^couev 
Tt ek(j)6poLTo {Xen. (Ecoa. 7,39). Ayro? dv e%(wy t^]v dXXrjv Bvvafxiv 
ireipwixriv /X7] irpoao) v/xiov elvat, ha, el irov Kaipo^ elrj, iTrKpavelrjv {Xen. 



\mi/ senses, for Indie. Fut., § 124 a. R. 1 ; ewow /xjy being inserted without influencing 
the hypothetical form of the sentence). 

' Dependent sentences containing a statement of the past in the indicative (§132 
a. R. 1) : Tiff OVK av fxicrr)(r€iev ^lXithtov. el (jiali'oiTo tovtois (TTi^ovXevuiv, vnip wi/ o 
npoyovns avTov TTpoeiXeTO KivdvveveLV ; {Isoci'. Pliil. ii-) 

CHAP. III.] 



1 24 TJie Optative and its Tenses. [§ 1 39. 

[§ Rem. 1. Now and then, however, a relative or conjunctional sentence has the 

i.3*^-] subjunctive with av, as after a condition put simply in the indicative : MaXtcrra av 
al(j6o'i^i.6a, o ^ijTovfxev, el Toiw8e noirjaaifjiei' rrj hiavo'ia' hwrfs i^ovaiav eKUTipu) 
TTOietv o, Ti tiv (3ov\r]Tai, tu) re BiKcticp koi tm aSiKco, elr fTraKo\ov6t](Tcufi(i' Beuifitvoi, 
TTol T) eniOvfiia eKurepov (i^ei {PL lie}). 2. 359). A dependent sentence which 
states something independently as matter of fact, has the indicative : TiVi uv 6eco 
fuxofxevos KaXXia-T av eXdoijxi rtjv 686v, i]i> firivoco ; and consequently in the oratio 
ohliqua after a prnBteritum : Sfvocpoii' fnTjpero tov 'AttoXXo), t'ivl uv dea fV)(6fj.fvos kuX- 
Xiar av i'Xdoi ti)v 686v, i]v eirivoel {Jlcji. An. 3, 1, 6) or iTVLvool by § 132, a and b. 

Rem. 2. (to § 135 — 138.) "Whether Uv with the potential optative is sometimes 
omitted by A.ttic poets, Ls uncertain : in prose this is never the case. Av with 
the fut. of the opt. is found only in doubtful readings. 

V On the use of af in general, and with the indicative and optative, remark further : 

I "^O 

a) In the copulative, disjunctive, or adversative connexion of two verbs, liv is 

commonly put only once (with the first), except where the addition of special defini- 
tions to each verb, or the emphasis of the passage, causes the two notions to stand 
more apart, and gives more prominence to the hypothetical character of each 
severally: Et 6 ^iKnnvos vpas t^eXdelv e[Sov\r]6r], ovk av Tvore tovs ;^poi'ov? dveXutv, 
ev uis 7]8vvfjdrjT av i^ekOeiv, TrjviKavT eKuXfi, ovS' civ ifxe, rjviKa devpo atroTiKelv 
(^ovXofjLTjv, Kare KoyXvev, ov8( roiavra Xeyeiv Alcrx^ivrj nposeTarrev, i^ av r/Kiao v/zel? 
i;jLieXXer' e^ievai (Dem. 19, 51). (It is never repeated, where two predicates are put 
comparatively : "HStov av dnoBdvoipi rj ra onXa TTapa8oir]v.) Sometimes av is left 
to be understood from a preceding clause, rhetorically corresponding with the latter : 
Tt fTTolrjo-ev av ; i) dfjXov, on wpocrev ; {Dem. 31, 9.) Ti ovv rco 6e<i to yj/evbos XPW''' 
pov ; TTorepov 8iii to pi] eldevai to. TraXaui yjrevSoiTO liv ; TeXolov pevT civ, c'cprj. AXXa 
Sedicos Toiis txBpovs yj/-ev8oiTo ; UoXXov ye del {PI. Sej). 2, 382). 

d) Usually civ is put before the verb, when the emphasis lies on some defini- 
tion of the verb that stands before it (the verb) in the sentence ; otherwise 
directly after it. In this way, civ often comes to stand at some considerable dis- 
tance before the verb, being attached to an interrogative word, a negation, or 
some other emphatic word in the opening of the sentence : Ei pev enaivu) 2ev6r]v, 
biKuicos av p.e koi alTicoade Ka\ piaolTe' el 8e, TrpocrBev avTo) Travrcov paXiaTa 
(()[Xos av, vvv TrdvToiv Sia^opcoraros elpi, ncos av (or o^k civ) eri diKaicos, vpds 
alpovpevos uvtI 'Eevdov, vcf)" vpav cuTiav exoipi ; {S^en. An. 7, 6, 15.) Ourco yap 
Ka\ eTTopevoi av (jiiXoi rw Kvpco /cat Trpvdvpoi. eTTOipeda Ka\ aTViovTes acrcpaXas av anioipev 
{Xen. An. 1, 3, 19. The av of the principal verb is often put in this way, where a 
participle precedes the verb). When civ is thus removed to a distance from its 
verb, it is sometimes repeated in immediate connexion with the verb : "Q.snep av, el 
TW ovTi ^evos tTvy^avov av, ^vveyiyvacrKeTe brjTvov civ pot, el ev eKeivj] ttj (f)avfj re 
Kcii Ta TpoTTCp eXeyov, ev olsnep eTeOpdpprjv, Ka\ 8!] Ka\ vvv vpav 8eopai tov pev TpoTTOV 
rj]S Xe^eas edv, TOVTa 8e tov voijv Trposexetv, el Strata Xeya {PL A])oL 17). Sevocpav 
eTvrjpeTo tov^AttoXXis), Tivi av 6eav 6vav Ka\ evx<^'pevos KdXXicrT av eXBoi ttjv 686v, r)V 
intvoel {Xen. An. 3, 1, 6). Oi'Sa vpds TavTci epol eniaTapevovs, asTe Kav dXXovs 
etKorw? av SiSacTKoire {Xen. Cyr. 3, 3, 35).^ 

^ " Av repeated where the same verb is put with two single and several definitions 
{ovTe — ovTe, pev — 8e) : Ei eyco TrdXat fTrexeipr]cra irpaTTeiv to. noXiTiKa, naXai. av 
dTToXaXeLv kai ovt av vpds aCpeXrjKeLV ov8ev ovt av epavTOV {PL A])oL 31). 
AtKatos pev av e'irjs, crocpos 8' ovk tiv {Xen. 3Iem. 1, 6, 12), 

[part II. 




^140.] The Optative ana its Tenses. 125 

[§ 
'39-] 

„ ,. ^vi]\x.ri -rrtiKiv XajSelv [PL Tim. 26). Ovk otS" av el TreiVat/it, jretpao-^ai te 

xpr] {Eur. Med. 941). We may also notice tlie connexion of the liu belonging 
to the verb with the concessive koi, so that d after kIiv follows^with the indicative 
or optative according to the usual rules {kuv el = av — kcii el) : Nuf /lot SoKel icav^ 
aae^eLciv el KarayiyvaxTKoi tis MetStov, rot irposr]KovTa iroieiv {Dem. 21, 51, = Kat ei 
— KaTayiyvuxTKoi, to. irp. av Troielv). Hence sometimes kuv el merely for Koi el in 
an appended concession : eve?i if. (Diflerent from k&v = (cat edv.) 

c) "Av sometimes stands elliptically, so that a verb immediately preceding is under- 
stood in the hypothetical indicative or optative : Ov8ep.ia eariv ovru> kcCKx] Trapaivea-is, 
rJTis rovs p-rj ovras dyaOovs avdr]pepov aKova-avrns dyadovs TTOirjcreC ovk civ ovv to^otcis 
ye {Xen. C'//r. 3, 3, 50 ; viz. Troirjo-eiev : good archers, at any rate, it would not make^ 
them). YidXai y oXeKrpvovos rJKova eya>' ol S' ol<eTai peyKovcriV oAX' ovk av irpb tov 
[Arist. Nuh. 5 ; viz. epeyKov. t/iei/ ivoutd not have done that in time j^ast). 'Ett' ovhevl 
^papari ov8e Tvapari dvrjp IIepcrr]S ovras eKTV^ayelr] av cosre pr] oil Tvpovoelv, (iTrep^ av 
/cat p>) eVi o-iVw u)v {Xen. Cyr. 5, 2, 17 ; viz. Trpovoolij). Especially note the elliptical 
asnep av el {o'aov irep av el), as though (strictly speaking : as one might, or ivould, have 
done, if — ) : Et 6 crvplBds o-/c7y7rrof {sudden burst of calamity) prj fxwov rjfxav dXXa 
iravTcov TO)V aXXcov 'BXkrjvav p.ei(u)V ytyove, t'l xph T^oielv ; wsnep (iv el th vavKK-qpov 
wdvT em a-corrjpia irpd^avra eha, avvrpijievTav avrS rmv a-nevav, r^s vavayias alriaTO 
{Bern. 18, 191) .i 

(Concluding Remarks to Chap. 1, 2, 3.) With respect to the cases in which the ^ 
Greeks do not mark by the mood of the verb, that the thing said is not_ absolutely j ,q^ 
asserted as actual, though there might be occasion so to mark it, but, deviating from 
the Latin, and, in some cases, from the English idiom, retain the indicative without w 
(besides those cases which have been named as exceptions in the preceding rules 
on the optative and subjunctive), the following require to be specially noted : a) 
declarative object-sentences (with 6Vi and ws) and dependent interrogative sentences 
after a present or future (after a praeteritum in the optative, see § 130) ; b) relative 
sentences denoting an intention and definition, after a present or future ; cf. § 115 
a. R. (after a pneteritum in the optative, see § 132 d) ; likewise those which 
express the consequence of a quality (Lat. Gr. § 364, qui = talis ut, &c.), or a 
cause (Lat. Gr. § 366, qiii = quum 'is), or which belong to a negative statement: 
Oix e^ovcri SeT^ai vojxov, Kaff ov e^rjv avrols ravra irpd^ai {IscB. 10, 11). c) Acces- 
sory sentences which belong to a hypothetical sentence in the indicative with tw, 
or to a condition in the indicative put as not existing; see § 117 a. R. 2. d) Rela- 
tive or conjunctional sentences which, as members of a dependent statement, are 
necessary to complete the sense of object-sentences, or sentences of intention, or 
infinitive sentences (or statements expressed by a single infinitive), where the prin- 
cipal sentences have the verb in the present or future : ^Keirreov, prj irporepov 
Tovsbe yevecrdai peydXovs edacopev rj eKelvoi fiiKpol yevi](TOVTai {Dem. 16, 5 : except in 
the cases where the relative or conjunction is used with av and the subjunctive). 
(For inferential (or consecutive) sentences with asre in the indie, or infin., see Infi- 
nitive, § 166.) 

^ "Qsnep uv el nals, as if one ivere a child = like a child {PI. Gorg. 479). 
CHAP. III.] 



126 



TJic Imperative. 



\.\ HI. 



CHAPTER IV. 



§ 
141. 



TJic Imperative. 

The Imperative expresses an entreaty, a command, an instruction or 
exhortation, tog-ether with a concession and permission ; in the pre- 
sent tense quite generally, or when the action is continued and recur- 
ring ; in the aorist, when it is single and transient. Sometimes the 
distinction between the present and the aorist is small, and it falls away, 
where only the one or the other form is in use. The imperative of 
the perfect middle with passive signification is used where the entreaty, 
command, &c. relates to a/ completed action. Where the perfect in- 
dicative has the signification of a present, the perfect imperative j 
(active and middle) is used in the same signification, tappet. Tou? 
fiev 6eov<i (jio/3ov, tou? Se yoveU rlixa, rov<; 8e (f)iXov<; ala'^vvov, rot? Bel 
1/6/X019 irelOov [Isocr. Demon. 16). ^ooiVTwv {Arist. Ach. ISO. Let 
them cry I). — EiVe /xot {fell me; hut Xkr^e, speak !) . 'ETrtV^^e? {liol'k 
a moment!). Aa^e ra? ixaprvpla^ koX avdyvcodi [Bern. 27, 17, el 
jjassiin, but also Xa/3e /hol ra'i //.. kol avayljvcoaKe, Id. 27, 26, becausi 
the reading", in comparison with the momentary act of taking, forms 
a continued action). XKOirco/xev KOivfj, kol et ttt] e-^^ei^ avrCkeyecv e'yu.01 
XeyovTot;, avTiXeye {freq/ienlty and at greater leiigth) Kai 001 Trelao/xabi 
el he /jurj, iravaat r)S/; {cease at once, and have done to'ith it) iroXXaKi'; /uiol 
Xejciiv Tov avTov \6yov {PL Crito, 48). 'Eai^ ZovXo<; iXev0epop a7ro-\ 
KTeivr) Ovfio), irapahihovTbiv ol heairorai tov hovXov roi^ 7rpo<;->]KOX)ai TOi 
TeXevTi](7avTo<i {PI. Legg. 9, 868 ; but Ibid. 879, irapaSoro) tov SovXoi 
6 KeKT7]p,evo^). "0<; av lepoavXoiv Xrjc^Ofj, eKTo^ tmv opcov t>}? %ftJ/3£ 
yv/xvo<; eKJSXrjOr^TW {PI. Legg. 9, 854). Ilept TOiv l8l(ov TavTn /not 
'jrpoeiprjaOo) {Isocr. Paneg. 14; let thus much he said hj/ toay ofj^reface), 
yieiJLvi-jao Twv Xoycov. KeKpdyeTe. "laOt OvrjTO'^ oiv. j 

Rem. 1. Especially note the blending of interrogation and command in th^ 
expression oicrff 6 (w?) 8paaov ; (knotvest ttiou wJiat ttiou must do t lit. Jcnoioesi 
tliou what ? [tioio ?) — do it) with command following. (Poetical. In Plato : T| 
ovv ; TeTa-)(6u> rjfiiv Kara trjfioKpariav roiovTOS dvijp, as diJUOKpariKos opdas av nposi 
ayopev6fxfvo9 ; TfTcixdo), ((f'V- I^^P- 81 562.) 

Rem. 2. Instead of the imperative in the second and sometimes in the third 
person, the older language used also the infinitive, and after this example somej 
times the Attic poets (hut only for the second person), and occasionally Plato anr 
Thucydides (so that the action is presented in quite a general way) : Kat ravT 
lav ElVco Xoyi^ov, kuu Xd^rjs p.' iy^evapivov, ^a(jKei.v e/x' fjbr] pavTiKi] prjSev (fipoveU 
{Soi)/i. (Ed. R. 462). 'Eyo) eyav tovs per ipavTov, TrposTTfCTovpai dpup-co Kara paaov 

[part II. 



§ 142, I43-] TJic Infinitive ajid its Tenses. 127 

TO crrpaToVeSnf' (jv Se, KAeapi'Sa, vcrrepov, urav ejie npas rjl^i] TvposKfifxtvov, tovs p-era {5 
aavTov Koi tovs ^vfifxa^ovs ayatv al(f)vi8i(j}S ras irvXas dvoi^as eneKdew (Thuc. 5, 9). 141.] 
(On the accus. with inf. see § 168 a. 1.) 

Rem. 3. Instead of the imperative in commands and invitations, we have also 
oTTwy (in prohibitions ottcd? fxi)) wntli the future indicative ; see § 123, R. 4. (Ilpo? 
Tavra Trpd^ets, olop av deXjjs, Sojjh. (Ed. C. 956, thou mayest do — [as we could say : 
^ you wall do as you please'^. An eager and vehement command is expressed in 
the form of a negative question in the future indicative : Tlaibes, ov o-Ke\|/-eo-^e ; 
(P/. Con V. 212. LooJc after it immediaf el y, slaves I) OvKcnrodtai^ds aavTovdnoTrji 
oIklos; {Arist. JVicb. 1296. Be ojf this moment !) Invitation or summons is also 
expressed by a negative question with Tt ov in the present, or (more commonlj') 
the aorist : Tt ovu ov (TKOTrovjxev, tto)? av rmv Kokav koi dyaOmv dvbpmv p-rj diap.ap- 
Tdvoi.p.ev ; [Xen. JSfem. 3, 1, 10.) Tt ovv ov 8iriyr](ru) p.01- rrjp avvovcriav (tov koi 
Upcorayopov, el fir] tI ae KcoXvei ; {PL Prot. 310.) (Ae'yoty liv, thou mightest say ; 
nearly = say ; see § 136.) 

A proliibition is expressed by ixi^ {firjSelf;) with the imperative of ^ 
the present, or where, agreeably with the distinction assig-ned in the j^2 
preceding paragraphs, the aorist is required, with the subjunctive of 
the aorist. M?) (f)o/3ov ! 'M.rj^eva <^l\ov 'jtolov irplv av e^erdar)'^, ttw? 
Ke)/pT]Tai TOL<; irporepov (f)i'\,ot,<i {Isocr. Dem. 24). — WLrjSevl av/xcfiopap 
6v6iSi(Tr]<;, KOivo] yap r; TV)(^r] Kal to fxeWov doparov {Isocr. Dem. 29). 
M??Se<9 viro\ul3r] fie (3ovXea6at XaOelv, on rourcov evca 'Tr6(f)paKa tov 
avTov rpoTTOv ovirep irporepov {Isocr. Phil. 93) . M?) dTrovat fiev rol^ 
rpiaKOvra i-TTb/SovXeveTe, irapovra^ 8' d^ijre [Li/s. 12, 80). M?) 
6i)(j6e vojxov /xrjSiva, dXX.a tov<; el<i to irapov ^XdirrovTa^i v/jid<i Xvaare 
[Bern. 3, 10). 

Rem. 1. Mj; with the impei-ative of the aorist in the second person is not usual 
in Attic writers; with the third person, it does now and then occur: Ov ksko- 
aixrjpei'ovs Xoyovs oXX' aKovirecrde fiKi] Xeycpi.eva to'ls iTViTV)(ovcnv ovop.acrf kg). p.r]8fis 
vp.a)v TTpoidoKrjcraTQ} itXXcos {PI. Apol. 17). 

Rem. 2. A stern prohibition is also expressed by a question with ov fn) (S 124 a. 
R. 4). 



CHAPTER V. 

T//e Infinitive and its Tenses. 

The Infinitive expresses the notion of the verb in general in its § 
different tenses. By prefixing the article to the infinitive, the notion li? 
of the verb is brought out as definite, and having a substantive exist- (387) 
ence. By this means, the infinitive is at the same time enabled to 

., enter into relations with the other members of the sentence in the 

; manner of a substantive in the diflSerent cases. 

I CHAP, v.] 



128 The Infinitive and its Tenses. [§ 144, 145. 

[§ Eem. The infinitive in Greek (as partW in English) is sometimes annexed, in a 

143.] somewhat lax connexion, to a predicate for the pvarpose of defining it more nearly, 

so that it is difficult to assign the limits of the relation, and sometimes the same 
combination may be taken in a dlfterent sense in different connexions, e. g. Svparus 
iroulv (see § 149, 150 ; ahle to do, and in one's jjower to do ^jwsiiible to be done). 
In some constructions, instead of the mere infinitive (more or less rarely) with 
little or no difference of meaning, the infinitive is used with asre, which particle 
in general denotes an effect or an intention {so that, in order that), though some- 
times the definite meaning of the particle almost entirely disappears. 

^ The infinitive may stand, either as subject or as predieate-noun, when 

ii4. fln action is characterized in general (e.g. Tovro ixavdaveiv KaXetTac). 
(3^8) The infinitive as subject has the article, when it stands out as the 
given and first term of the sentence, of which something is to be predi- 
cated ; but it is without the article, where the predicate-noun with 
ea-TLv coalesces, so to say, into an impersonal expression which stands 
forward as the principal term, and is completed by the infinitive (in 
English : it is good, it is a sin, to — ), or where the predicate con- 
sists of a single verb which may be taken in the same way : To hlic7]v , 
hihovai iTorepov iraayeiv tI iartv i) Trocelv ; [PI. Gorg. 476.) ^^X 
ovT(o<; 7)8v eari to eyeiv ^PV/^^"^^ ^'^ uviapbv to WTro^aWeiv [Xen. Cyr. 
8, 3, 42). IloXXa (jv\i.{iaKkirai els Tcis Trpu^eis to evvovs exfLv rovs vnr]peTas. 
y\.eyi(7Tr}v TjyovjjiaL crvfxfxaxi-c-v eivai to tci diKaia ivpaTTfiv {Isocr. Archid. 59). ToCto 
eVrt TO ahiKeiv, to ttXcov Tav aXXav CrjTelv '^x^iv {PI. Gorg. 483. So almost always 
with an infinitive, which is first intimated by a pronoun). — ^^X V^^ 7roWov<i 
exOpow ex^iv {Dem. 19, 221). OlKovojJbov dyaOov iariv ev ocKelv top 

eaVTOV oIkov [Xe^l. (Econ. \, 2). "nsnep evlnnots, ovtco Koi €V dv6po3Trois Tiah 
iyy'iyverat. oaoa av eWXeco to. tiovTU ex(^cn, ToaovTca vISpiaTOTepois elvai {Jien. Sier. 
10, 1 ; it lies in the nature of some men to he ; but to aldfla-dai ev toIs toiovtois ovk 
evea-Tiv). No/:itVare d(rej3r]pa ptrjSev TknTTOv elvai tcov pr]8ev i]hLKriK6Ta)V KctTayvavai i) 
Tovs Tja-e^rjKuTas p.i] TLpLapeladai {Andoc. 1, 32). ('HXiKa eaTi to. 8ui(popa evddde rj e\e7 
TToXefxelv, ov8e \6yov Trposdel. Dem. 1, 27 ; hoio great the difference is — to make 
war.) 

Rem. 1. "flsre before the infinitive, in this impersonal mode of expression, is 
very rare : 'ASwarof vp-lv o)STe UpcoTayopov Tovde ao(pu)Tep(jv Tiva ekeadai ^pa(3evTr]v 
TU)v Xoycoi/ {PI. Prat. 338). 

Eeji. 2. To an infinitive predicated generally (without a definite subject), a 
dependent sentence in the third person may be annexed without an expressly 
assigned subject, this being the same as the subject mentally supplied to the 
infinitive {o7ie, a person) ; (but more commonly tIs is added.) To ddvuTov deSievat. 
ov8eu «XXo ecTTLV j] So/ceti/ (T0(p6v elvai p.r] ovTa' 8oKelv yap elbevat eVriV, a ovk oldev 
(PL Apol. 29). OvT dvTatiKelv Set ovre KaKws Tvoielv ov8eva dvOpatncov, ov8' av 
oTLovv Trdaxn vtt ovtmv {PI. Crito, 49). Likewise avrvs, eavTov may be referred 
to the subject implied in the infinitive: Ovk lipa tovt eVri to piya dvvacrdai, to 
TTOielv, a 8oKel aiiTa {PI. Gorg. 469). 

j^r The infinitive stands (without article) with verbs, the meaning of 
(4)) which refers directly to a certain action of the same subject, and its 
'^"^ . [part II. 



§145-] TJie Infinitive audits Tenses. 129 

accomplishment, to indicate that action; hkewise with impersonal [§ 
verbs which express a similar relation between a subject and an '"^^ 
action (e. g". possibility or duty), and with many phrases which have 
the signification of such a personal or impersonal verb. 'J^ttlOu/xoj 
avTOKparcop yljveaOai apxoiv {Xen. An. 5, 9, 21). "Y^yvwv (/ re- 
solved) Tov TTora/xov Sia/Srjvai. 'H 7roXt<? eiavZvveva-e iraaa Sia(})dapi]vat 
{T/i2CC. S,7-i). Ov7re(j)VKa<; SovXeveLv. Ala-^vvofiat'Trroy^eveiv. 'Okvm 
Xeyecv. ^o^oviiai SieXey^eiv ae. — AeSo/crat ij/xlv ieho^ev) ainevai. 'E^r^i/ 
/xiveiv. '£iVve/37] ixoi ireo-elv. ^O ZeO, Xa/Selv fxoi yivoiTo tov<; 'jroXefiiov'i 
CO? ijM ^ovXofxaL {Xen. Cyr. 6, 3, 11). 'E/c toO rav& ovT(o<i e^eiv 
virdp-^ei vjjiiv acr^aXM^ oiKeiv [Bern. 23, 102). — 'Ei; vQi e\(d enifXelv. 
Ov^ &pa Kadevheiv. '^A rvyx"'^^ aK7jK0(o<;, ovSeU (p66vo<; \e<yeiu {PL 
P/ued. 61; I am quite ready to — ). 

Rem. 1. Besides the verbs which in general denote a being willing (a require- 
ment or demand, a|iw), an ability (Tret^vKa, am naturally qualified to, it is my 
nature to), a duty, habit, inclination (^tXco), disinclination {ov cfidoj/ai tibdcrKeiv 
vfjiiis), fear (ala-xvvofiai.'^, evXajSovfxai), a beginning, lingering, forgetting; in some 
writers verbs, which in themselves have no such meaning, are occasionally' used in 
a particular connexion with the infinitive ; e. g. ^v/x^aiVw rti/l napadiBovai ifiavrov 
{Time. 2, 4; agree with a per son to surrender myself), inaTevay TrapaKaTaTiBeadai 
TLvi xprjiJ-aTa fj v'lovs ») dvyarepas {Xen. Mem. 4, 4, 17 = roXixw), &c. (Poetically : 
eVtKT/o-e devpo po'kf'iv. Soph. Ant. 233, the opinion prevailed = e8o§ev. MeVei tre 
TvvOecrdai vratSos 8v(T(f)opop urav, Soph. Ajax, 641, it atvaits thee.) In particular, 
many phrases which govern the infinitive, are formed with a substantive denoting 
a state of mind, or circumstances in reference to an action, and by itself capable of 
taking an objective genitive, either with eariv, yiyvfrai (e. g. (f)6(3os, okvos €(ttI rot? 
"EWrjai (TTpaTiveiv eni tov peyav ^atTiXea, dvdyKTj ylyverai jjlol dnievai, or merely 
dvdyKT] diTiivaL, ovdels klv8vv6s poi Trdfrxe"' ri), or with another verb (AeSoi/ca, /x?) 
a vvv ov jiovKopeBa. varepov els dvdyKr]v eXdmpev noielu, Dem. 1, 15. ' \vdyKq Tii 
fioi EK TVxr]S napafidWeL eTnpe\ri6r]vai ttjs TroXecof, PL Rep. 6, 499. Tav ^acov rtvci 
(j)v(TLV e'xeL TiQacreveaBai, PI. Pol. 264. =: Tre(pVKev. 'Ev duopo) ('lxovto ol 'Evridd- 
fjLVioc dea-Bai ro Tfapov, Thuc. 1, 25. Toi? aTparLoirais opprj eVeVeo-ei/ eKTeixia-at to 
X^^piov, Thuc. 4, 4). Cf. Genitive of Infinitive. § 156, R. 1. IloWov. fiiKpov Sew 
TVOLelv Ti. ^ptKpov Tivoi fv8eT]S dpi TrdvT ex^iv {PI. Prot. 329). Bpaxii d-rvo- 
XfiTTopev SiaKoa-ioi dvai {Thuc. 7, 70). Uapci piKpw rjXdov aTrodavelv {Isocr. .Mgin. 
22). 

Rem. 2. Some verbs denoting a meditating and endeavouring {prjxavwpai, 
(ppovTiCoo), are usually followed by onms (§ 122, 123) or an interrogative sentence 
(ei Tvcos, w? liv). 

Rem. 3. With some of these verbs and phrases loa-re is now and then prefixed to 
the infin., the governing verb being conceived more by and for itself. Ot KopipBiot 
fvdvs TTpwrot eyjrrifjiiaavTo Sisre irdcrr] Tvpodvpia dpvveiv tols 2vpaKovcrLOis {Thuc. 6, 88 ; 



1 Alcrxvvopai deovs Kvpov TrpoSovvai {Xen. An. 2, 3, 22 ; I am asliained in the 
presence of the gods, to betray Cyrus). 

CHAP, v.] K 



130 TJie Infinitive and its Tenses. [§146- 

r§ immediately made a decree, the object of^i^liich was — ). ndpv fioi iufXtja-ev ware 

14-5.] 6i5emi, 6TT6crov ol 7roXe>ioi KaTtlxov x^^piov (Xen. Cyr. 6, 3, 19 j I have taken much 

pains in the direction totrards, i. e. ?w order to — ). Els avdyKriv KaeeaTafxev cosre 

Kivhvveveiv {Isocr. Archid. 5,1). (On the insertion of the article, see § 154 

b. Rem.) 

s, The infinitive stands after the verbs which denote a working upon 

14(5 others in order to move them to an action (such as, to pray, per- 
(390) made, instigate, seduce, accustom, command, permit, constrain, 
(372) counsel, teach, ke.), or a forUdding, dissuading, hindering, to denote 
the action to which the influence refers ; likewise after phrases which 
have the sio-nification of such a verb : Oi voyuoi ovk e'icov aXXco? Trotelv 
[ovK eloiv 7)fid<; aXX&)9 Troielv). 'EKeXevaa tov Ki'jpvKa Trept/xelval fie. 
Aeo/xai vjxwv avyyvwfirjv fxoi ex^iv. Yiapaivoviiev aoi nrelOeaOaL to7<; 
/SeXrioaiv. 'Einjpd'qv [felt mi/self impelled) iruXiv rypdcpeiv irepl raiiTT]'; 
T?"}? v7ro9iaeo)<i {Isocr. Phil. 10). Et9 tmv arpaTiwTcov elire {proposed) 
arpaTrjyov^; ekeadat aXKov<i ox? xa^j^io-ra {Xen. An. \, 3, 14). Ot "EXX77- 
ve? e^owv aXki]\oc<; fir) 6eiv Spofiw, aX)C iv rd^et eireaOai {Xen. An. 
1,8, 19; called one to another not to—). Ol larpol Trdvre^ dirayo- 
pevova-i T0i9 daOevovai fir) XPV^^^"-'' ^^alw {PI. Prot. 384. Of fiy'), see 
Negations, § 210). Ti f^iXLirirov KwXvaei ^ahl^eiv o-irot ^oiiXerat ; 
{Bem. \, Vi.) — YieplLKKm irpo'^e^epe 'Kojov; rol^ eirl SpaKr]<; XoXkl- 
Bedcrt ^vvaTToaTrjvat {Thnc. 1, 57 ; made overtures to the Ch.— ). 
"^jjcjiiafia elirev iv vfxlv ' Apicrroipwv eXeaOat t,r]Tr]Td<i {Bern. 24, 11). H 
TToXt? iv Tw irapovTL T0t9 iTOvrfpoi'i i^ovaiav SiScoai, koX Xejeiv /cat TTOiecv 
o,TL av ^ovKrjOwcnv {Isocr. Antid. 164). Ovk ivhoiaojxev irpocbaaiv 
ovSevl KaKM jei'ia-Oai {Thnc. 2, 87). 

Rem. 1. Besides the verbs which in general have such a significatioli (among 
them Xe-yw, elnov, I tell a person to), some are more rarely, or in a special and 
derived signification, thus used, e. g. 8t'Sco/ut, anobidco^i., allow, i^dyoi, seduce (eV- 
€KKd(76i]v TT) yviojxr) to. oTtXa napadodvai, TJnic. 4, 37, let myself he swayed, was 
induced — ),dyy€'K\u> rivl napelvai {send a2oerson wordto hefort]icoming,(TvyKa\i(jas 
rovs arparriyovs Trape'ivm, Thitc. 2, 10), tw vuvtikw nepiayyeXko) TiXelv {send round 
orders to ttie fleet to sail, Tlinc. 2, 80),7raiSet'co riva crrpaTr^yeiv {to he commander), 
ivavTioifxai TivL jjlt] Troielv Ti {oppose ap)ersons doing somet/dng),&c. On phrases 
with a substantive in itself capable of governing a genitive, see Genitive oflnjinitive, 
§ 156, R. 1. On the verbs denoting to hold hack from. Sec, see § 156, R. 3. 

Rem. 2. Some of these verbs, especially those denoting a givi7ig orders {trapay- 
yeXko), 8taKf\{vopai), or a prohibition (aTrayopevw), also take after them a sentence 
with oTTCos {onoiS p.r]) : AiaKfXfiioi'Tai tS vea, OTTcoy, eVfiSav avrjp yevrjrai Tip.(oprjcre- 
rai Tovs <i8iKi](TavTas {PI. Pep. 8, 549). Some verbs denoting instance (e.g. 7rei(9(a, 
Beofiai) occasionally (Thucyd.) take the infinitive with wsre : Ol ' AjXTrpaKiaTiu 
(XdovTfS Tvpos EipvXoxov Trei6ov(TLV coSTf pera a(pcov''Apyft tw 'Ap(pikoxi-K^jTnxei-PV- 
aai {Thiic. 3, lt>2). 'A^tKero iitiaToXr] npos 'Karvoxov in AaKedaipovos oisre diro- 
KTiivai 'AXKi/3tdfirji/ {Thuc. 8, 35 ; a letter to, or, that he should —). 

[part II. 



§ 147, HS-] The Infinitive and its Tejises. 131 

The infinitive stands with verbs denoting an opinion or utterance § 
{v. sentieiuU et declarandi) , when this concerns an action or state of 147. 
the same subject {(p^fu elvai, v7na')(vov/j,ai eXevaecrOat) , and likewise 
with verbs denoting- to effect {v. faciendi), when the thing- effected is 
an action of the same subject (Fuyt;? BieTrpd^aro rcov dyyiXcov yeve- 
o-6at TOiv irapa ^aaCkea, PL Eeji. 2, 360). See the more particular 
rules under Accusative with Infinitive, § 160 and 164. 



The infinitive is added in different ways to some verbs to denote 



9 



the intent of the action : 148. 

a) To the verbs signifying to elect or a/pjwlnt a person to do or (411. 
be something; sometimes even to those which denote to bring or ^" "' 
conveij to a place (send^ leave behind), or (more rarelj^), i^n"^, in order 

to be or to do something, so that the object-accusative (in the passive 
the subject-nominative) of the leading verb is the subject of the infi- 
nitive. (But with the latter verbs, a participle as apposition is more 
usual, which may also be used with the former sort; see Participles.) 
01 irpoyovoi T7]v i^ 'Apet'ou irdyov jSovXyv eirearriaav iinfxeXeLcrdai t?}? 
6VKoafMLa<i [Isocr. Areop. 37). ArjXov, otl Kv^epvdv Kara(Tra9el<i 6 fir) 
67ncrTdp.€vo<i aTToXeaeLev dp ov<; i'jKiara ^ovXolto {Xe7i. Mem. 1, 7, 3). 
Kal yvvoLKe'^ dpa al roiavTai tol^ roiovTOi<i dvSpdatv eKXeKreai crvvoLKelv 
{Pi. Pep. 5, 456 = aiTive^ avvoLKJJcrovaiv) . "Bevocbcov to ijficav rov 
aTparevpbaro'i KareXLTve ^yXdrretv to crTpaTOTreSov {\eu. An. 5, 2, 1). 
Oi'A6r]valot Se/ca tmv veoiv Trpovirep^y^av e? tov jxeyav Xifieva {tcou 
XvpaKOvaloiv) TfXevaal re K.a\ KaTaaKe^^aaOai, el tl vuvtikov icTTi KaOeiX- 
Kva/xivov [Thuc. 6, 50. More usually TrXevo-ou/ae/'o.? /cat KaTaaKe-^ifOfik- 
va<i). BotwTol Tov<? LTTirem irapei'^ovTO Toi<i HeXoirovvrjaLOL'i ^voTpa- 
Tevecv {Thuc. 2, 12. Usually ^vaTpaTevaovTas) . 

Rem. In the poets also witli elfit, rJKci), fia'ivu), and with ei/xi {am here to — ) : 
M.av6aveiv rJKOfifv ^evot irpos acrrcov (Soj]/i. (Ed. C. 12). Iloii Stjt ajxvveiv oi Kara 
(TTeyas ^pvyes ; {Eur. Or est. 1473.) 

b) To the verbs which denote to give (sacrifice, offer), and tahe, in (422) 
order to do something with or to the object given, &c., so that the 
object of the governing verb is also the object of the infinitive : ITap- 
kyoa ifiavTov TefMveiv koX Kaleiv {PL Gorg. 480). Ot ^Xidcrioi Tijv 
"TvoXtv (pvXdTTSiv Tot<? AaK6Sai/jiovioL<; irapehwKav {Xen. Hell. 4, 4, 15). 
"Oaoi Trepir^aav tmv Sr]/3aia)i>, TrapeSoaav (T(pd<; avTov<i toI<; TlXa- 
TatevcTi ypyjaacrdat 6,Tt ap j3ovXoypTai, {Thuc. 2, 4 ; to do with them 

as they jdeased). Et ^oyXoipiedd to) iTTiTpe-^ai Tralha^ iraihevcrat, 
dp d^ioTritTTOp et? TavTa 7)jrj(xa[/Lie6' dp top dKpaTi) ; {Xen. Jlem. 
1, 5, 2.) "Otup ol TvpappoL tou? Koapiov<i kol hiKalov^ Bid top (po^op 

CHAP, v.] K 2 



132 Tlie Infinitive and its Tenses. [§ H9- 

U VTre'^atpwvrai, TtVe9 aWoi, avTOi<i KaraXeLTrovTai 'x^prjaBat [for itse) aW 
^^S-] i) 01 aSiKOL Kol aKparel<i ; {Xen. Hier. 5, 2.) (AtVw irulv, ash to drink; 
al yvvoLKfs TTulv ((pepov toIs dvBpacnv, 21en. Sell. 7. 2, 9.) 

EEJt. 1. This infinitive rarely stands in the passive, so that the object of the 
o-overning verb is taken as the subject of the infinitive: MrySeiy ore ireifrrj^ rw 
(ftapiiaKO) rovra ttjv avrov Ke<pa\r]v 6epamveiv, o^^av pr] Tr]v ■^vxr]V TTpMTOv Tvapaaxil 
Tji iirabfi VTTO aov 6epairev6r]vaL {PL Charm. 15/). 

Eem. 2. Poetical; ^Te(f)ea St'Sore, (pepere' TrXoKapos o8e KaraaTiCJieiv [Eur. Ip/i. 
Aul. 1478, viz. ia-Tiv: liere is my hair to crown, to he crowned). 

Rem. 3. Now and then an infinitive stands with the verbs give, have, am here, 
in the sense to do something with (as instrument, means), do something on, or in, 
&C. : Ot {TTpaTiaTai ovk dxov dpyvpiov (Tna-iTi^fcrdai (Xen. An. 7,^1, 7). ^■'^P'" 
(TTapx'w e8oTe r)pepav dTroXoyr^acKrOai (Xen. Hell. 1, 7, 28). 'E/cfi CTKia t eari Kal 
TToa Kadl^ea-eai fj, eav j3ov\<i)pf6a, KaTaK\iB?]vai (PI. PhmL 229). Especially the 
infinitive of an intransitive verb compounded with iv is often thus used, to 
denote that something is given up (is there, ic.) in order that something may be 
done thereon (as object), therein (as place) : Ov Tvaw heboKTai epavTuv aoi eppeke- 
rdv napexeiv (PI- Phced. 228). To tup 'eXKI]V03v cltvxw^^'^^ AtVxtV?? evevdoKipfiv 
dncKeLTo (Dem. 18, 198). 

§ The infinitive stands with adjectives denoting ability, cleverness, 

149. and capacity, or forwardness and readiness for something, excellence 
in something, or the contrary, and with a^Lo<i and avd^to'?, to define 
the adjective more nearly (as with the verbs enumerated § 145, so that 
the subject of the adjective is also that of the infinitive) : &eiJ,i(TTOK\rj<i 
iKavcoTUTO'? r]v elireiv Kal <yv(avaL Kal irpa^ai {Lys. 2, 48). Tovtov 
^el^ov ayaObv aocx^poavvr} ov Svvarij iropiaai avdpcoTro) {PL PliCEa. 
256). ''Apa. Bwaro) avTrj 7) iroXLTeia jeveaOai ; {PI. Pejj. 5, 471.) O 
hi]/j.o<; Tov Fjvcfjpalov eirtry^heiov elvai ravTa TraOeiv ej>T] [Dem. 9, 61 ; 
vas Jit to he so treated, i. e. deserved — ). Taireivi] vfiMU ■>) hdvoia 
e^Kaprepeiv, a eyvwre {T/iuc. 2, 61). MaXa/co? Kaprepdv irpo'i r)8ovd<i 
re Kal Xvira^ {PL Pep. 8, 556). Tr/i^ ^ovXi^v Kvp'iav iTroirjaav t% 
evra^ia^ iirifyieketaBai. {Isocr. Areoj). 39). — 'EtoI/jlol rjaav irdvra kiv- 
hvvov v7rofjiiv€LV. Ov irpodvfMo^; fie uhihd^aL {PL Entlii/ph. 14). — 'Kvr^p 
Beiuoe; Xiyet-v. At evTvpa^iai Beival avyKpvy\rai rd rocavra oveihr] {Bern. 
2, 20). Xli^ai/wraTO? Xeyetv {PL Gorg. 479).— "A^to? elp.i irXr^'^d'^ 
Xa^elv {ArisL Pod. 324). 'H -jtoXl^ d^ui iarc Oavfid^eadai {TIiuc. 2, 
40). 'Am^to? Tifxdcr6ac. 

Eem. With the adjectives which denote, not absolutely a capacity but a quality 
which comes into consideration on occasion of the action, we have also &sTe, so a.^ 
to e. g. JJorepa Trdldes eiVi (ppovipaiTepoi cosre paBe'iv ra (ppa^opeva kcu 8eiKVvpeva t] 
avbpfs; (Xen. Cyr. 4, 3, 11.) "oX/yot eV/xei/ dpvveiv (Thuc. 1, 50), and oXt'yoi fapev 
&ST€ eynpaTfls flvai rav dyadihv (Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 15). Also sometimes Uavils 
is followed bv usre. "A^ws has also an active infinitive in the same sense as the 

[part II. 



§150.] The Infinitive and its Tenses. I33 

passive, by § ] oO a : "A^to? (9aD|ia(rat {Tlinc. 1, 138). I^Kva^m r] (Sov'Xi) TreTrniijKe 
rov crT€(pavco6?]vaL, Dem. 22, 3G, by § 156.) 

a) An infinitive (active in form or signification) stands with adjec- § 
tives, to denote that the quality is ascribed to its subject in reference 150. 
to a certain action conceived as performed upon (and taking place, or (412) 
going on in) the subject (so that the subject of the adjective is con- 
ceived as the object of the infinitive, or as the dative with those verbs 
which govern this case) : Xp7](rdai Tol<i pacrTOi'^ evrv^/^dvetv ^{Xen. 
Mem. 1, 6, 9 ; tolud is easiest to meet loith). Av7]p ;)(;a\e7ro'? cru^>> [PI. 
Pol. 302). ASyot e/Mol fiev dvajKaLoraTOi -TrpoetTrelv, v/xlv Se ')(pr]atixu>- 
TaroL (iKova-ac {Bern. 21, 24). KaXo? {alaxpo<;) opdy, IMv ^{to behold). 
A6709 hvvaro^ Karavorjaac {PL Plmd. 90). OiKLa rjSlcm] evSiandaOat 
{Xeii. Mem. 3, 3, 8 ; to live in. So very often the infinitive of verbs 
compounded with ev). 

Rem. 1. A passive infinitive is rarely used here (so that tbfe uibjoet of the 
adj. would also be taken as the subject of the infinitive) : VJives cifiopcpoi. Kal 
alcrxpai' opaadai {Xeii. Ct/neg. 3, 3). 

Rem. 2. In the same manner an infinitive (especially amveiv, aKova-ai, opav, 
Iheiv) is sometimes added to intransitive verbs and phrases denoting a quality: 
'AKoCo-at ovradi irayKaXas e^et to -^i^cpiapa {Dem. 19, 47). Ovhev ovtol 8ui({ifpov(nv 
IMv xnXKewy cfiakaKpov koI apiKpov {Fl. Re}). 6, 495). {Upaypara ol iWot nape^ov(Tii> 
enipeXea-dai, Xen. Ci/r. 4, 5, 46, ivi/lffive trouble, i. e. will be troublesome, to attend 
to. 'H (TTpaTid, TToXXi). ovaa, oi ttcjot^s earai TToXeas vTvobi^aadai, not one fur every 
city to receive. Thuc. 6, 22.) 

I) Sometimes the infinitive with the adjective denotes a reference 
to the action of a different subject, which action is conceived as going 
on, not upon the subject of the adj. as its object, but m, loith, or at 
the same (as place, instrument, material, &c.), especially with adjec- 
tives denoting qualified, adapted, or sufiicient, or when the degree of 
the quality is mentioned in reference to the action : 'O ')(^p6vo<:; ^pax^^ 
d^im 8c7]jj](Tacr6ai rd irpaxdivra [PI. Menex. 239). 'H bho^ fi] ^t? 
darv iiTLTrjSeLa iropeuofxevoL'; kol Xejetv Kal aKOveiv [PI. Conv. l7o). 
Yiorepov \ovaaadat, y^vxporepov to irapd aol ijScop ?) to ev Afi(f)iapaov ; 
[Xen. Mem. 3, 13, 3; to bathe i^l\) (Also: ^vxpov t6 vBap &st€ Xova-aadai, 
Xen. ibid.) ('O avros xP^^o^ dp/cel ivi re /iepei Kai ttikti, TreTTOLrjadai to. eVtTjjSeia, Xen. 
Cyr. 8, 5, 5, for the provisions to be ])repared.) 

c) After a comparative with 77, the infinitive stands in the sense 
too {great, &c.) to.— The infinitive may not only be referred, either 
actively or passively, to the subject of the adjective (as in English 



* But ibid. : Ttorepov to Tvapa aol v8(op dtppoTepov 'iTulv rj to iv ' Aa-KXrjTTiov ; [to 
drink; by a.) 
CHAP, v.] 



134 TJlc Infinitive and its Tenses. [§ 151, 152. 

[§ ioo loeak to go, \. e. than that he could go; to'o heavy to hear, i.e. 

^^"■-I than that it could be borne), but also (by h) so that the subject of 
the adj. is neither subject nor direct object of the infinitive: 'H 
avOpwTTivrj ^vat^ aadevea-ripa iarlv »; Xa^elv Ti-x^vqv oiv av fj a.Tretpo'i 
{PL Theest. 149). To v6ar)na fiel^ov i) 4>epeiv [Soph. (Ed. R. 1293). 
The infinitive may take oi<;re : 01 AaKeSai/jLovLot fiadovro "Fj/cBlkov 
eXdrrco Bvi/a/xiv t')(Ovra r) 03<iTe tou? (plXovi uxfyeXelv [Xen. Hell. 4, 8, 23). 
fpo^ovp^ai,, /XT] Ti ixel^ov rj w9Te (f)epeiv hvvaaOai kukov rfj iroXeL avfi^fj 
(Xeti. 3Iem. 3, 5, 17). (Also ^9, § IGG c. R. 2.) 

§ An active infinitive with &)? (more strongly w? 76) is prefixed to an 

151- infinitive for limitation, to denote the reference to a certain manuer of 
treating- the thing, or a certain intention ; in general, a certain measure 
in relation to which the predicate is spoken [if tve confine ourselves to 
this — , if the question lie about this, &c.). It is not required, that the 
infinitive itself should have the given subject as itssuLj.or obj., but this may happen : 
Ot TToXe/jitot aoifkol elaLV co? e'/c %eipo9 /ia^ecr^ai [Xen. Cyr. 6, 4, 16). 
OvTOt ol avOpcoTTOt aroTTooTaToi nvh elaiv, W9 7' ev (pt\oa6(f)Oi,<i riuevai 
{PI. Rep. 5, 475; when one speahs of recJconivr/ them among the philoso- 
phers). E5 Xe7et 6 avrip w9 76 ourcoal aKovaai [PI. Euthyph. 3, to listen to 
in this loay). Tarn ovv, to? viTOjxvricjai, vvv UavM<; elprjrai, [Pern. 6, 37) . 
('Qj eVi TTUf fiTT€iv, Ft. Eutliyd. 279, to sjjeulc generally, is Trpos vjxas elprja-Oai, PI. 
Pep. 10, 595, to tje spoheii merely to you, i. e. speaking Ijetween ourselves ; as cttos 
flireiv, also simply Ics eliveiv, so to say, as UTrkas elireiv, us (TvviKovTi eiireiv, CI. § 38 C, 
to sjjeak it brief y.) Ovh^ iyoo '\|re7&) tovtov<; tou? avhpa<i, cii? 76 ScaKovovi 
elvai TToXeo)? [PI. Gorg. 517, when the question relates to their heing 
servants ofi a state ; considered as servants of — ). 

Eem. 1. With cLKoviw and especially d%fiv in certain current expressions ws 
may be dropt, more rarely with other infinitives : 'E? to uKpi^es flndv (okoi^ws 
flTTf'iv), ov8e ddUcos KaTecrrpe'^aniBa rovs "lavas (Thnc. 6, 82 ; strictly speakirig). 
(2vv Sea eiTvfiv, in God's name ; (rxf^ov tlneiv, so to say, almost.) (Cf. § 168 b.) 

Rem. 2. The infinitive elvai stands in a restrictive sense with the adj. eKav in 
negative sentences (to he willing, i.e. at least willingly), rarely in affirmative sen- 
tences ( = and that tvillingly) : Ovk auriv vtto aov Ikovtos elvai (^aiTaTr]6r)(Ti(r6ai 
{PI. Gorg. 499). In the saine manner elvai stands with certain constructions of 
a preposition with a case, or of the article with an adverb, which are used in a 
limiting and restrictive sense ; thus, Kara hvvapiv [els bvvapiv) eivai, according to 
one's ability, to Kara tovtov elvai, as far as concerns him, as far as depends on Jam, 
TO ijr eKe'ivois ejvai, so far as is in their power, to vvv eivai, to Tr]p.epov eivai.for 
to-day. (QpiJaapev ev iroie'iv aXXr/Xou? €K tov ent.'KoiTTOv xp*Jvov, kuto. dvvapiv eivai, 
Ka\ Xo-yo) Ka\ epya, Isce. 2, 32.) 

§ The infinitive is used with &j?Te [oijro)<; w^re, so that), to denote the 

152. way and manner (degree) and consequence of the principal sentence, 

and with e'^' rore [on condition that, or to — ) . See Accus. with Infinitive, 

[part II. 



§153. 1 54-] The Infinitive and its Tenses. 135 

§ 166, and ibid, of the infinitive with oto? for roiovrof; w?Te. Likewise 
the infinitive stands with irplv, before ; see Accus. with Inf. § 167. 

Now aud then an infinitive may be said to stand extra structuram, the object § 
which should be governed by the infinitive, being immediately attached to the verb 153. 
or phrase on which the infinitive should depend, wliile yet the infin., for the 
sake of clearness and pi-ecision, is brought in immediately afterwards, in order to 
assign the action (upon the object) more nearly (suppletory infinitive) : OvK €Tridvfj.ia 
ae aXXrjs TroXeco? ouS' ciWuv vojxoiv e\a(iev dbevai {PI. Crlton 52 = OiiS' eV. <y eXalBev 
(tXXrjv TToXiv el8fvai). Ol 'Adr]valoi Trjs 6a\d(T(rr]S elpyov /xi7 xprjcrdaL roiis Mi,Tv\r]vaiovs 
{Thitc. 3, 3 = etpyoj/ rovs Mir. /X17 xp. rfj daXda-crr]). 'Apto-retS?;? Kvpios rav (popcov 
eyevero rd^ai {Dem. 23, 209). Eu^u? d.px'^p.evoL t^? TroXeco? oIkl^hv Kara 6e6u nva eis 
TVTTOv Tiva TTJs 8i.KaLoavvT]s Kivbvvfvopev eu(3e(3r]K£uai (PL Rep. 4, 443, when toe began 
with our city, to construct it = dpx6p.evoi oiKi^eiv ttju ttoXiv).^ 

Rem. On the infinitive instead of the imperative, see § 141, R. 2. 

a) With the article, the infinitive (apart from its nominative, of § 
which see § 111) stands also as a substantive member of the sentence, 154. 
and so that the action thereby denoted is to be conceived as predicate 
in reference to the subject or object of the sentence, or to a subject 
implied in the context. Such a substantive infinitive cannot, how- 
ever, agreeably with the nature of its notion and the Greek idiom, 
enter into all the relations in which the cases of an actual substantive 
can be used. 

Rem. The accessory terms belonging to an inf. with the article are inserted 
between the article and the infinitive {to tovs evr]pyeTr]K6Tas del kol tvavTi rpoira 
avrevepyerelv) or follow after the infinitive {to C^v ^Sews). 

d) The accusative of the infjiitive occurs (besides where it stands 
as the subject in the accus, c. injiu.) sometimes as the object of transi- 
tive verbs (where a corresponding verbal substantive is either wanting, or the 
notion of the action, as taking place singly and by itself, is not so clearly expressed, 
or does not so well suit the form of the sentence in other respects) : 1 TeA-eu- 
rrjcrac rrdvTcov rj TreTrpcofiivrj Karenpivev, to Se /caXw? airoBavelv totov rot? 
(xirovhaioi'i rj (pvcri^i aTreveifjuev [Isocr. Dem. 43) . Xletpw KarepydcraaOai 
ft)? /jboXiara to elhevat, a ^nvXec Trpdrrecv [Xeu. 3Iem.3, 6, 18). El t6 

KaXvcraL ti]v tcov 'EXXtjvcov Koivuiviav ineTTpdneiv eyco $1X177770), aoi to p.rj criyr^crai 
XoiTTOv rjv, dXXa 8r]Xovi> tS Stj/xw {Dem. 18, 23). 

Rem. Now and then the article is found with the inf. after the verbs and adjec- 
tives with elfjLi described in §§ 145, 146, 147, and 149, in order to give special 
prominence to the notion as opposed to others, or as already mentioned ; often 
so that the infinitive is emphatically put foremost in the sentence (almost as if it 

^ Even more harshly : 'Adrivaloi ixaxovpevoi exaipovv Trepi re ttjs dXXoTpias, oiKfiav 
(Txeti/, Kol TTjv olKeiav fxr] l:iXd-^ai r](T(Tu>p.evoi {Thuc. G, 69 = 77ept re tov ttjv aXXorpiav 
olKelav (Txelv <aL ttjv oiKeiav p.r] (iXd-^at rj(Tcra)p,evoi. Literall}^ : both for the foreign 
land, to win it for themselves, as also not, by sustaining a defeat, to injure their own). 

CHAP, v.] 



136 The Infinitive and its Tenses. [§ 155, 156. 

[§ Avere, as regards tJie) : To S' av ^woiKelv rjjd' ojiov ris av yvvfj Svvairo ; (Soph. 

'54-] Irarh. 545.) Kal noys 8)7, ((pr] 6 'ScoKpdTrjs, to apxi-xovs elvai avSpunrmv TraiSeuetf 
avTovs ; {Xen. CEcon. 13, 4; the notion has ah-eady occurred in the context.) To 
TTpoiTaXanratpelv rw b6^avTi Koka ovhiis TTp66vp.os rjv (Tliuc. 2, 53). 

c) Further, the accusative of the infinitive stands with the preposi- 
tions, hid, hy means of, iiri and tt/oo?, to (of goal and object), eh and 
Kara, in reference to, Trapd, in comparison with : Aid to ^6Vo<; elvat ovk 
dv oi€t dhLKrjdrjvai ; {Xen. 3Iem. 2, 1, 15.) IT/qo? to nerpicov heladac 
Ka\o)<i TreTrciLhevfiai [Xen. Mem. \, 2, 1). Ku/DO? TrdvTcov tcov t}\lko}v 
8ia(f)ipcov e^aivero et? to Ta-^v /xavddveiv a SeoL [Xen. Cijr. \, 3, 1). 

Rem. On the infinitive preceded by to un in certain verbs and phrases, see 
§156, R. 4. 

■^ The dative of the infinitive may be governed by certain verbs and 

155- adjectives (as TrtaTevoi, iotKa, ofioia, evavTia) and by the prepositions 
'415, eV, eVi, and tt^o? {besides, in addition to) ; often it stands also as dative 
of the means, the cause, or the relation {6j/ means of, in consequence 
'fiifcA '• nicrreuft) Tft) /cocr/ii'&)9 ^j}i; {Isocr. Antid. 24). 'Ey Tw iroXiTriv 
TTOielaOai ^aplSij^ov tuvt d/KpOTepa evrjv {Bern. 23, 188 ; each of these 
was involved^. XfOKpdTiri idaufxd^€To eVt tc3 evOv/xco^ ^rjv {Xen. Mem. 
4, 8, 2). Ot iv Tol<; ottXo/? jjidj^eaOat StSdaKovTeii ttjv Tej^vrjv irapa- 
oiooacri €7rl tu) SiKalco'i ^p?}(T^at avT^ 7rpb<i tou? TroXefXiovi {PL Gorg. 456 ; 
thereunto that they should — , = iqujn condition, or, on the under- 
standing that — ) : 11/00? tw jx'qhev €k tt}? irpea^ela^ Xa/Selv Tovii al')(^ 
fiaXcoTOVi eK tcov ISicov eXvcrdfjbrjv {Dem. 19, 229). "^coKpdTiTi tqj (f)av€p6<i 
elvat KoXo'^ koI d'ya66<i o)V iXTri^eiv eTTolei tou? crvvSiaTpi^ovTa'? eavTw, 
fiifiov/xevov<; eKelvov Toiov<i8e jevqaeadai {Xen. Mem. 1, 2, 3). At /caXw? 
TToXLTevojjievai, h-qfioKpaTLai Trpoi'^ovcn tju) SiKaioTepat elvat {Bern.). 

S The genitive of the infinitive stands as an objective genitive with 

1 50. substantives, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, and with the prepositions 

'' dvev, dvTL, Sid, e^, eveica, virep, fxeTd, irepi, irpo, and with several of the 




TrpuTTecv Trapa ttjv d^iav d(f)opfir] tov KaKCO^ (ppovelv T049 dvorjTOt,^ 
'yiyveTat {Bem. 1, 23). Tl6vov<i tov ^rjv r]8€o)<; r)ye/ji6va<; vofii^eTe {Xen, 
Q/r. 1, 5, 12), W_7]6r]<; TOV KaTaKovetv tivo^; {Bern. 1,23). 'Kin/xeXou- 
/j.ai TOV «W9 (f)povifid)TaTo<i elvai {Xen. Mem. 1, 2, 55). 'ETrecr^^o/xey tov 
SciKpveiv {Ft. Phad. 117, stopped from — ). Oi eixTropot Ta ireXdyi} 
oiaTrepoyaLV eveKa tov TrXeiw Troirjaai Tr]v v'lrdp'^ovaav ovalav {Isocr. 
Uem. IJj. ('Avft) TOV fv(ppaiv(iv, besides giving pleasure — , clvtX tov aivoKpi- 
veadai, eK tov Taira yvavai, in consequence of knoimng this — , vnep tov pr, ttokIv to 

[part II. 



§ 156.] The Infinitive and its Tenses. I37 

TrposTaTT6fievop,fo)' the sake of having no orders to execute —, iiera tov TTposo(f)\e'iv [§ 
ala-xvvrjv, alom/ with the incurring a disgrace, so that one incurs a disgrace withal — , i S°-i 
TTfpl TOV Tijicope'ia-dai ^iKimrov tj dpxr) tov noXepov rjv — , ^iXimros ocra npo\aj3oi irpo 
Toi Tovi opKovs cnro8ovvai, /3e/3aicoj e^eiv ivop-i^ev, Bern. 18, 26. — e^o) dvai tov micas 
nda-x^ew — &c.) 

Rem. 1. When a substantive with a verb (as suhject with (o-tIv, yiyveTai, or as U^J^ 
object with a transitive verb, or as ease to a preposition with an intransitive or i^- ~) 
passive verb) forms a phrase which corresponds with, or in point of signification 
approximates to, one or other of the verbs mentioned in §§ 145, 146, it is followed, 
as a general rule, by a simple infinitive, see § 145, R. 1 ; moreover, (txoXtjv 8i86vai 
or daxoXiav -rrapexei-v tivi ttou'lv n, cideiav, e^ovaiav StSorat, acr^aAetai^ TTOiftv,jrpo- 
(l)aaiu Trapexetv rivi ttou'lv tl, &C.), and but rarely the genitive (TrapdSeiy^a eVrat 
TOV pri vpds ddiKelv, Lys. 27, 5, but shortly afterwards (§ 6) napdSeiypn noiriaeTe 
toU dXXois diKaiois dvai). The poets go still further in the use of the_ simple 
infinitive instead of the genitive : $d/3a) 8', a prj XPW^ ehopdv KciBi^peda (nyfi {Eur. 
Ij}h. T. 134:2, from fear of seeing). 

Rem. 2. In some few verbs the usage is undecided between the simple infinitive 
by § 145 and the genitive of the infinitive, e. g. dpeXw {r]peXt]a-ev ip^Tuy tw deov 
and ^p,eXri(Ta Toi dpyiCea-dai aoi). But with the rest of the verbs which injDoint of 
signification come under § 145 (iTviBvpw, pep.ur]pai, iiriXavBdvopai, ttoXXov^, piKpov 
8eco), the simple genitive is almost exclusively used. {'ETnp.eXovp.ai. tov fivai and 
oncos 01, § 123.) 

Rem. 3. Especially note the interchangeable idiom with verbs denoting _ to 
restrain,exclude,wityulra'W, deliver, andsometimesesca2Jefrom{iK({)€iryfiv),iinAmth. 
some kindred phrases (e.g. eV ddeia, iv dacpaXd elvai, especially epTvo8oiv eivai). 
These take either the simple infinitive (by § 146) or its genitive; both, 
either in the affirmative form, or with pi] prefixed, the idiooi of the language 
being such, that the negative notion of the verb (e. g. restrain = vot allow) is 
repeated with the infinitive; see Negations, § 210, with R. 1. a) "AXXcos ttco? 
TTOpi^ecrdat tu eTri.Tri8eia fj covovpevovs dpKoi i]8rj KUTexovcriv i]pds {Xen. An. 3, 1, LO). 
Ovdevl epTTodcov yevi]aopai Xafieiv to bibopevov vno ttjs vrdXecos {Isocr. Antid. 152). 

— b) AiScb? Tovs vecorepovs tSdv Trpecr^vTepcov prj aTVTfdOai e'ip^ei {PI. Jxei}. 5, 46o). 
'O 'AXKi(Sui8r]S epTToboiv rjv avTo2s p.i) tov drjpov /Se^at'cos TTpoeaTavai {Thuc. 6, 28). 

— c) Tov 8paTT€T£veiv beapo'is ol Seo-TTorat tovs olKiTas e'lpyovaiv {Xen. An.2, 1, 16). 
To yp^fvbopevov (Piaiveadai tov avyyvcoprfs tivos Tvyxdveiv epTrodoiv paXicTTa dvdpunrois 
yiypeTM {Xen. Ci/r. 3, 1, 9). — d] 'O daKos 8vo dvdpas e^fi tov prj KaTa8vvai {Xen. 
An. 3, 5, 11). 'EpTro8wv rt e'yeVero tov prj fv6vs rdre SiKdo-atr^ai {Dem. 33, 25). H 
TToXis p-iicpov aTreXiTTf tov p.rj Tois eo-^drat? avpcpopais TrfpLTreae'iv {Isocr^ Antid. 122). 
(To the simple infinitive sometimes wsre is prefixed: Ot "Adijvaioi to TvpwTov 
direixovTo wyre p,rj ip^dKXnv Tivl. Thuc. 1, 49.)' 

Rem. 4. Verbs of tcithholding, restraining, occasionally in affirmative sentences 
take the accusative of the infinitive with pij {to pi]), so that the action hindered 
or forborne may be said to stand loosely in the sentence (almost = so that^ — not)^ : 
Ot ''\Qrjvdxoi iTTTrels tov TrXfiaTov opiXov tu>v ■v^iXcoi' dpyov to prj Trpoe^iovras tmv 
ottXcdv ( = roO (TTpaTOTiibov) to. iyyvs ttjs ttoXccos KaKovpyelv {Thuc. 3, 1). Such 



1 KwXvw, with its compounds, very rarely takes the genitive of the infin. 
CHAP, v.] 



:>/■ 



{ 

138 TJic hifinitive and its Tenses. [§ 157, 158. 

[§ an infinitive with to \x.r] is added even to verbs and phrases in themselves incapable 

156.] of taking an infinitive, but which denote a hindering ov forbearing, in order to 
assign an action forborne : 'K'ux.cava 'Adrjvaioi irapa rpeis dcbe'ia-av yjri'](povs to fir] 
BavaToi ^rjpiuxjai [Dem. 23, 205 ; acquitted him by three votes so as not to condemn 
him)/ Lastty, the infinitive with to pr] and to fit) ov (to cancel the preceding 
negation, see Negations, § 211), is frequently put after a negation of a leading 
verb (or phrase) denoting to withhold, hinder, forbear, omit or deny, prove that — 
not, to denote the action which is not forborne, &c., even when the verb or the 
phrase is not capable of taking the infinitive or its accusative : 'E/i77f o-ctTor vaTipov 
Xdyov, oTi XucrtreXeo-repoi' ^ ahiKia Tfjs biKaioawrjs, ovk a7^eo■;(u/xr^^' to fir] ovk tm , 
TovTo iXOfiv aiT (Keivov, o TTpoTepov eaKonovfifv {PI. Sep. 1, 354). Ov8ev tovs ■ 
yepovTas iniXveTai t] rjXiKLa to pr] ou;^! dyavaKTelv rfj Ttapovm] tvxj] (PI. Crito, 43). M 
Tls M;}Sci)i' 17 veos rj yepcov crov aTreXficpdr) to pi] ctol aKoXovBelv; {Xen. Cyr. 5, 1, 25; m 
so that he did not follow thee ?) Ov8' apinjais ia-Tiv avTols to pi] Tnv6' vnep ^iXimrov ^ 
TvpaTTfiv {Dem. 19, 163. They cannot deny but that they act in Philip s interest). 
'O 'laprfvlas cnreXoyelTO piv, ov piVTOi eVfi^e ye to prj ov p.eya\o7rpdyp<ov Te Kai 
KaKOTTpdypcov eivai {Xen. Sell. 5, 2, 36). 

Eem. 5. On the genitive of the infinitive iii the sense of evfKa, see § 170 c. E. 

iS Sometimes a notion is represented first by a demonstrative pronoun, especially tovto 

{avTo TOVTO, with addition of an adjective, tovto povov, sometimes of a substantive, tovto 
TO irddos), and then more closely defined by an infinitive \_epexegetical infin.'] as ap- 
position to the pronoun, with or without the article, according as the latter would be 
required or not, if the infinitive were attached immediately to the governing word ; 
the article, therefore, is almost always used where the pronoun is dative or genitive : 
Aei Kai TOVTO ■npo6vpr)dr]vai (Tr]v x^P"'? dirohel^aL, rrfj BvvaTov TavTU yiyveadai {PI. Rep). 
5, 472). ('E/ceAevo-a tovto povov dpdv TvdvTas tovs crrparicoTa?, tw irpdadev eirecTvai, 
Xen. Cyr. 2, 2, 8, referred to imeXevaa.) "Oaoi dv^pdnoSa noWd KiKTr]VTai, tovto ye ■ 
Trposvpowv i'xova-t toIs Tvpdvvoi-s, to noWav apxei'V {PI. Rep. 9, 578). AoKei poi. 
TovTOi biacpepeiv dvfjp to)v uXkav ^ojcov, tw TiprjS dpeyecrdai {Xen. IIier.7, 3). Ti 
TovTov paKapid>Tepov Toi yfj pixS^Jvai ; {Xen. Cyr. 8, 7, 25.) (But 'Apa Tovte 
eniOvpe'iTe, iv rw avTca yeveadai tottco ; PI. Conv. 192, after eniBvpo) yeveaOai.) In 
the poets the article is sometimes omitted, contrary to the rule. {Td8e iroiovvTes 
dvolv dyadoiv ov oTeprjcropev Trjv ^iKeXiav, 'ABrjvaiav re dnaWayrjvai Ka\ olKeiov noXepov, 
Thuc. 464.) 

a) An adjective, participle^ or substantive which, as predicate- noun 
or as apposition belongs to an infinitive with or without the article, 
stands in the accusative, when the infinitive is not referred by the go- 
verning- verb (or phrase) to a definite grammatical subject : KpelrTov ■ 
iarc (7VV TroXXot? olicovvTa aac^aXS)^ rapKovvra eyeiv y) jjlovov hiairooixevov 
iTTiKLvhvvcoq TTcivTa Kenrrjcrdat {Xen. Mem. 2, 3, 2). TaTOiavTa e^eariv 
apLd/jbr]aavTa<i i) /xeTpijaavTa-i elhevai [Xen. Mem. 1, 1, 9. Such things 
as these one can get to know by counting or vieasuring the^n) . 

§ b) If, on the other hand, the infinitive is referred to a definite sub- 

158. stantive word in the sentence, as its subject, then the predicate-noun 

(393) or the apposition always conforms itself to the case of that word, if it 

be nominative or accusative, usually also if it be dative : but in the 

[part ti. 



§ 159-] The Infinitive and its Tc7iscs. 139 

last case the accusative also is used, especially of a (predicative) apposi- [5 
tion, e. g". a participle [e^ecTTCv rjfu,tv ainkvana oirXa e')(ovTa<;). After a ^^ 'J 
genitive, the predicate with ehat or ylyveaOai, usually stands in the 
genitive (after the genitive of a participle of a verb declaramli or sen- 
tkncVi always so), but an apposition appended to the infinitive stands 
in the accusative. 1) (Nominative) : ''^■^■q(\)i<ja<jB& e^eXdelv ^or)di]- 
(TovTe<^. Ovhev ecniv 6veiSo<i, orov iroppmrepoa eaTiv rj rroXi'i rjfXMV ij 
rou (f>6ov6pa Soicecv ehat, {Bern. 20, 140). 'Ai^rl tov iireXdecv avrol 
dfivveadai /BovXeaOe /xdWov emovra^ {Thuc. 1, 69). ^Kenrreov, OTrw<i 
fjii] <l>tXi7r7ro9 Ti]v TOV (^tXo? rot? "F^Wrjacv ehat iricmv X>;\|reTai {Bern. 
ii, 7). Ti/j,6deo<; rai i]deL rrjv evvoiav TrjV tmv dvOpcoTTcov irpo^i'i'yero, 
vopuL^oiv rovro /xel^oj/ aTpaTijyTj/jba elvac i) 7roXkdKi<; VLKTJcai, fia')(op,€VO<; 
(Isocr. Antid. 122. The nominative referred to the leading verb, notwithstand- 
ing the intervening tovto jifi^ov a-Tparriyq^a elvai). — <v) (Dative) : \hvOaLflO(TLV 
v/jLlu e^eaTL ylyveadac {Bern. 3, 23). Ouk ivScoaofxev irpoc^acrLV ovZevl 




e^ovTk 
yeveadat TToXtVat? Trap' vfuv {Bern. 23, 200). (Even without a dative ex- 
pressly preceding, but with reference to a subject in the dative to be mentally supplied : 
MeydXoov evepyeaicov ovK. 'icrcos pabiov aiVt'o) yfi'ecrdat, Bern. 20, 121.) — «JJ (Ac- 
cusative for dative) : Sot, co Tavao^dpr], aaTpuTrriv elvai BiScofMC M?/8«i/ 
re Kul ^Aaavplwv [Xen. Cyr. 8, 7, 1 1. Examples of this kind with the predi- 
cate to dvai in the accusative, are rare). "E^eoTiV v^uv, el ^ovXeaOe, Xa/Sov- 
ra? oirXa, oldirep rj/jbec'i e^ofieu, eU tov avTov eix^alvetv kIvSvvov {Xe)i. 
Cyr, 2, 1, 15). Ov TTpo'^i]Kei v\uv rr}? rcoi/ (drj^aioiv TroXeco? irXeUo 
TTOcrjaaadai Xoyov rj tmv avvdrjKoyv, evdvpbovpbevov;, d><; ov Tov<i klvBvvov?, 
dXXd Td<; aSo^ia? (^o^eladai Trdrpiov vfxlv eariv [Isocr. Plat. 39). 

('AmyKr; yLOirjv bvoiv darfpov ikecrOai., r) pr] (iov\-q6evTi Karenrtlv tovs Taiira ttoit]- 
aavras Koi irepl epov kol irepl tov irarpos uppcoSelu, fj KareiTTOVTi ra yeyevrjixeva 
avTov pev d(f)edepra prj rtOvavai, tov 8e TTUTpos pr] (fjovea yeveadai, Alidoc. w, 7.) 

4) (Genitive) : ^HXdov iirl Tiva twv Sokovvtcov aocpcov elvai [Pl.^ Apol. 
22; ibid. 41: tojv ^aaKovTcov hiKaaroiv elvai). ^ 'ESeoi^ro Kupou o)? 
irpodv/jLordTov Trpo? tov TToXepbov yeveaOai [Xen. Hell. 1, o, '^). 5) 
(Accusative after genitive) : 'ESeoi-To ixov 'TrpoaTdTrjv yeveaOat [Xen. 
Cyr. 7, 2, 23). Aeofiat vfXMv KaTayjrijcpia-ao-daL Seofjbvr]aTov, evOvp>ou- 
fjuivov<i, ocro^ jxoi 6 dyoav ecsTiv {Lys. 10, 31). 

The accusative toith the infinitive is used to express a proposition as § 
the object or subject of another proposition. The accus. with inf. stands 159 



1 Twy hoKovvTdiv TL fivM {PI. Go}'c/. 472 ; eivai ti, a phrase not admitting of gram- 
matical change, as dvbpl olopevco ti. eivai, PI. 3Ienex. 247). 
CHAP, v.] 



(394) 






140 TJie Infinitive and its Tenses. [§ 159. 

[§ (primai'il}^) after verbs and phrases denoting an utterance (say, deny, 
^^9-] answer, relate, narrate, concede, assert, declare, judge, &c.) or opinion 
(think, assume, make to believe, hope ; verla declarandi et seniiendi). 
The verbs of utterance sometimes take an object- sentence with on or 
ft)?, the verbs of opinion sometimes one with o)?. Tov koXov Kur-jaQov 
avSpa evhaifiova elval (pr]/j,i [PL Gorg. 470). 'Ofxoko'yo) abv to evprj/xa 
eivat. 'TTrecr^ou ^oi^deiav fioi ij^eLV. Tt' vrore Xejovaiv 01 KivelaOat ra 
Trdvra aTTOcpaLvo/xevoL ; {PL Theczt. lOS.) Ol civOpcoTroLVTroXafM^dvovcn, 
Tov'i deov^ hid, rcov opvidcov rd avfKpepovra arjfialveiv [Xen. Mem. 1, 
1, 3). ^Akovco teal dWa eOvrj TroWd roiavra elvat {Xe>i. An. 2, 5, 1'3). 
TieTreLcrde dhiKiav SiKdioavvT]<; djieLvov elvat, [PL Pej). 2, 368). EXttI? 
iravTa Ka\co<i e^eiv. 

Eem. 1. Of the verbs to Tcnotc, perceive, see,s7io'w, remember, which take a par- 
ticiple or a sentence with on or mj, and of the verbs to hear, learn, -whieh take a 
participle, an accus. with inf. or oti, see Fartu-'tjjles, § 178, a. with R. 6. 

Eem. 2. '^\eraT'i6e\i.ai, (v8aiiiov€(TTepovs tivai tovs KocrjjLLOvs tcov aKoXdoTOiv (PI. 
Gorg. 493), / change my ojAnion, and assume. 'EAe^^^^ refute, and peove. So 
the ace. with inf. often to a sense indirectly contained in the verb. (Kare^poi/ovi/ 
o'l \aK.ihai\i.6vLoi, hia ras i'fjLTrpocrBev Tvxas, fjLT]8ev av e7Ti^fiprj(TaL acfiicriv, ie/i. Sell. 
4, o, 12 ; des2Jised the enemy, and thought that nohody icuuld — .) 

Eem. 3. TMiether, in any given case, the ace. with inf. shall be used, or a 
sentence with ort, or one with cos, is, for the most part, optional with the writer, 
and depends on his view of what is required for perspicuity and suitableness in 
reference to the structure of the dependent sentence as a whole, and of the 
period. It may be remarked, however, mth respect to the difference of these three 
constnictions, that affinnative verba declarandi (put simply, without secondary 
meaning) almost always take the ace. with inf. or ort : but that is is put, when the 
thing said is marked as an uncertain or untrue assertion, pretext, or evasion, therefore 
also alter a negatived verb {ov Xe-yw, wy — , or, if the thing uttered itself is nega- 
tive, ov Xeyco, w? ov). After verha sentiendi .owXy a)s,not otl, is used, and in this also 
there is apt to be involved the secondary notion of a false opinion (7761^0), w? — , 
seek to jjersuade that — ). Uape^ovTai vvp.ov ovbev 7rpoje;(oj'ra r^fie rfj ypa(pfj Ka't 
Xe^ovaiv, a>s fldi rf] nokei 8vo v6p.oi KfipevoL nepi Ta>v KT]pvyp.aTU)V (.3Ssch. 3, 35. 
Often TovTo ipei, tKeivov fpel tov Xoyop, u>s — ). Tiaaacf>epvT]s Sta^aXXei tov Kvpov 
irpbsTov d8f\(p6v, 03S emlSov'kevoi avra (Sen. An. 1, 1, 3). Ov fih bi] ovBe tovt civ 
Tis e'lTToi, u)S TOVS KaKovpyovs kol dbiKovs Kiipos f'la KaTayiKdv [Sen. A.n. 1, 9, 13). 
Oil TOVTO Xcyco, a>s ov 8ei livai. (7t\ tovs noXepiovs (Sen. Cyr. 5, 4, 20). 'Exopev ri 
TTapd TavTo \iyeiv, cos ovx ovtcos i'^fi ; (PI. Phced. 80.) — Uopi^ovaiv ol tKetvj) 
civQpcoTToi, u>s'li<paicrTos ;(aXKei'ei (Thi(C. 3, 88). O'l aocpiardi rretpcoirraL Treiddv tovs 
vecoTcpovs, o)?, rjv avTo'is ifkrjCTidCcoaiv, airpaKTiov ecrTiv, f'laovTai (Isocr. Soj)hist. 3). 
("Eyvcoaav oi 'MavTive'is a>s, fl prj aTTOKpovcrovTai tovs piaOocpopovs, otl ttoXXoI (tc^cov 
KaTaKovTicrdrjaovTai, Sen. Sell. 6, 5, 13.) For cos after a negatived verb of utter- 
ance or opinion ottco? is sometimes used : OiSe ye, ottws a(f)pcov ecrrai f] •v/^i'X'?* 
eTTeidav tov c'lcppovos crwfxaTos blxa yevrjTai, ovbe tovto ireTTeicTpai (Sen. Cyr. 8, 7, 20). 
"Oncos ov TTuvTcov tovtcov iTnjxikriTeov, &> '\ipcov, ov Xe'yo) [Se7i. Sier. 9, 1). AtoVt 

[part II. 



§ i6o, 1 6 1.] The Infinitive audits Tenses. 141 

for 6Vt, tliat, is rave in the older writers (usually, because), in later writers not [§ 
infrequent. (The poetical ovveKa, odovveKa, because, sometimes also for on, that.) i59- 

Rem. 4 Sometimes a report of a view or speech, begun with ort or as, is con- 
tinued in the accusative (nominative) with the infinitive, or vice versa : Ol Aa^eSat- 
aovLOi eiTTOi/, ort (T^l(n. fxev 8okoui/ cidtKelv oi 'Adr]vaL0i, ^ovXecrdai 8e Koi tovs ndvTas 
^vnndxovs TrapaKokea-avTes ^>i(j)ov enayayelv {Thuc. 1, 87). "Ai/uro? eXeyei/, on 
ovx ovTQ) 8iaK€oivTo {wevc not in such a condition) cost^ Tip-mpflcrdai rivas rmv 
evdpav, aXXa vvv p,tv 8elp avrovs fjavx^av e'xeiv, fl Se o'lKaSe KariXdoiev, rare Kai 
TifMcop^aoivTo TOVS d8iKodvTas [Lys. 13, 78). By a negligence (anacoluthia) it 
may even happen, that one and the same sentence begins with ort or w?, and then. 




begun 
TOVS ev Tj] 



[ in ace. with inf. passes into a dependent interrogation : Tovs /neVrot "KXkrjvas 
V TV 'Aaia olKovvras, ov8ev ttw <Ta(f>a>s Xeyerat, et eirovTai. 2Len. Cyr. 2, 1, 5.) 



If the subject in the infinitive clause is the same as that of the § 
o-overning verb, as a general rule only a simple infinitive follows, i6o. 
referred to the leading subject (nominative with infinitive, cf. § 147) \ j4o^ 
but the accusative with infinitive also occurs, sometimes with a view 
to give prominence to the subject of the infinitive as opposed to 
others : 'OfioXoyo!) aZtKetv. ^o/jlI^co ovBev xeip(ov elvat tmv dWcov. 
"Efapfo? iartv 6 dv9p(i)7ro<i /u,7;S' ISelv jxe ircoTroTe {Arist. PL 241 = 
apvelrat). Utarevco SiaXvcreLv rr]v Bta/SoXijv {Thuc. 1, 101). 1i03KpdT7j<i, 
€07/ 6 KaT)]yopo^, Tou? TTUTepa^ TTpoTTrjXaKi^eiv BcSdaKei, ireldcav tov^ 
(7vv6vTa<i avT(p ao^coTepov<i 'TTOielv rwv irarepcov {Xen. 3Ieni. 1, 2, 49 ; 
persuading them that he makes them — ). Ti,/ji66eo^ ra? %tXta? Spa;)^/ad<? 
ISia €J)-q 8av€iaai rbv Trarepa 'Ai^rt/Lta^w Kol ovk avro^ \aj3elv [Bern. 
49/ 44). YSKecav ovk e^rj avT6<; dX\' eKelvov (Nt/c/ay) arpaTrjyeLU 
{Thuc. 4, 28). — Qiliiai ifie irapd aov iroWrj<i Kal /caA,?}? aocj^ca'? ttX??- 
pwOi^cretrOai {PI. Conv. 175). (AtVi'a!/ 'ix^ pia-udrjpos eJuai, Ft. Rep. 8, 566. 
'Yno'^iav Trape^ovart prj i^p-erepoi flmi TraTepes, Ft. Menex. 247. "YTroTrros' et (jivyelu.) 

Eem. When (firj/ii, riyovnai, olp.ai ought to be followed by xp'?''a«, Sfii/ (Si'/cutoi/ 
fimt), and an accus. with inf. with the subject of the leading verb, sometimes the 
f)yovpai, xPW^i-^ &c. is considered as one verb followed by a simple infinitive 
(nominative), especially oipai Selv, I think I must, think it is necessary for me, 
to be, &c. : 'AXKt/3taS?js y/3pta-r))y &iTo delv elvm {Don. 21, 143). ' 

When a verb of utterance or opinion should be put impersonally in ^ 

the passive, and followed by an accusative with infinitive, the per- i6r. 

sonal expression in the nominative with infinitive is frequently used [as (4oo) 
often in English] ; but the impersonal form also occurs : ^vvai, 6 



' rijXtTrTro? KrjpvKU TrpoTre'/xTTft roif 'A^rji^aioif Xeyvora (= Xeyeti/ KeXevav), el jSovXav- 
rai i^uvai in Tr]s StKeXias ivivre i]pepS3U, erot/xos fivai iTTTev8ecr6at, {Thuc. 5, 3). 
CHAP, v.] 



[§ 

i6i.] 



r 
142 The Infinitive and its Tenses. \_\ 162, 163. 

KGpof XiyeTUL koX aBerai en Kol vvv viro rwv ^apjSdpoDV elSo? fxev kuX- 
XLcrTO<;, yjrvxvv Se ^CkavOpwiroraro'^ {Xeii. Cijr. 1, 3, 1). ' D.\ioKo^i'r]Tai 
6 larpo^ aw/jLciroyv ehac apxo)v {PL Rep. 1, 342 ; H is confessed that —, 
or, a phjsicicm is confessed to Ite — ). "" k-yCfCkev^ 'Ofi7]p(p ireiroli^TaL 
{Achilles is represented hy Homer to have — ) WaTpbicKcci airodavovTi 
eKTrpeirecrraTa Tifia)pi](Tai {Xe/i. Couv. o, 31). Tov vtto aov /cpi^eiro? p^aXeTro)- 
TOT-a C'F xa^fTTcorepoi/ ert Cl o Tvpavvos {PL Hep. 9, 579). — Aeyerai, 'A\kl- 
/SuiSrjv, irplv eUoaiv ircbv elvai, HepiKkd roidhe hia\.e')(6r}vai irepl v6p,(ov 
{Xen. Mem. 1, 2, 40). 'OfxaXoyelTat., tov? aTro A109 ev'^evecndrov^ twv 

rjfjildecov elvai {^Isocr. Evag. 13). ("HyyeXrai f] ju.dx'? lo-xvpa yeyovevai Koi iv 
avrfi noWovs reOvdvai, Fl. Charm. 153.) 

Eem. The verb Sokco (videor) is usually put personally, of the person or thing 
of which sometliiiig is supposed : ev Xe'yeii' /noi doKelre (even dneTtXfva-au, cos toIs 
7r\ei(jTOLs eduKovu, opyicrBevTes, Xen. An. 1, 4, 7, = ws t. tt. e'SoKei) ; Sok&j poi and 
simply SoK«, I seem to myself to — , it seems to me tliat I — , I tJiinh that I — , 
e.g. 'dba^a aKovcrai ovopa avrui elvai ^ AydOmva {PI. Prot. 315) ; with the infinitive 
of the future (of the aorist with av), I believe I shall — I will ; Bokco poi KaraKei- 
crea-dai. AoKei juot (nw) impersonally with an acctis. c. infin. is unusual, except in 
a clause subsequently annexed : 'ESoJcet S(vo(f)a)VTi, (^povTrjs yevopfvrjs, aKtjnTos 
Tveaeiv ctj Trjv Trarpcoav olKiav, kol (k tovtov XdpTreadai irdaav (X^eii. An. 3, 1, 11). 
(Different from this is SoKeT, it is decreed that something shall be, § 164.) Aokw 
is also used in the sense I believe, I think. AoKei? av fj Xtjcttus 17 Kkenras Trpd^ca 
av TL hvvaa-dai, d dSiKohv dXKrjXovs ; {PI. Sep. 1, 351.) Tw Trarpi, doKw, Uvpi- 
Xdpnrjs ovopa rjv {PI. Parm. 126). (Kai tovtovs t'i doKe'ire ; Xen. An. 5, 7, 26. 
Quid hosputatis ? Lat. Gr. § 395, R. 7, fin.) 

§ When the word which is the subject of the infinitive is itself governed, as dative 

)^ or genitive, by the verb of utterance or opinion, the infin. attaches itself immediately 
to this case (without a separate subject in the accusative) : ntoreua) (toi Tvoirjoreiv, I 
trust thee thai thou unit do (and thence ov troi mdw -rricrTeva iKavm eivai, PI. Pluthyd. 
296, as TXKTTivui raSe dXrjdrj elvai). Ovdevi dvOpunrav vcjieiprjv dv rjdiov epov j3ei3ia>K£vai 
{Xen. Mem, 4, 8, 6). K-rrjcnK^eovs 6 drjpos anas KarexeipoTovrjcrev dSiKflv {Dem. 
21, 180). Kare-yj/wKa ipavTov pi) ttot dv bvvaTos yeveadai tovs dvSpas iKavas e'yKco- 
pida-ai {PL Tim. 19. Avvaros to the subject of the principal verb, § 158 b). 
(Passively, by § 56, R. 2 : Kareyvaa-driv ddiKelv, Xen. Sell. 1, 7, 20.) {Alricopai riva 
KXeTTTTjv elvai. 'HiTiddn 'AteipavTos irpohovvai rds vavs, Xen. Sell. 2, 1, 32.) 

< a) Besides the accus. (or nom.) with inf. immediately dependent on a leading 

^ verb, the continuation of the utterance or opinion may be carried on in the same 

3* form, so that the verb is to be supposed repeated : i^volv xpr]0'ipoiv ov diapapTija-eadai 

(403) .j-f]v TToXiv rjyovprjv TrXevadvrcov rjpcov {raiv Trpeajiecdv irpbs ^LXimrov)- rj yap i>i\i7moy, 

d pev eikr](pei Trjs 7v6\ea>s, dnoScoaeiv, rwv de Xonrwv d(j)e^ea6ai, yj, pt] ttoiovvtos ravra, 

dnayyeXelv rjpds ei^eco? tevpo, a>s6' ev eKeivovs rols Troppco t7]v dma-TLav Idovras vpas 

TT€p\ rwv8e Tuiv iyyiis ov TTpor](Tecr6ai' pi] TrpoXaiSvvros 8e (Keivov ravra pi]S' iipav e^ana- 

rrjOevrav, ev dacpuXel rd npdypad^ vplv eaeaBai {Dem. 19, 151). 'E/xot hoKcva-iv 01 

dvOpcoTTOi iravraTraai rijv rovepcoros SvvapivovK fjcrOrjcrBai' eneX alcrOavopevoi ye peyiar 

dv avrov lepd Karacr/cevacrat Kal jBwpovs Koi 6vaUis dv noielv peyicrras {PI. Conv. 189). 

(For a longer narration continued in this way, see Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 4 ff. Plato de 

Rep. X. p. 614 B. ff. ; a speech and argument, Thucyd. vi. 49.) 

[part II. 



§164.] TJie Infinitive and its Tenses. 143 

Rem. It is not usual, however, in Greek, in the same degree as in Latin, to [§ 
report an entire speech (except it be pure narrative) in such a continued ace. 163] 
with inf. Often eiTrej/, e(/)jy, r)^iTo, &c. is repeated, or there is a sudden transition 
to the oratio recta in the proper person of the speaker. See Connexion of Sentences, 
§ 192 b. 

b) An ace. (nom.) with inf. sometimes stands without an express verb of utterance 
or opinion, when this is intimated in some other way : 'Ayt? rovi 7rpeo■^ets er AaKeSat- 
^uova eKeXeva-eu levai- ov yap eivai Kvpios avTos {Xen. Hell. 2, 2, 12). Sw/cpdr?;? edav- 
fiaCev, fl M (pavepov ro'is (J)lXo(t6(})ois ea-rh, on ra fifTecopa ov Swarov eariv avffpwjrois 
evpelv eVet Koi tovs neyidTOV cppovovvras eVi tu> TTepl tovtcou Xeyeiv ov ravra Bo^dCfLV 
dXkr]\oLS {Xen. Mem. 1, 1, 13). 'O 'Ayt? napTjTe'iro {tovs AaKedaifMoviovs) p.r] CrjfxiMaai 
avTOV epyco yap dyada pvaeaOai ras alrlas a-TpaTfV(Ta.p.evo^ {Thuc. 5, 63). 

Further: the ace. with inf. is put a) with verbs and phrases § 
denoting- a will (command, prayer, wish, resolve, agreement, taking 164. 
measures for) that something shall (may) take place {\\\\\c\\ shall is not 
expressed, but is involved in the construction), or a permission and a 
prohibition that something" should, or should not, take place (verbs of 
willing) ; b) with verbs and phrases denoting to effect and cause that 
something be, or be not, done (verbs of effecting) (e. g. BiaTrpaTTo/xat, 
Karepyd^ofiat, iroioy, also Siafid-x^ofjiai, contend for it, that ; KaTaaicGvafy)., 
a-TTOvSci^o}, earnestly endeavour that; more specially Mvov/j.at, purchase 
to myself that, airio'^ el/xt, &c.), and to ivait for ; c) with a-v^^alvei, 
a-vfjiirLirreL, it happens. When with these verbs of will and of effect 
the leading" verb and the infinitive have the same subject, a simple 
infinitive is put (§ 145 and 147) : Ilai^ra? raOra elSevai, ^oiikofxai. 
YivyovTO aeviav koI Tlaa-icova w? So\lov(i 6vTa<; Xtj^OrivaL [Xen. An. 
1, 4, 7). "ESo^e, irXelv^ rov ' AXki^mStju {Thuc. 6, 29). "Ejpafa 
(l moved that — , also elirov, yvcofxrjv elirov, ■\ln](f)C.a/u,a iyevero, &c.),a7ro- 
TrXelv^ rr)v TaYicTTrjv tov^ irpeajSea [Bein. 18, 25). Ot apxovres ol iv rfi 

Ke(pak\r]via eyvccaav ' AdrjuaCe ti)u vavv KaranXfiv {Dem.'32,9; settled for the sJiijJ 
to sail — ). 'Ek tovtov ai/to-rajuei/ot navres eXeyov, tovs dvop.ias ap^avTas 8ovvai hiKt^v 
(Xen. An. 5, 7, 34). Suy/ceirat KpaTelv j^aaiXea tcov iroXeav, hv ivoTe 01 -Kpoyovot 
TJpxov (Thuc. 8, 52 ; it is settled that — ). Nojaoi/ drjaofieda, p.i]8evi t^elvai cipx^tv, os 
av fiT] (rTpaTeva-r]Tai. \\(TTvdyr]s dnrjyopeve fxrjSeva jdaXXfiv, Ttplv Y^vpos epTTXrjcrdeir] 
6r)p5)v {Xen. Cijr. 1, 4, 14). 'Eyt'ywi/To cnrovhai. roiatSe- AoKedaifiovlovs fiev tcls vavs 
ras iv ttj AaKtuviKjj Trdcras, oa-at rjcrav p.aKpai, napabouvai Kop.i(TavTas is HvXov Adrj- 
uaiois Ka\ orrXa /xr) inicfiipeLv rw Teixlo-paTr 'Adrjvaiovs 8e rots iv t[] vi'jau) dvhpdai alrov 
idv Toiis iv Trj fjTTeipco AaKf8aip,ovlovs iKuip-neiv TaKTOv k.t.X. {Ihuc. 4, 16.) " — 

Et Tiva Twv yvcoplfiwv /3ov\olo Karepyd^eaOai KoXelv ere eiri oeliTvov, 
ri av 7roiolr]<; ; [Xen. Mem. 2, 3, 11.) Tia<Ta(j)epvr)'i eXeyev, otl hta- 
Tre7rpay/J,evo<i r]KOL irapa ^aaCkewq, hoOrjvai avTu> croo^eLV tou? "EX\,7]va<i 

[' The infn. present is common, as in Lat., after verbs of ordering, decreeing, itc. 
— T. K. A.] ^ ^ _^ , , • , 

^ ^OKovvTos Tov Qiji^ipavos ov8fv TTOieiv, 7rifi7rov(Tiv ol €(f>opoi, diroXnTovTa Aapia-aav 
(TTpaT€V€a-6ai inl Kapiav {Xen. Hell. 3, 1, 8, send him orders to — ). 

CHAP, v.] 



144 The Infinitive and its Tenses. \_\ 165. 

[§ \X.eil. An. 2j, O, 25). ^Q.vovvTai a\ 77oXet?. /x?) ahiKiidBai tovs Trap" avTuiv eWXeoy- 

I04-J Tai ffXTropovs [Dem. 8, 25). 'E-y<u alVioy, ^77 koXcos ere arroKpivacrdaL, on ov KoXas 

Tjpofxrji' {PL Lack. 191). ^opfiiav (pvXaKrjv elxe {e(f)v\aTre), prjr fKirXe'iv eK KopivOov 

firj^eva ixijT ehnXelv {TJiv.c. 2, 69). Ov irepi/xevovfxev {avafM€vov/Jiev) a\Xov<; 
r)fxd<; BioXecrai (PL Rep. 3, 375). ^vve/STj tov<; ' AdrjvaLOVi 6opv^r]6r]vaL 
[Thuc. 5, 10). (Earely, and for the sake of an antithesis, the ace. with inf. 
instead of the simple infinitive : BovXoijjLrjv av eyne re tvx^i-v hv (iovXofiui, tovtov re 
Tra6fiv hv ci^ios iariv, Dem. 24, 8.) 

Eem. 1. After the verbs under h and c, the ace. with inf. sometimes takes wsrc 
{so to arrange that — ), rarely those under a (cf. § 145, R. 3). Iletpao-o/xai -noir]- 
crat, wsre ere vop.i^eii> KuXas ^eiSovXevcrdaL (JXTifW. C^r. 3,2,29). 'Eyw Kciv Trjs '^vxrjS 
TTpiaip.r]v asTe fxrjTvore Xarpevaai. rrjv yvvcuKa {IKen. Cyr. 3, 1, 36). 'H o'Ui yj/Tjcjji- 
craerOai av to TrXrjdos crvveXdov cosre tovs Kparia-rovs Koi Tifxals koi 8d)pois TrXfOVfKrelv ; 
{JCen. Ci/r. 2, 2, 20.) Awejir] evdvs /xeTa Tr]v ev'AfjLCpiTroXei p.d)(r]v wire iroXepov 
jjirjBev €TL (v\racr6aL firjderepovs {Thuc. 5, 14). {MaTTparropiai cisre p.Tj KoXd^eaBai, 
Fl. Gorg. 478.) 

Rem. 2. The verbs whicb denote endeavour (to effect), take an object-sentence 
with OTTcos, e. g. KorafiKivd^ci), 8ia(nrov8d^a> (§ 123). With €TniJ.eXei(T6ai, fir])(ava- 
(r6at the ace. with inf. is rare. 

Rem. 3. Sometimes the subject-matter of an agreement, resolution, stipulation, 
&c. is expressed by the simple infinitive, as the subject is easily seen from the 
context: 'Haav al avyypacpai. asTrep elmdacriv ciTvairaL, (Ta)6e[(TT]s ttjs veuis aTvoSovvai 
TO. ;^p^fiara {Dem. 32, 5 ; icere to this effect, that one should pay). In some cases the 
construction may be either ace. with inf , or a dative with simple inf. by § 146. 
UposTUTTa TivL TTOielv {order a person to do) and nva ttouIv {that some one should 
do). Xaipnv Xeyco Tivl and rwd. ' Avvtos A-yopcira) aiTiog iyeiiero ju?) drrodavelu 
{Lys. 13. 82). ToC ^,17 Xa(3flv \\fi(j)iTToXiv ndvToiv ovros alriaTaros ecrriv {Dem, 
23, 152 ; viz. vplv). (Also alVto? rev ti ylyveaBai, § 170 C.) Oi Trepi rov Xdpo- 
TTOV, avvdfpfvoL Tols 'ApKdcriv f7ril3orj6eli>, KaTaXanf^dvovai rrjv aKpuTroXiv {^e)i. 
Sell. 7, 4, 15 ; having agreed with the Arcadians that these should come and help 
them). 

^ a) The accusative with infinitive stands as the object of a mental 

l6c. judg-ment expressed impersonally [koXov ecrTi, XPV) &c.). KaXovaSeX- 
(^ou? a\Xr]\oi<? eiTLKOvpelv. Tiepl iroWov 7roL7]Teov, fMi^Se/xiav 7rp6(j)acnv 
Sodijvai Tol'i Sia/BdWovoiv. '2,coT7]pia aWrj ovSefiiayv,')) 7rv6eaOac^A6ri- 
vaiov^ TTcivra to, 7rpa')^6evTa {Andoc. 1, 58). {Jis /x'7x«'"7 M °^X^ Travra 
KaTavaXadrjvai els to TeBvdvai ; PI. Phced. 72 = d^vvaTov.) nposi'jKei p.oL noielv and 
€fj.e TT. Rarely e|ea-rt /ne Tvoielv. 

Rem. The adjective dlKuios is usually (instead of the impersonal form 8iKai6u 
idTi followed by ace. with inf) put personally, of the person who is bound 
(entitled) to do something, with infinitive added : Kat av rip.lv dUatos (StKaiorarof ) 
ei dvTixapl^eaBai {A^cn. Cyr. 4, 1. 20). Ilo/VAo) pei^wwv eTi 8copewv St/caid? elpi Tvy- 
xdveiv {Dem. 18, 53). (Similarly : 'Hv avvtbelv tw irpose'^ovTi t6v vovv rj jSaa-iXecos 
dpxi] Tois prjKem tcov 68a>v Koi tw biecnrdadai tos 8vvdpeig da-devfjs ovcra, Jlcu. An. 
1,5,9= ^Hj' (Tvvi8e'iv Ti]v dpxfjv — ovaav.) So sometimes a participle express- 
ing something that is becoming, befitting, or a duty, stands personally with the 
infinitive, instead of impersonalh' : Aoyos nposTjKav prjOrpai {PI. Pol. 283) := ov 

[part II. 



§ 1 66.] The Infinitive and its Tenses. 145 

TrpoyT^Kft p. Ta r^juii/ e'l^ apyj]^ irapayyiXBivTa {TTposTaxdivTa) SLfXdelv {PI. lim. [§ 
90) = a Tjfjuv TraprjyyeXdr] 8. '^S-J 

d) An acc. with inf. is sometimes put as an apposition to a demonstrative pronoun 
(tovto, rdSe, sometimes to a pronoun witli a substantive), to denote a conceived rela- 
tion of which something is predicated : To 8'iKaiov tovt icrTu TrXiov exei-v rovs ap)(ov- 
ras TMv apxoptvav (PI. Gorg. 491). OvbivX -rrconoTe hehuxare ri]v 8o)peau tqvttjv. 
i^eivai TOVS.I810VS exOpovs v^p'i^eiv, ottot av ^ovkrjTai (Dem. 21, 170). 

c7) The accusative ^s'ith infinitive stands with w^re, so that, to § 
denote the way and manner (the degree) and the consequence of what i66. 
is predicated in the principal sentence, when the clause with w9Te con- 
tains a mere mental representation which is not put bv the speaker 
as actual. (Where the subject remains unchanged, the simple infini- 
tive is used.) If the proposition with w'^Te is put as actual, then parti y 
the indicative (or potential optative) is used, especially almost always 
with narrative statements in the aorist : partly the infinitive, whereby 
the sentence coalesces more with the leading sentence, and has less 
prominence in itself {as to c. inf., but often, so that). Where &)9Te ex- 
presses merel\- a consequence or inference [so that consequentli/, therefore), 
but not the way and manner, or the degree (so that ovrco^ or roaomov 
could not precede) , the infinitive is rarely used : IloXXa? iXiriha'^ e;^r«) 
apKovvT(o<; epelv, w?t' u/u,a9 (Jltj airoXeLcjidijvai, to)V 7rpay/.t.dTcov {Dem. 27, 
'Z ; so that you shall not tje left in ignorance of the state of affairs). 
OvTTQ) ol Kaipol irapekriXvOaaiv, w?t' rjh-q /jLarrjv tivai to fJ-e/jivrjaOai Trepl 
TovTcov {Isocr. ; so that it should be in vain — ) : Kat Xoycov kuI j3ov- 
\ev/j-dra>v kowcovov av ae ol iroXefiiOi ttoloIvto hid to mcneveiv, w?Te 
ixrjhe ev ae \e\rj6evat, wv ^ov\6fjbe9a elhevat, {Xen. Ci/r. 6, 1, 40). Otjtco 
aTOTTOvi TLvd<; ii> rfi nroXet koX 3i»?^epei? dvOpcinrov^ Atcr^ti/779 eXejev 
elvai., &<;t€ ovk alaj^yveadai Xoi8opoufxevov<i ^lXlttttw {Dem. 19, 308. 
In the oratio recta it might be oi;t&)9 — elaiv, w?Te ovk ala-)(yuovTa l, 
or w?Te fXT] ala'yypea-dac ^) . 01 KaKehaifxavLOL et? tovto d7rXrjaTLa<; rjXOov, 
(W?Te OVK e^i]pKe(7€v avTol<i e-^eiv Ti]v Kara <yi)v dpj^i'jv {Isocr. Panath. 
103). Oi^TO)? i]iM,v ravTaTajaOd 7ravT0<; d^ca elvai SoKel, w?Te to Kara- 
Xnreiv avrd irdurcov fxaXiara (f)evyofi€v {Xen. Mem. 2, 2, 3). Hep^^;? 
T?}? 7ref>}<f (TTpaTid<; o{jTa)<; direipov to irXijOo^ ^J^v, <w9Te /cat T.a e6i>r] 
Ta jxeT avTov dKoXovdi'jcTavTa ttoXv dv epyov e'lrj KaTaXe^ac {Lj/s. 2, 27). 
Kal Xij6t] Kal jxavia '7roXXdKi<; 7roXXot9 Sid ttjv tov acofu-UTOf; Ka')(e^iav eh 
TTjv Sidpoiav e/jLTrLTTTovaLV ouTCt)?, w?Te Kal Ta? e7rtcrT?//xa9 iK/3dXXeiv {Xen. 
Mem. 3, 12, 6). 'H Tcoy WdrjvaLcov TroXt? i/xiropiov iv yuecrw t?}? 'EXXa- 
S09 TOV Yieipala KaTeaKevdaaTO ToaavTijv e-)(QV virep^oXi'iv, 6)<i6 , d Trapd 
Twv dXXwv ev irap eKdaTcov ^aXeTroy e'cTTt Xa(3ecv, Taiiff diravTa irap 

' [It might he wsre ovk. alcrx- (taken as the 0jp2>. of ala-xyveo-Qai) in orat. reel. 
Comp. 305, R. 3.— Ed.] 

CHAP, v.] L 



146 TJie Infinitive and its Tenses. [§ 166. 

i§ avir]'^ pa^iov uvai TTopiaacrOai [Tsocr. Paueg. 4:2). Et? rr/f varepalav 
■^ ovj(^ rJKev 6 Ticra'a(f)epprj<i' (o<;6' ol "^Xkrjve'i i(f)p6vri^ov [Xen. An. 2, 3, 

24). "Q,iTe [in consequence of the foregoing explanations) ^vvtm Trpwrw iTo\ep.(o rw 
SeKoereT km rfj fier avrov vnoTTTt^ avoKcoxfl kol t(5 varepov i^ avrrjs TroXe/xw evprjcrfi tis 
TocravTa eTr] {Thuc. 5, 26). (Sui/reVaKrai kcu avvaKoXovdel. rois pev ttXovtois Koi 
8vva(TT(iais avoia koi aKoXacria, rais d evdeiuis Koi rciis TaTTeivuTrjo-i (TU)<ppocrvi'rj icai 
fi€Tpi6rr]s' cosre xc-Xeirov elvai duiyvmvai, norepav liv ris de^aiTo twv fifpldav tovtcov 
Tols TTaicrl Tols aiiTov /caraXiTreli', Isocr. AreojJ. 5.) 

Eem. Even after a condition, or after a question equivalent to a negative (where 
therefore the consequence is not a fact), msre may stand with the modus fnitus, if 
the condition or the qiiestion essentially concerns the proposition Avith wsre : 
OuVcoj ayvu>p6v(iii e)(ere, o) av8p(s 'Adrjvaioi, wsre, St' wj' €K )(pri(rTa>v (f)avXa to. irpay- 
p-ara tijs TT^Xecos yeyove, 8ut Tovrav eXTri^ere twv aiiTwv Trpu^fiov e/c cjiaiXav avra 
XpTlo'TU y(vr](Tea6aL ; {Dem. 2, 26 '.) 

d) Likewise w?Te before the accusative with infinitiv^e^ or, if the sub- 
ject be the same, the simple infinitive^ denotes a fixed condition {so 
that something" shall happen, binder the condition that), or the price 
and reward {so that in return), sometimes altog-ether the object and 
the means {so that something mat/). Just so the ace. with inf. (or 
simple inf.) with e^' w, i(p' w re, on condition that: OiM.irv\r}valot, 
o/jioXoyiav Troiovvrat irpb'? Yld^rjra, M'^re ^A6r]vaL0L(; jxev e^elvai /Sov- 
\evaai. irepl ^lirvXrjvaLwv oirolov av n /3ou\Q)vraL, Trpea/Seiav 8' ciiro- 
areWetp e? ra^ 'A6/]va<; MtrvXT^fatoi;? irepl kavrwv {Thiic. o, 28. Also 
eVt 70i?Se oi^re, Thuc. 3, 114). Xla;;^?;? '\Tnrlav TrpoeKoXeaaro i<;\6yov<;, 
bi'^re, i)v fjLTjSev apiaKov Xeyrj, ttoXlv avrov KaTaaT7]aeiv et<? to ret^i^o? 
CMv Kal vytd {Thuc. 3, 34). — 'E^i}y tol<; vfi€T6poL<i irpoyovoi'i rcov Xot- 
TTWv ap-^eiv '^YDOvqvfxiv , &<;Te avTOii<; vTraKoveiv ^acriXel {Dem. 6, 11). 
''n?Te r7]v yvvoLKa aTroXa^etv, iroaa av fiot y^pr^ixara 8oLr]<; : {Xen. Cijr. 
3, 1, 35.) Xlay iroLovcnv, co^re SUr]v pbrj BiSovac {PI. Gorg. 479 ; to 
hare no 'punishment to undergo). 01 TpuiKovra efBovXijOrjaav ^FjXevaiva 
i^iBicoaacr6ai, w?Te elvai acplcrc Karacjyvyyjv, el Se/jcreie {Xen. Hell. 2, 
4; 8) ". — Trjpi^a^o^; elirev, on cnreLcraadai (BovXoiro, ec^' (p ixrjTe avro^ 
Tov<; "ILXXijva'i dSiKelv fi7]T eKelvov^ Kaieiv Ta<i oiKLa<i {Xen. An. 4, 4, 

^) • (The verb can or shall lies in the construction, and is not separately expressed 
in the Greek.) 

c). For ToiovTO'^ 6}<iT€ we have also tolovto^ olo^, or simply olo^, so 

' Ta Trpaypara 6pa> els tovto irporjKovTa wsre, oivois prj iretcropiBa avToi Trporepov 
KtiKMS, crKt-^aa-Qai biov [Dem. 3, 1 ; participle instead of infinitive with wyre after a 
participle preceding^, by a kind of attraction). 

- lArixavai TroXXai elcriv iv eKacTTOis rots KivdCvoLs cosre 8ia(p€vyeiv BavaTov {PI. Apol. 
39 ; so that one can escape, in order to escape. 

^ 'E(^' « (w re) with fut. indie, in Herodot. and Thucyd. : Ol iv 'idwpi] Mea-a-Tjvioi 
^vvelSrjaav rrpos tovs AaKebaipoviovs, fCJ) a> re e^iacriv eK 'n.eXoTvovvi](T(w Kai pr]8e7roTe 
em^ijcroi'Tai aiiT?]s' ijv 8e ns uXifTKrjTai, tov XoiSovtos eivai doiXov {Thuc, 1, 103). 

[part ir. 



§167.] The Infinitive mid its Tenses. 147 

that oto9 is put in the case of the TOiovTo<^ preceding (or understood), \h 
not only with the simple infinitive where the subject is the same, but ^ " 
sometimes also with ace. with inf. Likewise {joctovtov) oaov {roaavra 
oaa) for roaovTOv co'^re. 01 TlepcrtKol vo^ot eTTLfieXovTai, ottw? ttjv 
dp'^iju fii] roiovTOt eaovrat ol iroXtTai oioc irovrjpov tm'o? ^y ata-)(pov 
epyou i(j)L€adat {Xen. Cijr. 1, 2, 3). Ou/c y]V wpa oXa apSeiv to irehlov 
[Xen. An. 'Z, 'i, 13; the season to irrigate the plaiii). Kla^icrTa a-naX- 
XciTTOVTat XoL8opouvre<i re koI etTToyre? Kal aKouaavTe<i Trept a(f>(i)v avTcbv 
Toiavra ola Kal tou<; irapovra^ a-)(6ea6aL [PL Conv. 211). 'EXe/Trero 
tt}? vvKTO'i oaov aKoraiovi roi)? "l^Xkrjva^i hteXdelv to irehiov {Xen. An. 
4, 1, 5). 

Reji. 1. From olos in the sense toiovtos asre arose the frequent use of ol6s re with 
flfil and an inf. by § 149, in the sense of, in a condition to {to he ahte, k,c.) : Ovx 
oUs re et/ii j3or]6Pi(rai, i^avrco {I am not able [i.e. am not suck a one as to do itj. 
PI. Gorg. 408). Impersonally: ovx o'"'" '''^ {i<TTiv),it is not possible ; ws ol6v re. 

Eem. 2. For cosT€ in the sense so that, Herodotus and the Attic poets, some- 
times even 'Xenophon, have as : 'H 'PoSuttis- ovtco 8tj ti KXeun) eyevero, cos Kal 
Trdvres ol"EX\i]ves 'Podanios rovvofia i^ifiadov {Herod. 1, 135). "'EvOiv oprj tjv 
V7r€pv\}/rj\a, €v6(v 8e 6 Troraixos toiovtos to ^cidos, cos fJ-ijde to. tvpara vnepex^'-^ ^f'- 
pcopeuois Tov ^ddovs {J^eu. An. 3, 5, 7). (Also Kcodcova (pepovrai, cos apvaaaOm (k. 
Tov noTapiov. X.en. Cyr. 1, 2, 8, in order to. Tas d(ji>'ihas pei^ovs exovcriv >} ws ttouIv 
fj opdv Ti. X.en. Cyr. 6, 4, 17.) 

An accusative with infinitive, or, for the same subject, a simple ^ 
infinitive, stands after Trpiv [npoTepov irpiv), when it denotes a simple i6j. 
relation of time to an action which has taken place, or to one merely 
conceived, which is hindered. If npiv after a negative sentence denotes a 
condition which has not yet taken place (before the fulfilment of which something 
will not happen), then Ttp\v av is used with the subjunctive h\ § 127, or irplv with the 
optative by § 132. Of a condition which has already taken place, ivpiv is used with 
the indicative, § 114 c. E.. 1 ; likewise where Ttpiv denotes merely a change which 
has taken place: imtil. 'H/U-et? {ol Aaice8ai/u,6vioi) 'Meaajjvr]!/ elXofMev TTplv 
Ilipaa<; XalSelv ttjv jSacnXeiav Kal KpaTfjaat tt}? rjireipov Kal irplv oIki- 
crOrjval Tiva'i twv TroXecov twv 'KXX7]Vi8(ov {Isocr. Ar child. 26). Ovtw 
Tive<{ €V7r6i6el<i elaiv, w^Te, irplv elSevat to a'pO'^TaTTo/xevov, irpoTepov 
ireLOovTai {Xen. Cyr. 2, 2, 10). Tlplv ej^eaOai to, avpa ovhev eSelcrde 
eiprjVT]<i {Xen. Cyr. 3, 2, 12). IToXXot airoOvi^aKovaL nrpoTepov irplv 
hriXovyevkadai, oloirjaav {Xen. Cijr. 5, 2, 9). ^oKels p.oi ovbapms p d(f)i-icTei.v 
nplv av etTTco {Pt. Phced. 228). 'O KOpos vnecrxfTo toIs cpvycicTi, pr] TTpocrdev TravaecrdaL 
irplv avTovs KaTaydyoL o'iKu8e {S^en. An. 1, 2, 2). Oi) Trporepov eTravaavTo irplv tov 
' AXKi^uidrjv €K Toii aToaTOTretov peTenep'^avTO {Isocr. de Pig. 8). Tols KepKvpaioLS ovx 
icopavTO al vrjes, Kal edavpa^ov tovs Kupivdiovs Trpvpvav Kpovopevovs' Trpiv Tives tJofres 
fjirov, oTi vrjes (Kelvai iTrnrXiovaiv {Thiic. 1, 51 ; until at lust some saw). 

CHAP, v.] L 2 



148 TJic Infi}iitive and its Tenses. [§ 168, 169. 

[§ Rem. For •nplv, the poets, Herodot., and sometimes Attic prose-writers, use tt^Xv 

167. ] jy. As with TTptV, the infinitive also occurs, hut more rarely with Trporfpov fj, Zcnepov 
rj : ATvayyikdiVTOi Innia. on l7r7rap;^os UTreOavev, eni tovs onXiras nporepov rj 
ala-Biadai ev6vs ix'^PW^^ {Thtic. 6, 58. Usually r) ijaBovTo). {^ddvo} rj with ace. 
with inf. for (pddvo) npb', A'ew. C^r. 1, 6, 40.) The iuhuitive instead of Trpiz/ uv with 
the subjunctive is very rare. 

^ a) The ace. with inf. in some places stands without a governing word, expressing 

1 58. merely the thought present to the mind in the form of an indefinite sentence : 

1) In commands (legal language) and communications of orders : Tovs Qpaicas 
uTTuvai, napelvai 8' fls evrjv {the day after to-murrow. Ari^t. Ach. 172. A herald is the 
speaker). In laws and treaties containing several regulations, among the direct 
commands expressed in the imperative are blended accusatives with inf., which may 
be said to attach themselves dependently to a term of appointment or stipulation, &c. 
understood : it is enacted, &c. that — . (See e. g. PL Legg. 6, 700. Thuc. 5, 18, and 
23. Dem. 24, 20.) 

2) In entreaties and wishes : 'Epp.r] '/xTroXme, Ti]v yvvaiKa ttjv ijxrjv ovTa p.' otto- 
biJa6ai t!]v t ep-avrov p,r]Tepa [Arist. Ach. 816 ; that I could hut so sell !). 

3) In exclamations of wonder at something happening [like our : to thinh of his 
not having, &c. !] : Tovtov S' v^pi^fiv ; dpanvelv 8e ; ov e'l ns iq ^ijv, dyandv e6fi 
{Dew. 21,209). More usuall}' with the article prefixed: To 8e pijSe kvvi^v oUoQev 
eX6(iv (pe Tov KOKotaipov 'dxovra {Ar/st. ]S' ub. 2ij8. That J should 7iot even — .'). 
(Also simple infinitive : TrjS pcopias, to Alu vopi^etv, ovra rrjXiKovTOvi, Arist. Nub. SlU. 
Jb^or a man of his years to believe in a Zeus .') 

b) As a simple infinitive, so occasionally an ace. with inf. is added [in a qualifying \ 
or restrictive sense] to a statement with w? or 60-01/ {so far as — ; see § 151) : 'H ovv 
(o}ypa(pLKos ©eoScopoj ; Ovx, ovovy epe fldevai {PL Theat. 145). Ovbfpla epoiyf doKel, 
cb riiXe, T(x^1 ') p']TopiKi] etVai, as npus (re Td\i]6i] (Iprja-dai {PL Gorg. 4b2 ; if the truth ■ 
must be told you, to tell t/ou the truth). 'l6'Xr]v eXe^as, cos y fneiKd(eLv ipe {Soph. Trach. 
1220). (Without as : boKflv epoi, it seems to me, in my ojyinion, Herodot., Thuc. In 
like manner seems to have originated the expression noXkov 8fiv, piKpov 8., oXiyov 8., j 
so that much, or little, is wanting ; i. e. far from, it, almost.) 

V a) Sentences accessory to an ace. with inf. retain the usual form of the o?•a^^oj 

169. finita ; but relative sentences to an ace. with inf. are sometimes themselves put in] 
(402) this form when they rather contain a continuation of the infinitive sentence, or a1 
remark added for definition of some term in it, or when they are periphrastic expres- 
sions with dpi and a relative. (In longer reports parentheses, such as cos 8ok('l, ms 
(j)aLV€Tai, also pp-ss into the infinitive.) Fuyr^i/ (J^uct'lv l86vTa to xdcrpa Ka\ davpdaavTci 
KUTajirivai Kcii I8eiv dXXa re BavpaaTii Kcd imrov x<^i^kovv koTXop, 6vpl8as e'xovTa, Kaff 
as iyKv^avTa Ideiv ivovTci vfKpov, ws (paivecrdin, pei^uy 7) /car' livOpcoTTOv' tovtov 8e ciXXo 
p.ev ej^eii/ ovoa'. vepl 8e ti] X^'-P'- XP'^^°^^ daKTvXiov, ov rrepuXopfvov iKfirjvai {PL Pep. 
2, 35y). Yi.aXX[as 8L€Xoyi(€To, oaov iKciaTovs eSet crvvTeXeli>, 'Ap^atoiiy pev ndpras Ka'i 
Mfyapeas i^y]KovTa TaXnvra. Tcis 8' ev Eu/io/a TToXeis unda-as TeTTOpciKovTa' elvai 8k 
Tro'XAouy Kai uXXovs tcoi/'EXXi^kbi', ovs (:iovXea6ai Koivcoviiv tijs (rwrd^ecos {.Sisch. 3, 90 ; 
to bear tlieir i^art in the tribute). (OiSeV tw vop.i^(o ToaaiiT dyadd noujo-ai, 8 1 ov vplv 
irposi]KiLv inLopKi]aai. Dem. 23, 194.)^ 

^ O'l .\aKi8cupivL0L 8iKa ai>8pns "S-irapTiaTcov nposeiXopTO tc2) "AytSt ^vplSovXovs, avev 

[PART II. 



§ I/O.] TJie Lifinitivc and its Tenses. lAf) 

b) It is not alto^-etliei" a rare construction, especially in a long report of another \% 
person's narration or thoughts, for a dependent sentence (protasis) with a conjunc- i69-] 
tion of time (eVftS»;, wy, oVf) to be put in the ace. with inf., instead of the oratio 
fimta in optative or indicative: Toi/ ovv laKpinr] \\picTTu8rjiios ecjir] kuto. tjjv odw 
7ropfVf(r6ai vTroXemoufvov Kai, irepifxivovros ov, KfXeveii' npouvat eh to npocrBev' iTvahrj 
Se yeve aSai fVt rfl oiKia rfj 'AyiWoivos. avec^yfxevrjv KaTo\ap[iaveLV ti)v Ovpav — — * 
fidvs 8 ovv wv iSeTf Tov 'Ayd-dan/a, 'Q, (hdvai, \\piaT68r]fxe, ei? Ka\w TJKeis, ottw? 
crvvSeiTTPrjcreis {PI. Conv. 174). {Xeyfrai Ka\ 'AXKixaicovi tw 'A/Li^uipfco, ore 8f] dXdadai 
avTou fMSTCi Tov (fiovov TTjS firjTpos, rov 'ATriiXXo) TavTTjv TTjv yTjV ^pj](rai oiKf'iv. Time. 
2, 102.) (In Ilerodot. and Thucj'd. el is likewise so put ; in Ilerodot. also fiiuVi, 
e<TTe, and es o.) 

Rem. 'ETret in the sense _/b;' with a sentence in ace. with inf. as in § 163 a. does 
not come under this head. 

a) An accusative toith infinitive is denoted by the article as thereby § 
comprehended into a definite substantive term [the circumstance I'^o. 
that — ). The nominative serves to denote an existing" circumstance 

{the fact that — , quod) as subject: To 'y^pbvov 'ye'yevfjaOat fiera rrjv 
irpeajBeiav iroXvv, SeSoiKa, /hj] riva Xrjdrjv u/jllv i/x7re7roc7]Kr} (^Bem. 19, 3). 
*H evepyeaca avrri, to hi rj/jid<; IIe\o7rovurjaLOV<i avrol<i fi7] /Sorjdijaai, 
'Trapk(T')(ev vfjuv ^afjblwv KoXaaiu {Thuc. 1, 41). The accusative is used 
to denote a certain relation (conceived or actual) as the object of a verb, 
or with prepositions, especially Sui, et?, and Trpo? : Xkottmv to re 
ir\rido<i TMV TToXeiJLLWv kuI to tcl ')(wpia iravTa arroXcoXepat xj} iroXei. 
Ata TO Toij<i TToXefiLOv; 7rpoei<;eXr]Xv6evaL. To euvai ^lXlttttov iravTcov, 
eva ovTa., Kvpiov irpo'i to to, tov TToXe/jiov tu-^v koL kuto, Kaipov irpaT- 
TeaOat iroXXa, TTpoe-^et [Bern. 1,4). Even with a verb declarandi vel sentiendi 
the ace. with inf. may have the article to denote it as something known and already 
mentioned, but usuall}^ only as an apposition to a pronoun or substantive: ToSe ye 
fioi 8oKel eii Xeyeadat, tu deovs eivai i]fxCov rovs emp-eXoviMevovs kol rjixds Tovs avdpunrovs 
eu Twu KTrjiJiaTCOv rois deois eivai {PI. Plicpd. 62). 

Rem. a circumstance or relation which takes place, and of which something is 
said, is also denoted by a sentence with on : A'inov rjv tov Taiira to'ls ttoXXoIs 
apicTKeiv, oTi fjLepaOyjKOTes rjcrav epyd^ecrdai kol (^eihea-Otu {Isoer. Areoj^.^i). Etpj/Ke 
Arjpoadeurjs Trpos vpds irapa tovto 8ia(pdnprivat tu KepaoldiXeTTTOv Trpdyp,aTa, otl ttjs 
irpecr^eias u)v 7)yep.cov iya> els QpdKrjv levai ovk ijdiXrjaa {JEscJi. 2, 8t). Approxi- 
mating to the sense, hccause). Ta p.ev liXXa vpdcos t'JKovcras, otl be koi ejie o'iei eiTvelv 
tovto, 7rapr]Kov(Tas {PI. Prot.3'dO; hut as to tJie circumstance tliat — , hut if, 
thou thinkest — . Lat. Gram. § 398 b. R. 2). 

b) The dative of the accusative with infinitive, like that of the 
simple infinitive, is both used of the means and instrument or cause. 



Z>v fiTj Kvplov eivai dndyeiv (TTpaTiav eK ttjs TroXecoy {Thuc. 5, 63; witliout tvhom (it 
was understood that) lie should have no uuthoritjj, — . The ace. with inf. here i.-' 
dependent on the notion of a decree involved in irposeiXovro). 
CHAP, v.] 



150 The Infinitive and its Tenses. [§ 171. 

[§ and also governed by particular adjectives and verbs, or by preposi- 

' ''^■J tions : Qv 7r\eove^ca<; eveKa ravr eirpa^ev '^lXitttto'; aWa tc3 SiKaioTepa 

a^Lovv T0U9 (drjjBaiovi r) vfid^ {Dem. 2, 18 ; /j/d by reason of ilie Thehans 

mahing a more just demand). l\.avTa ravra ovk r/v i/x7rohojv rw Toix; 

^ct}Kea<; aco^eadac [Bern. 19, 73). 

c) The genitive of the accusative with infinitive stands, as objective 
genitive, with the same words which can take the genitive of the 
simple infinitive : Ot izpo'^ovoi tcl ttXi^Oi-j kul Ta<; aKpc^eia'^ tmv vofxwv 
crj^xelov elvai evoixi^ov rov /ca/cco? olKelaOat rtjv iroXiv ravrijv [Isocr. 
Areoji. 40). OuS' iirefieKi^diiv rov hihda-KoXov ixol riva lyeviaBac roiv 
iTTicrrafievaiv {Xen. Mem. 4, 2, 4). A-lnov rjv rov ravra rol^ 7roXkol<i 
apecTKeiv, on fjbefji,a6i]K6re<; rjcrav epyd^eaOac Kal (f)el8ea6ai {Isocr. Areop. 
24. Cf. § 164 with E. 3). "Avev rov roU irpci'^pLaai /nrj avfjL<pep6Lv rb 
ylryjcfiiafia ovSk 7rpo9 ho^av cry/ic^epei rf] rroXei roiovrov ovhev e^p^Tjcpta/xevr} 
^aLveadai {I)em. 23, 138). 'O vrrep rov ravra ixrj r^eveaOau d'yoov [Dem, 
18, 201 — the struggle that this should not take place ; the struggle to 
prevent it). 

Eem. The genitive of an ace. Avitli inf. stands now and then (especially ii 
negation) in the sense in order that, to tJie intent that (otherwise ev(Ka) : 'Erft;((o-^j^ 
'ATaXdi/TT] inr 'Adrjvalaiv t] eTTt AoKpols rols Ottowtlois vi](tos, tov jxt] XrjaTas 
fKTrXeovTas eK ttjs AoKpiSos KaKovpyfiv rfjv 'Evj^oiav {Thuc. 2, 32). ^ojSoiJfini SteXeyJ 
^^eti^ ae, [xrj fie vTToXdjSjjs ov npos ro TTpdyfia (piXoveiKovvra Xijeiv, rov Kara(f)aves 
yeveadai. a\\a Trpos ae [Pt. Gorg. 457). (Simple infinitive: 'O XakKihevs Ka\ 6' 
'A\Kil3ia.8T]s Trkeovres. ocrois eTnT{j)(oiev, ^vve\ap[iavov, rov prj e^dyyeXroi yeveadat, 
Thuc. 8, 14; that the tidings of their aj^pronch might he carried.) (The geni- 
tive, it seems, must be explained from § 65, b.) 

^ i^he Tenses of the Lifinitive) a) The present, imperfect, future, and ^ 

i/^- futurum exactum of the infinitive, correspond with the same tenses 
in the indicative (especially with the same distinction of the perfecl 
and the narrative aorist). Ilpo? rw tt)? elp/]vrj<i alrio^; <y6<yevi)adai 
Kal aX\a rroXka rrjv rroXiv rjSiKTjKa^i [Dem. 18, 22). Olfxai fiev elprjKevai 
re Kal roiovrov, ov /Jirjv dX}C eVi TrXelco Kal cracjiicrrepov rreipdaofiai Sia- 
\e-)(6r}vai, [Isocr. Areop. 36). Avocv ?) rpiwv I'j/xepMv ravra rreirpd^eaOai 
(f)i]/jLt (Bern. 19, 74). 

Rem. 1. The infinitive of the perfect is sometimes put where the present migh^ 
have been used, to denote the complete accomplishment of the action, or the state 
thereby produced, especially after verbs of willing : BovXopai dywvl fxoi Koi 
SiKuarripicp dicopiadai Trap' vpiv, on TcivavTia ip.o\ Koi rovrois irenpaKTai [Dem. \^^ 
223 ; / tcisJi it decided and settted — ). 'O Kdfivu)v d^iol irapd tov larpov Kavaei 
Ka\ TOfif) ■^(p-qcruiievos ciirrjKkdxBai tov voarjpaTOS (Pt. PejJ. 3, 406). 'E^eXw vpus 
crvvTrj^ai Kcii avpcjivaai els to avTO, wyre dv ovTas eva yeyovevai Kai, eco? av ^^Tf, as 
eva 'dvTa Koivfj dpCpoTepovs Cw {Pt- Conv. 192). TLittov o'l civdpes tt]v 6vpav KeKkel- 
aBai {2^en. Mctt. 5, 4, 7 ; that the door sJiould lie shut). {Bov\pp.ai, alpovp.ai, fiei, 
fieXkco Te6vdvai for dvTjaKeLV or Baveiv.) 

[part II. 



§ 1 7 1.] The lufinilive and its Tenses. 151 

Rem. 2. After the verbs denoting hope and surmise, promise_ and undertakiiii:, {% 
the future is used both in the simple inf. and in the ace. with inf. : 'EXfr/Sas e'xw '71 
Kai ae ^ovKrjaea-daL (^ikov rj^'iv elvai {Xen. An. 2, 5, 12). 'YTrto-xi^oD^oi XP^^^ 
ehova ava6r](TeLv {PI. Fliced. 235). "ilfjioaav tj fxrjv (3oT]6i)aeiv. 'O l<ivp.(p68u)pos ruv 
eVt epuKrjs TToXe/xov WeSe'xero Karakvcreiv (T/iKC. 2, 29). Occasionally, however, 
the present is used, where the notion of future time is not meant to be prominent : 
'QjaoAoyetj {^vvidov rjfxiv) Kara tovs vojjlovs TrokiTeveadai {PI. Crifo,52). The verbs 
of hoping and surmising are also followed by the inf. of the aorist with av, see 
§ 173. (Of the aorist without au, see § 172 a. R.) ' 

Rem. 3. Occasionally (especially in Thucydides) the inf. of the future is put 
instead of the present after the verbs named in § 145, 146 (e. g. ^vvaixat, 8iavoov- 
pat, deofxaL, Treldo), &c.), to mark expressly, that the infinitive action is latej and 
impending: Oi ^vpaKovcrioi to cnopa Toy Xipevos Skvoovvto kXi'j(T€iv {Tkiic. i, 56). 
Oi Kopivdioi ederj6r}(rav tcov Meyapeav vavai (T(f)as ^vpTvpoivip-^iiv {Thuc. 1, 27). 
(That the .•^haJl, by which in English we denote what is matter of will, condition, 
endeavour, is not expressed by the inf. of the future, but by the construction, has 
been already noted, § 164, § 166 b, and § 170 c.) 

/;) After the prffiteritum of a verb declarandi vel sejifiendl, the present, 
]-)erfect, and future infinitive are put of that which at the time of the 
principal verb was- present, past, or future, consequently as inqjer- 
fectiim, plusquaiujierf., and/nfurNm in jireeterifo : Ovk ecpaaav ra? vav^ 
Trapelpau Tou? (7Tpari(i)Ta<i ■t]^eiv ivo/xL^ov. 'Ap/xoSio? Kal Aptaro- 
r/eLTQ)V evojjbiaav fie/ubrjvvadat [Thuc. 6, 57). " k.^0^0^ w^oK.o'^ei KeKOfxi- 
aOat Tr)v irpolKa {Bern. '11, 14 ; to have received = that he had received 
the dowry). fH7etT0 Ty]v ixe^iaTrjv irldTtv 'iaeaOat 8eScoKm. Isocr. 
Antid. 125.) 

Rem. 1. Sometimes, especially after e^irjv, the inf. present is used even of a 
more remote past time, where otherwise the aorist is used (see the following §) to 
denote continuance, state, and recurrence (answering to the imperfect in the 
oratio recta) : Mera TavTa 'AptcrToSr^/xos ecprj acpas pev 8envvfiv, tov 8e ^UKpc'iTrj ovk. 
elsuvai- TOV ovv 'Aya^wfa rroXkaKis KeXeveuv peTaivip^aa-Oai tov ^uxpcnrj, k oe ovic 
iav {PL Conn. 175 = edenrvovpev — eisrjei — eKtXevev — i'iwv). ^vvTvxf-^^ 
((prj Ala-xtvi]S ^ATpeaTida Tvnpa 't^CKl-mrov iropevopivoi Koi peT avrov yvvaia km 
iraiddpia ws TpuiKovTa /SaSi'feti', avTos fif davpdcras epecrdai two. twv dvBpaTraiv, 
Tt's (ivBpcoTTos ecrn Ka\ tls ox^os 6 per avTov {Dem. 19, 3U5 = crvviTVxov — il^d^i^iv 

Rem. 2. Even after the present (the future or aorist without preterite significa- 
tion, also the perfect) of verbs declarandi vel sentiendi the inf. present is used 
(simply and in ace. with inf.) with the sense of past time (instead of the aorist, 
(see the following §), to denote, like the imperfect, continuance, state, or recur- 
rence : AoKeSat/xoi'/ous (f)aaLv eV nXaratat?. eneibt) irpos to'is yeppocj}6pois eyevovTo,^ 
OVK ideXeiv pevovTUS irpos avTovs pdxeadai, dAXa (pevyeiv, eVetSi) Se eXvOrjcrav ai 
rd^ets TCOV Hepcrcov, dvaaTpecpopevovs lo^nep imreas pax^frdaL Ka\ ovt(o vLKr^aai ti]v 

^ Ovk ecJDT] nopfveddai {Xen. An. 1, 3, 7), because, ov iropevopai, J am not going, 
may be used as = I will not go. 
CHAP, v.] 



152 The Infinitive and its Tenses. [§ 172, 

I § e/cet jJ^o-X^v {PI. Lack. 191 = rjdeXov — e<^6Dyo" — e/xaxovTo — iviKijaav). Ao^ofifV 

I 7'-] Tov TTapeXBovTa xpovov dXa^opev€(rdat Koi rrjv /xei/ (fjva-iv ojj.0101 Tot? (iK\ois fivai, 
Tois 8e affjivoTrja-iv nenXaafievais nexprjo-Bai {Isucr. Archhl 98; 'people will say of us : 
7]Xn^opevopTo) . Oi'/xat koi o'ikoi 7]iJ.as tovtov kveKev aaKelv km. yaarpos Kpeirrovs eivai 
Koi Kfpdfoji' aKaipcov, Iv , ft tl Seot, 8vpaip.ida avrols crvp(p6poos ;;(p^cr5at (^e?i. Cj/r. 4, 
2, 45. Not dcTKovpei', but rjcrKovpev, as iW 8vi'aip.€da shows). Tt 6' 01 OfTToXoi ; 
cip o'Ucrde, ore roii? Tvpdvvovs <^iXnnTos i^ejiaXXe, TrposSoKav Tr)v KadecrToxrav vvv 
SeKcidapxtav eaeaOai ; {Dem. 6, 22 = ov nposeSoKcov.) 

^ a) The aorist infinitive (without av) has the signification of a prae- 

] j2. teritum^ as in the indicative, when it is g'overned by a verb dedarandi 

vel sentiendi, or b}^ a phrase of the same signification, and likewise in 

the ace. with inf. when it has the article, except where it serves to 

denote a purpose : IIaT/309 Xeyerai 6 KO/309 jeveaOai ILajx^vaov [Xen. 

Cjjr. 1, 2j 1) . WdKaioTaroi Xe'^ovrat Iv jxepei tlvI tt}? %LKekia'^ Ku«Xa)7re? 

oiKrjcrai {Thiic. 6, 2). ^ Kd'qvaiwv to 7r\rj0o<i "lirTrap^ov o'lovtul vcf)' 

Ap/jLoBiov Koi ^ApicTToyeLTOvo^ rvpavvov oura awoOavelv [Tliuc. 1, 20). 

A<polBos i^apveirai firj Xa^elv rrjv irpoiKa {Dem. 27, 1(>). AieredpvXXrjTo, u>s (pair) 

^(iiKpdrrjs, TO 8aLpvi'Lov iavTUi (Trjpaiveiv 60ev drj kuI p-aXicrTH p,OL doKovcriv avTov 

alridaaadaL Kaivd 8aifj.6vLa elifjjepeiv {Jlch. Mem. 1, 1, 2; to have accused liim). 

To fiij^efiiav TMv TToXecov dXcovai TroXiopKia., fiiyiaTov ian arj'fXelov tov 

Bia TOVTOV^; ireiaOevTa^; toi'? ^CL)K€a<i ravra iradelv [De»i. 19, 61)'. 

Therefore, after a prseteritum of such a verb, the aorist acquires 

the signification of a more remote past (as aorist) : ^Kirva^a iXeyero 

Ku^ow hovvai TToXXa '^p7]p,aTa {Xe)i. An. 1, 2, 12; 7vas said to have 

(jiven ■=■ it was said that she had given ; iXeyero, on eScoKev by § 130 b. 

R. 2, not iSeScoKei). 01 l^afiaptvaLOC inroTrroi rol'^ ^vpaKovaloi<; rjaav 

[icere susjjected tjjj the S.), /j.i] 7rpo0v/x(i)<; acfylac /a';S' eVl ri]v Trpcorrju 

/J'd'^Tjv ire/jLyJrat, a eTrepi-^av [Thiic. 0, 75; the htlp loh'ich tJbey had sent)'. 

Rem. Tu some passages, iXTri^fiv, iXnis ecrriv, iv iXTzihi et/xt, eX-nlha napixoo, 
7Tpos8oKco, also 80KO}, fiKos {ecTTiv), coiisequently the expressions which directly 
denote an expectation, take the inf. aorist (without civ) without preterite significa- 
tion, instead of the future or aorist with civ : "Aapevoi. eKelae laai, ol d(f)iKop.evoLs 
eXnis icTTiv, ov 8ia ^iov fjpcov, rvxeiv {PI. Phced. 57). B^atrtSa? eXeyev ev iXniot 
fivai dvaXajSelv NtVatai/ {TJnic. 4, 70). Mcopoj (ft), el hoKfi^ pf TXrjvat. ai]v KaOui- 
pd^ai 8epT]v {Eur. Or. 1527). Ovk eiKor, e'y vrjcrov rovi Aa<e8aipovLovs rjpcov vav- 
Kparcpcov ovTcov nepaiaidrjvai. {TItuc. 5, 109). There are passages here and there 
in the common editions, where other verbs declarandi vel sentiendi are followed by 



^ Where the ace. with inf. with the article denotes a purpose (e. g. after iiripeXov- 
ixai, after vircp or for eveKa, § 170 c. R.) the aorist is put, without preterite significa- 
tion : 'O inrep tov prj jeveadaL tuvtu dycoi/ {Dem. 18, 201). Ov8' iTvep.iXr]dr]v tov 
8i8dcrKaX6v Tivd poi yeviaBai {jLen. Mem. 4, 2, 4). 

" AvTiiTfelv Tots TvpecrfivTcpois rj Xot.8oprjaaadai 8ewciT€pov ivopt^ov rj vvv Tre/jt rovs 
yovtas e^apapTelv (Isocr.). Here avTemflv, &c., are not governed as verbs by 
eivpi^ov, but stand as the subject. 

[part II. 



§ 1 73-] TJie I)ifi)iitivc and its Taiscs. 153 

an aorist inf. without av in future sense (e. g. vofii(a) Kparrjaai for Kparrja-eiv or [§ 
KpaTrjcTai av, '4<prj 8i^aa6ai), but these undoubtedl}' rest upon a folse reading, either I72-] 
(iv having been accidentally omitted, or the aorist written by mistake for the future 
(de^aardat. for Se^ecr^at). 

d) In all other connexions^ the aorist infinitive is without preterite 
meaning", and differs from the present only as denoting- a sing-le 
transient action, as in the subjunctive and partly in the optative ; and 
even this secondary distinction in many cases falls away, inasmuch 
as after the verbs named in § 145, 146, when these as governing 
verbs are in the aorist, usually (without any kind of secondary dis- 
tinction) the aorist infinitive is put, rarely the present, viz. where 
duration, or the notion in its g-enerality is to be expressed (but after 
]n-esent and future both present and aorist) : AlperdoTepou ea-Ti /caXw? 
drrodavelv ?) ^y]v ala')(^po)<i [Isucr. Taneg. 95. The dying- as momen- 
tary, life as duration). 'H 'yeayp'^ta fiaOeiv re pacnri iSoKcc elvai koX 
ySiari] ipycH^eadat, [Xen. (Econ. 6, 9. MaOecv, transient). Ot 'Etti- 
hdfxvLOL iSeovro tmp K^epKupaioyv jxi) cr^a? Trepiopdv (^Oeipopbevov; aXKa 
rou<i re (j^evyovra^ ^uvaWd^at acjiiai koi top tmv ^apjSdpwv iroXefxov 
KaToXvaai, [T/iUC. 1, 24. Ylepcopdv generally, ^vvaWd^aL and KaraXv- 
crat, of single acts). TiaprjXde TlepiK\'q<i 6 "B^avOiinrov, dvrjp Xeyeiv Kal 
irpdrreiv 8uvaTcoTaro<i [T/mc. 1, 139; generally). XcoKpari^v tao^i 
Tti/e? vofjiL^ovaL TrpoTpe'^aa-Qat /nev dvOpdyrrovi iir dperijv KpdrccTTOv 
yeyovivai, irpoayayelv 6' eV auTi]v ou-^ iKavov [Xe)i. Mem. 1, 4, 1. 
The individual instances are in his thoughts). BouXo/xat SrjXcocrai koi 
meXOelv, oaov avTq rj TroXireca rrj'i Tore SnjpejKev [Isocr. Areop. 62. 
Transient object). "Ocra. eirvOoixeda trepl Yi^vpov, ireipacToixeOa SrjXcbaai 
{Xen. Cyr. 1, 1, 6). Ev^ovro "E^evtav Kal Haalcova Xr](f)6i]i'ac {Xen. 
An. 1, 4, 7). ^OiicToixeQa, Trplv tou<; iroXe/j^iov^ avXXeyfjuat, dva/3dvTe^ 
et? ra oprj (^\en. Ci/r. 3, 2, 4). Ovtco aj}6op ■))iTei'^6r]crav jxeraaj^elv 
Twv Kivhvvwv {Isocr. Paneg. 87). Ai €k Ti]<i KopLvOov vf]e<i T^uajKo,- 
aOrjcrav vav/xa^i^a-ai Trpo? (Popfxtcova [T/iuc. 2, 83. Shortly afterwards: 
oirrco St) dvayfcdi^ovTac vavfia'^eLV Kara fxecrov rov iropdfxov). Oi)t^ eiXo- 
fir)v padufxelv [Isocr. Paneg. S; of the usual manner of life). 'Opxela-dm 

tfiadov, not opxrja-acrdai, of the art in general. Arjp,o(7da'r]s ws ana^ erapd^^dr], ovb' 
dvaXa^eiv avTov 7]8vi'r]drj, aXKu Koi ttoXlv imx^iprjaas Xeyeti/ ravrou (iradev {^A^sch. 
2, 35, to speak ; elirelv ri, to say something) ^ 

[Infimtive tvith av.) The present and aorist infinitive are used with § 
dv to denote what rests on a merely assumed condition, in the 173. 
same manner as the indicative and optative, so that the inf present 
with dv answers both to the indie, imperfect and the optat. present 

' Of the inf. with /ieXXco, see § 116. 
CHAP, v.] 



154 TJie Infinitive and its Tenses. [§^73- 

[§ with av, the inf. aorist with av both to indie, and optat. of aorist 
'''^■^ with av. The inf. with av corresponds likewise with the merely- 
potential and duhitative optative with av (§ 136), and the inf. aorist 
with av stands therefore after verbs declarandi et senirendi [hope, 
surmise) frequently as a modest expression, instead of the future 
(often coupled with a future); sometimes also, especially of some- 
thing- in the future with duration, the present inf with av. — The 
perfect infinitive with av is used in the not frequent cases where the 
plusquamperf. indie, or perfect optative is put with av (§ 117 and 
135, 136). Et v/^a? i^ovXoixeOa cnroXeaat, ')(Uipi(ov iirLrrjSeicov vjjav 
eTrniOecrOai cnropelv av aoi SoKov/xev ; {Xen. An. 2, 5, 18 = rjTTopov^ev 
civ ;) — WOv/j.(o, OTL fjiOL BoKel ra'; rcov OeoiV evepyeala^ ouS av et<? Trore 
dvOpcoTTcov u^iai'i '^dpiaiv d/jbei/3eaBaL {Xen. Mem. 4, 3, 15 = ovh av 
eh dfJ^et^ocTo, potentially). — Ocet dv rov'? 6eov<i rot? dv6p(t)7roi<; ho^av 
efxcfivcrac, o)? ifcavol elcriv [ol deol) ev Kal KaKSi<i Troiecv, el fir] hvvaroi rjcrav, 
Kal Tovf; dv6pci)7rov<i e^airarwiievov^ rov irdvra ')(^p6vov ovSeiroT av 
alaOeaOai ; [Xen. Mem.. 1, 4, 16 = ^Kvec^vaav dv — ovheirore dv 
fjadovro ;) — ' Apa fiLKpd dvaXooaai dv rod fii] rd BUaia Tvoielv oi irXov- 
cTLot SoKovcriv ; [Bern.. 18, 107 = Mi/cpa dv dvdXcocrav ; tlilnk ye they 
would have sacrificed liitle, not to — ?) Ao/cetre fioi iroXv /SeXrLov dv 
irepl Tov TToXe/jLou ^ovXevcraaOai, el rov rorrov ti)^ p^^&jpa?, Trpo? I'jv iroke- 
fxelre, ivOv/xijdelrjTe [Dem. 4, 31 = ^ovXevcraLaOe dv). Aoko) heKaKL^ 
dv Kara tt}? <yrj^ Karahdvat rjhiov i) 6(j)6f]vai ovtq) Ta7Teivo<i [Xefi. Cyr. 
5, 5, 9 = "YiSiov dv airoOdvoini i) 6(j)6ei7]v — ). Arj/j.oaOev7)<i Tr)v ra^iv 
TOV vrpwTO? Xeyeiv ovk dv ec^r] TrapaXiirelv 01)8' eir irpe'^eiv rivi 
irpoKaTaXajBelv ra rov ^Ckiinrov ona [j-Esch. 2, 1U8). 0/ ^ XKapvdve^ 
rj^LOvv A.r]/u,ocr6iv7]v diroTeL'^i^eiv rov'i AevKahlov^, vo/iiL^ovT6<i paBia)<? 7 
dv eKTroXiopKrjcrat TToXect)? re del acpKTc iroXefiLa^; dTraWayrjvat [Thuc. 3, 
94). Ot AaKehaifiovLot ov roaovrov rfkml^ov eKireaelv dv TlepiKXea, 
oaov Zia^oXriv oXaeiv auTu> tt/^o? t)]v ttoXiv [Thuc. 1, 127). Y^opiv- 
6ioL Kal 'Ap'yeioi, el Tejed acpiac Trpo^yevoLTO, evofii^ov diraaav dv e^etv 

TleXo7r6vV7]aov {Time. 5, 32). — 'H-yoC/nat, w /iVSpe? 'Adr^vaioi, ov8' el dnoXoyov- 
fxevujv TovTcov fxt] i6(\rj(TavTis aKovcrai KaTayj/7](pia-dfievoi rcov iaxcirav Tifj-rjaaiTe, ovk av 
a.Kf)LTovs avToits cnrokcokevat, aXka rrjv TTposTjKovcrav ^LKrjv 8fdu>K€vai {Lys. 27, 8. Owk 
av uKpiTOL d-rroXcoXerTcw — , it could not ha ve been said that thei/ perished, — ). Tovs ravra 
dyvoovvTas 2coK/j(m;s dv8pa7rodu)8ei.s civ StKaicos KeKXrjcrdai rj-yelro {JLCn. Mem. 1, 1, 16 ; 
from K€KX)]fj.aL. lam called). (With the iuf. with article : Has e'xds nposTO eBeXeivav 
livai (ikXtjtos fVi helwvov ; PI. Conv. 174. Ovbia avTiiTre hui to p.i) dvaax^crdai hvrqv 
iKKXrjCTLav, Xen. An. 1, 4, 20 ; because the assembly tvould not have put uj) withit.) 

Eem. 1. The liu belonj^ing to the inf. is often detached from it, and placed earlier 
in the sentence (cf. § 139, b) ; in this way it comes not unfrequently to stand 
with the governing verb {o'Ui av, ovk civ p.0L 8oKcb, &c.) : "1ct6l dv6r]Tos av, el otet 
av TJjv vfierepav dperfjv irepiyeveadai TrjS j^iacriXews dvvdfiecos {Aen. An. 2, 1, 13 ; 

[part II. 



§ 1 74-] The Participle. I55 

cf. above, Xen. Mem. 1, 4, 16). 'Euol akv ov8ev av hoKfl roirov fte'iCov ebpee?jvai [§ 




Xovy ; (P^. lie^). 1, 351. Cf. § 139 b.) ' 

Rem. 2. "Av with tbe fut. inf. in Attic writers, must be regarded as an error of 
the editions, the civ being either improperly inserted, or the aonst changed by 
mistake into the futui'e. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Participle. 

a) A PARTICIPLE in Greek is partly used b}- way of apposition, to ^ 
denote tbe relation of time and otber circumstances in the principal ^^^^ 
sentence, partly in nearer connexion witb tbe principal verb, as part 
of tbe predicate ; likewise by way of apposition to tbe subject or object 
[heUvvfil riva iroiovvrd tl), partly as simple attributive, or, witb tbe 
article, as a substantive instead of a relative circumlocution. 

d) To denote tbe relation of tin/e in tbe principal sentence, its ma7i- (424) 
ner or otber circumstances, sucb as cause, occasion, means, condi- 
tion, purpose, opposition (by tbe assignment of a simultaneous, pre- 
ceding-, or subsequent action belonging to some substantive term 
contained in tbe sentence), tbe participles in Greek bave a wide range, 
inasmuch as tbe language bas participles for all tbe principal tenses 
and for tbe narrative aorist, botb active and passive :^ Taura eiVwy 
airyeLv. Taura Xejovra avrov 01 arparcMTat, Kara/BaLveiu eKeXevov. 
' k.7n']vrii(Ta ^LKlinTW airiovri ■)']Sr]. 'linTia^ rpia err] rvpavvevawi e^eTreae 
T?}? «p%%- 'ZcoKpdrrj'i irpoeiXeTO fj.aX\ov Tot<? v6fioL<i efi^evwv dirooa- 
veiv rj TTapavo/xojv ^fjp {Xen. Mem. 4, 4, 4). Kvpo? iraparyjiXXec 
KXeap;i^&) Xa/SovTt ijKeiv bcrov rjv uvtm arpaTev/ia [Xen. An. 1, ^,1). 
Ttaaa<p6pp7]'; iropeverai, ax; jSaoiXia i7nTea<; eywv ci)? irevTaKoaiov; {Xen. 
An. 1, 2, 4. So, frequently, e'%wz^, a-^wv, ^epcov, wbere^ in English 
we should say wifh : "Hcfidr] ^l^o<:; e^cot-) . KaXo? koX d'ya6o<; vofx,i- 
^6/jL€V0<i TTuvra paov hiairpd^r]. ToO KepSov^ aTrea-^o^Tjt', aiaxpov vofit- 
t,wv. Ato. TL ytji^coaKcov 6 dvdpoiTro^ rd KaKa on KUKd iariv, 6/J,(o<i avra 
m-OLel; 'HrTco/iievof; vtto t^? r]hovri<i {PL Prot. 355). 01,'et av '' KXKrjarLV 
virep 'AS/x/jrov dirodavelv dv, fxr] olo/Jiivrjv dOdvarov fxvijfnjv dpeTrj:; 
Trepl kavTYj^ eaeadat ; {PI. Conv. 208). HapeXy^XvOa avfx^ovXevacov 

^ "Av belonging to an infinitive understood : 'Ap' av oXiya Toiaiira eV t<5 eviavra 
avTov dianpd^aadai. TrposdoKure ; 'E-yw fxev yap ovk av oijxai {Lys. 27, 7. Cf. § 139 c). 
CHAP. VI.] 



156 The Participle. [§ i/S- 

[§ vjxlv [Isocr. ArcMd. 1). 01 ^u/nfia'^OL irpecr^ei^; e? AafceSal/xova eireix- 
174] y^av AvcrapSpov alT7]aovTa<; iirl ra? vav<; {Xeit. Hell. 2, 1, 6). UelOe- 
crdat ')(p7] Trj Trarpihi Kav et? iroKefxov ayrj TpcoOrjao/Mevov rj airodavov- 
fX€VOV \Jro. wi'lt. oij. {'AXKt/3iaS?7f dnoKpivdpievos avrols dnenefxylrev, on rovs 
TrevTaKiaxiXiovs ov KaXvei ap^etv, Thuc. 8, SQ. 'Avorjrov enl toiovtovs livai. u>v Kpa- 
Ti](Tas pr] Karaa-xricrft. tls, Thuc. 6, 11. The comuiou object attached to the parti- 
ciple as the nearest or first verb.) 

Eem. The position, relation, or circumstances in -which a person (or thing) 
is during an action, which in English is commonly expressed by lohen, is denoted 
in Greek by &v, or the participle of a special verb (unless the purpose and qua- 
lity in which the person appears in the action is to be denoted, in which case by 
§ 19, the apposition is used without participle) : TavTu ipadov eVt ttoIs mv. 'Att- 
ebrjpovv Tpii]pap)(coi>. 'Etti T0irjv8e ovcrav 'ELKeXlav ol ^AOijualot crTpaTeiKiv iopprjVTo 
(Thuc. 6, 6). "Q.V is also added with explanatory appositions and such as assign 
the occasion or inducement : 'O narrjp, or yjpeXXe reXevrdv, ttjv ovcriav eVe^f ''p'0'6i/ 
A(f)6^a> re Koi Ar]po(f)Q)VTi rw Ar]pa>vos viil, dbf\(pt8o2v ovtoiv [Dein. 27, 4 ; being, or, 
the>^ being ; who were — ). Oi Qr]{-iaLoi ijvaixXovv pev riui Tro'Xeo-t rat? eV IleXoTroi'- 
VTjcrcp, QerraXiav 6' ero'X^coi' KaraSovXavadai, Meyapevai 6e, opopois ovaiv, rjTrfiXovii 
(Isocr. Phil. 53). 

^ The T-elation of the participle to the principal action is more exactly denoted by 

J „- the addition of certain adverbs, partly to the principal verb, partly to the participle 
' ■' ■ itself. 

a) By Tore {rore rj8r)), elra, eVetra {TrjVLKavTa), ovrms, standing after the participle 
and before the principal verb, it is marked w^ith emphasis that the principal action 
takes place only through, or not until after, the action expressed by the participle 
(as consequence thereof) : eneira, elra sometimes also denotes an antithesis (then, 
for all that), especially in expressions of censure and surprise : 'O ^Ava^ifdioi tov Sevo- 
(}jS)PTa eKiXevcre avvdia^avTa tov 'EXXi]ST7ovrov eTretra ovtcos uTraXXdrrecr^at (JEen. An. 
7, 1, 4 ; to go with him over the H.,and then, [not .sooner) withdraic). Afopai vpwv 
nKpoacrapevovs 8ia reXovs rrjs dTToXoyias rove ij8rj y^rj(f)t^eadai, tov6 o, ti av vptv avrols 
apKTTov vopi(i]Te fivai (Andoc. 1, 9). — Aftm pevr av rrudoLS, w (deXria-Te, d 'Adrjvate 
dcpiKopevos, ov r^jS 'EXXciSos TrXeiaTr] earlv e^ovala rov Xeyeiv, eireiTa av evravda tovtov 
povos aTV)i[7]crais (PI. Gorg. 4ii]l). (Kara for simple etVa : 'Eap prjTopiKos yev>jpei'ijs 
Tis Kara ravrrj rrj dvvdpei /cat rfj Te^^yrj ddtKij, ov top didd^avTa Set piaelv, PL (jrorg. 

457.)' 

d) By apa and pera^v it is denoted that the main action goes on with and during 
(ill the midst of) the action of the participle. The adverbs, in point of signification, 
belong, in the first instance, to the leading verb, but in the Greek idiom they usually 
attach themselves more closely to the participle (apa Icov, pera^ii Icov, going the while, 
in the midst of his going, as he goes) : 'O Kwpos ov povov rw nopeveadai ttjv oSov Trpos- 
f t;^e TOV vovv, dXX' apa Ttpo'icov eTreaKOTrelro, el Ti bvvarov e'lrj tovs woXepLOVs daOeveaTe- 
pov9 TTOLflv [JLen. Ci^r. 5, 2, 22 ; as he went on, he considered at the same time). To 
TOV 6eov arj]pe'Lov iv aXXois Xoyois TroXXa)^ov p' eireaxe XeyovTa pera^v (PI. Apol. 40 ; 
in the midst of my sj^eaking). So ev6vs yevopevot, a7ro/3e/3?jKores, directly they icere 
born, immediately after landing. 

c) "Arf (are 8r]), oiov, oTa 8t] with the participle denote that this assigns the 
ground or cause [as being, &c. =: because) : 'O Kipos, areTrais uv koI (piXoKaXos ical 

[part II. 



§ 176.] The Participle. 



157 



<f)i\6Tifios, T/SfTO 7^ a-ro\f) {Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 3). MdXa xoXeTrS? Tropevofievoi ol AaKeBai- [§ 
fiOVLOi. oia Si] ev vvktl re Kai iv (poBa umovTes, els Aiyvcrdeva rr/s MeyapLKTJs dtpiKvovv- 175.] 
rat (Xen. IIell.G,4-,2C)). (In Herodotus also wsre.) Sometimes oii/ in an apposi- 
tion with are, oia 8r], as is omitted : Tovs rfjs rpaymSlas Trot-qras els ttjv noXiTeiav ov 
7rapaSe|c'^€(9a cire mpcwvidos vpvpTiis (PI. Bep. 8, 568). Uavres 01 tovto eTriTrjdevovTfs 
aKovTfs eTnn]devov(Tiv wy dvayKoiov aXX' ov)(^ cos dyadov (PL Hep. 2, 358). 

d) 'Qs _ with the participle denotes the tlio%igM. ojrinion, supposition, purpose, 
pretext, in, with, or under Avhich the action is done : 'AyavaKToiaiv U peydXoil 




were children). 'Apra^ep^r^s avWaplBdvei Kvpov as dnoKrevav (Xen.' An. 1, 1, 3). Ol 
AaKihaLpovioi iv okiyapia enoiovpTo as pabias Xrj-^opevoi. ^la to x(>>piov (Time. 4, 5). 
(Of the omission of av, see under c.) 

Eem. Iw denoting the. purpose after verbs of motion {dfxi, tJkco, epxopai, ndpeipi, 
TTf^TTo), clya, and more special verbs of this kind, such as dnonXea) the simple 
participle is used.^ See the examples, § 174. (^Hta epav, I was goinq to say.) 
(Uapaa-Kevd^opai as dniav, Xen. Cyr. I, 3, 13, and "iTnrapxos napecrKevdCeTo irpo- 
•nrfKaKidv Tov 'Appobiov, Time. 6, 54. Also with the infinitive : Trapeo-zcet/dfero 



en. 



•npos{id\\eiv t'u noXei (Xen. Hell. 3, 1, 17) ; napaaKeva^opievos noXiopKijaeLp (X 
Cyr. 7, 5, 12). 

e) An antithesis is denoted by Kaiircp (although, albeit) or simple Kai (even) before 
the participle (poetically trip ov nep epmjs after the participle), with sometimes Spas 
(nevertheless) before the principal verb : Kaj/ av. Katrrep ovtco (to(J)os av, t'i tls ere 
8i8d^eiev, o pr] rvyxdveis emaTapevos, ^fXrlav uv yevoio (PL Prat. 318). Sometimes 
opas in connexion with (cat attaches itself more nearly to the participle, althouo-h in 
strictness it belongs to the principal verb (like dpa and pe-ru^v, see under if: T^ 
varepaia ol TiTpaKoaioi is to fSovXevTrjpiov opas Ka\ Tf6opv(-irjpivoi ^vveXiyovTo (Thuc. 
8, 93). (' Qv with Kainep omitted: TiyvaaKa aacbas, Kainep aKOTetvos tiw ve avv 
aibt)v Spas, Soph. (Ed. R. 1326.) ' ' / / 

_ Of the manner in which a defining circumstance is annexed by means of the par- « 
ticiple, it is to be observed further : V 

176. 
a) A participle denoting the way and manner, the ground or reason, &c. may 
govern, or have with it, a relative or interrogative pronoun (or pronominal adjective 
or adverb) : 'Ap' ovv Trjde tt] r]pepa el'Kr](f}apev, b ndXai Kai TToXXoi ^rjTOvvTes nplv 
evpelv KaTeyrjpaa-av ; (PL Themt. 202.) Tt, e^j; 6 S€vo(j)av, Idav tov KpiTopovKov 
TTOiovvra TOiuvTa KaTeyvaKas avTov ; (Xeti. 3fem. 1, 3, lU.) 

d) The Greeks often use a participle to denote the manner in which, the m£ans 



^ * Rarer constructions : a) Ovk av iroTe i^evpov 6p6as rd peTeapa irpdypaTa, ei ph 
rr]v (ppovTida XfTTTriv KUTapi^as els tov opoiov depa (Ari.st. Nub. 229. The participle 
to denote a negative condition with el prefixed); b) Ot "Adrjva'ioi Tijs yijs iKpuTovv, 
oaa pi] TTpo'ivvTes noXii eV Tav onXav (Thuc. 1, 111 ; so far as not — , = yet wit/iou't 
advancing far from, the camp : ojtov pi] and Saa pi]) ; cj TaOrd aoi eveKa Toide ipijKvva, 
vnoTTTevav, ae, asnep Ka\ ai/Tos oi'et, adiveiv ti kvovtq 'ivbov (PL Thecet. 151 ; because 
I BUS fleeted). 
CHAP. VI.] 



158 The Participle. [§ 176. 

[§ whereby, or generally tlie cireumstances under which something takes place, where 
176.] in other languages this statement of the manner, means, or circumstance is put as the 
principal proposition, and that which in Greek is the principal proposition becomes 
the accessory definition (dependent sentence or expression with a preposition) ; this 
happens especially where the statement of the circumstance is interrogative or 
relative in form : Tt Se^iores crcf)68pa ouVws (Trelyeade ; (JCeii. Hell. 1, 7, 26.) Tt av 
elrraiv ere tls opBcos TrpoyeiTTot ; {JJem. 18, 22.) Oi'Sa, onoi XPV ^^^'^vra Xa/Setf eKaara 
{JCeii. QScou. 8,22; ivhither I must goto take — ). OiXlav (j)i\oa-o(PovvTes TavXoycov 
aneipoi ylyvovrai, ois XPl XP'^M^""" opTKelv to2s dvdpu)Trois {PI. Grorg. 484 ; which one 
must use in converse with men). SweXtyrj Arjpoadevei to arpdrevpa, o eSet f^ovra els 
TTjv 'EiKfXiav ^orjdelv {Thiic. 7, 20). Oh ^uXoyiaaaOf, inrep ola TreTroirjKOTMi' avBpanrutv 
KLvbvvevcreTe {IJem. 18, 98). — Tbv toiovtov e^ecrrti/ eVi Kopprjs rvnToura p.r] 8i8vvai 
dUrju {PL Gorg. 486 ; one can smite such a man on the cheek without t)eing punished 
for it). 01 'ApydoL TroXkaKis 'Adrjvaiovs eKfXevov axovras p-ovov crvv onXois es ttjv 
AaKcoviKTjv KOI TO iXdxiaTov pera a<pu>v SijaiaavTas aTreXde'i.v {Thuc. 6, 105). 

Rem. Especially we may note the expressions tI {o,ti) TzaOav and tI paOdov, 
where, with surprise and disapprobation, one asks (directly or indirectly) why a 
person did this or that (most commonly vadav, denoting affection by some 
external circumstance, or impulse generally [what i^ossessed him to — ], paBiov, some 
notion which the person has taken into his head \_ichat induced him to — ] : Ae^ou 
8rj pot., t'l Tradovcrai, f'lTrep ve(JpiXat. y ilaXv dXr]6a)S, QvrjTais i'l^aai {io'iKaai) yvvai^iv ; 
Arist. Nuh. 341, what has come to them, what ails them, that they — .) (Depend- 
ently, without express question, merely attached to the expression of surprise 
or vexation implied in the principal sentence : Ti a|io? elpi nadelv rj aTroTlaut., 5, 
Ti padcov iv TM ^t'o) ovx rjavxiav rjyov ; PI. Apol. 36, what do I deserve to suffer 
because {God knows ivhy — , or, for some crotchet or other that I had got into my 
head — ) I did not keep quiet. (Tt S^ra ex^j/ <XTpe(pei ; PI. Phccd. 236.) 

c) The participle, (put as apposition to the subject of a preceding sentence,) 
gives the character of an action or expression of some other person, mentioned in 
that sentence, or asks what was the ground or cause of it : Sot, h 2a>KpaTes, e(j)ri 6 
Qpaavpaxos, xapi'Co/^a'- Ev ye av Tvoiav {PI. Pep. 1, 351 ; it is well done of thee). 
'ATTopw, tL xph TTore eliteiv ovTuii eivat, tov ao(f)i(7TT]v. 'EIkotcos ye crv dnoprnv {PI. Soph. 
231 ; no wonder thou art at a loss). 'O epos naTr]p tov av8pa dneKTeivev. Tt XajSav 
ddLKovvTa; {Ken. Cj/r. 3, 1, 37 ; what tcrong had he found him doing?) 'Epo)Tco,el 
boKO) av vplv nepl TrXeiovos Tt]v <pLXimrov (piXiav T-qs twv Traidcov aarqpias Troii^aacrdai, ; 
TToioiv KpaTr]6e\s rjdovav ; t] ti TrcoTrore acrxrjpov evexa xP^llJ-aTav npa^as ; {^sch. 2, 
152.) The speaker himself interposes a parenthetical ev ttoloiv, KaXuis ttolwv in the 
sense, with good reason, happily : Tovto toIwv, ev notoiv, ov avve^r] {Dem. 23, 143). 
(A remark parenthetically interposed in a report of what some person has said: 
TLapeXdliiv Al(TXivr]S, 'Ayi/oetr', e0j;, d) ^ovXrj, to trpdypa ; kuX tov avTox^ipa exovres 
{Xeyav tov ^ ApldTapxov) peXXere kol ^rjTehe ; Dem, 21, 116. Apposition to the 
subject ofe(pr].) 

Ee3i. Certain participles are attached to the subject, to characterize the action 
in respect of its circumstances or manner, almost with an adverbial signification, 
especially dpxopevos, at the beginning {onep dpxopevoseXeyov, PI. Thecet. 174), dp^d- 
p.evos in the construction dp^dpevoi dno tlvos {^oiKpdTovs), first 8. and then the rest, 
beginning with S., TeXevTcov, at last. {01 'EXXrjves Kivrjdrjvai ovk e8vvavTo eK tov 
Xcopiov, dXXd TeXevTcbvTes Kul diro tov vbaTos eipyov avTovs ol OpOKes, J^en. An. 6, 

[part II. 



§177-] The Participle. 159 

1, 8.) (In tlie language of common life: avxxrai avoiye, make haste and ojyen ! [§ 
^Xvapels e'xcav. See the Lexicon.) i?^-] 

d) Sometimes several participles stand together, either attached, without con- 
nexion among themselves, to the same leading verb in order to define the action on 
several sides of it (by nearer and more remote circumstances), or so that one par- 
ticiple attaches itself to another as its leading verb, especially participles put accord- 
ing to the rules in § 177 and 178: ' A8ikoi opt€s KepSapov/xsv re koi \L(rcr6fj.€voi (]jy 
prai/ing) vnep^aivovres kol afiaprdvovTes {lohen ice transrjress and sin) nfidovres ruvs 
6(ovs d(i]pioi dnaWd^opev {PL Rej). 2, 366). ^ai/r/crerat 6 6ecrpio6iTr]S, ireicrdels 
OTToa-adrjTTOTf dpyvpLO>, KaBv(l)(\s tov ayo)va [Dem. 21, 39 ; that he has given up the 
suit, induced by — ). (In the genitive absolute : Ot Qrjliaioi vcrrepov napeytvovro, rj8r] 
Ta>v dvbpav tcou p.ev bLe(^6app.iviS)v, ruiv Se (^iovTijiv exopfva>i>, Thuc. 2, 5 ; being alive in 
prison. Tov dno ra>u ' Adrjvalav KrjpvKos, ovSev itt icrTapevov twv yeyev7]p.ev(ov, eXdovTOS 
ov TToXu varepov avdis nepl rcov veKpav, dnibocrav ol Boicorot, Thuc. 4, 101; without 
knowing what had happened.) 

e) Sometimes a participle of cii'cumstance is, less accurately (where one would have 
rather expected a dependent sentence or a double genitive, § 181) attaclied in the 
nominative to the subject of the principal sentence, although this cannot, quite 
unchanged, be the subject of the participle. Namely, either (1) the passage begins 

I with the participle in the plural referred to a plural term (especially one that 
has been the subject of discourse so far) or to several individuals, and then is carried 
on in the principal sentence in reference to a part of the plural term or some of the 
individuals (sometimes even with an extended reference to a larger plural than the 
one just mentioned), or also (2) after a general statement concerning a plural, a 
participle follows with an annexed partitive or less comprehensive subject. (1) 'flj 
Kpaxjyrj kol ktvtvos eylyvero, aladofxevot ol ii/dov tov dopv^ov, KekevcravTos tov jSa- 
(TiXews (TK€\l/acr0ai, tl i'irj to npdypa, eKdeovcTL Ttpes dvoi^avTes tcis TTvXas (Xen. Cyr. 
7,5,28). ^Y.vdavTa p-a^opevoi Koi jdatrtKevs koi Kvpos kcu ol dfKp' avTovs vnep (KaTepoiv, 
OTTocrot p€v Tav dp(p\ (iacnXea uTreOvrjcrKov, KTrjcrias \eyfi, Kvpos 8e avros re dneOave Koi 
OKTO) 01 aptcTTOi Tav Trepl avrov [JS^en. A.n. 1, 8, 27). Kat neiaavTes [_oi ' Adrjvaioil^ tovs 
^Vfifjid^^ovs eiidvs e^copovv eVi ^Opxopevov tov ^ApKadiKov ndpTes nXrjv 'Xpydav {Thuc. 
5, 61 ; all, viz. the allies as well as the Athenians). (2) Ilto-rety eSoaav dXkrjXois ol 
'E\evT]v jivrjcTTevovTes, fj prjv ^ot]6t](T€LV, et tis arrocTTepoiTj tov a^icodevTa XajSelv avrrjv, 
vofii^oiv eKucTTOs TTjv (TTiKovpiav TavTTjv avTM 7vapaaK€vd((LV {Isocr. Laud. TLel. 40) *. 

Ee3I. Sometimes an irregularity in the case results, where the sentence begins 
. with a participle in the nominative, and then the construction is altered so that a 
different case is required. See Anacoluthia, § 216. (Of a diiferent irregularity 
in the case of the participle, see ibid. H. 2.) 

a) With sundry verbs^ mostly intransitive^ a participle is (by way ^ 
of apposition) so constructed with the subject, that it belongs at the 177. 
same time to the verb which is predicated of the subject in relation 
to the action (or state) expressed by the participle ; the leading verb 



' Ai 'ArrtKal vrjfs Tvapayiyvvpevai toIs KepKvpalois, el tttj tvU^oivto, <P6^ov fiev 
•ttapfixpv To'is fvavTiois, pd^ris 6e ovk rjpxov, SeStdres ol (TTpaTrjyol tj]v irpoppntriv tcov 
Aer,vaUov, Thuc. I, 49 (4, 73). 

CHAP. VI.] 



i6o TJie Participle. [§ 177, 

[§ being in itself incomplete or undefined, and the participle serving to 
^^^•^ complete it into an entire and definite predicate, in the same manner 
as an infinitive is used as complement of the predicate. Such verbs 
are those which denote continuance and perseverance, or weariness 
and cessation, satisfaction or dissatisfaction [shatne), superiority or 
its opposite, the being early or late, also heing right or wrong 

(StaTeAw, Stayo), diaylyvojxai, dvexofiat., Kaprtpo), Kajivo), dneiprjKa, navofxat, e/cXeiTTcu, 
Xrjyu), xnipco, dyaTTco, rfdopai, poet. Tepnofxai, dynvaKTCo, alcrxwopui, dx&opai, piTap.e- 
Xofiai, xaXenCos cj)epa>, vlkw, rjTTuspai, €Kke'nTop.M, np)(a>, {jnup\m. (jiddvco, a^iKa, dpap- 

raro), fv, KoXcos iroim). '%u)Kpdjr]<i ovhev dWo iToiCiv BLayejev^Tai 77 Sta- 
aKOTTMV rd re hUaia koX id dScKU {Xeii. Mevi. 4, 8, 4). ATreiprjKa 
rpex^cov [Xen. An. 5, 1, 2). Ovhh> Travofxeda eh ro avro 7repicf)ep6fj,evoi 
{PI. Gorg. 517). Tot? Ka\(o<; ipcoToJcnv diroKpivofxevo^ X^^P^ i^^' ^''^^- 

31 o). ^apvdlSa^os ttjs AloXiBos xa^fi'^'^s ecj)€pev diT€(TTepr]pevos (S^e7i. Sell. 3, 3, 13). 
Ovhe Tov dte\<p6v fi<T)(vveTO tov en ^covra ovtcos okiyov (ppovrl^ovaa tov reuvfiOTos 
{l6-ocr. JEgin. 4<)). 'Eoj' n^ 7;/xas tv noiav vrrdpxy] (first confers benefits upon us), 
TovTov e'is ye 8vvafjnv ovx fjTTT](r6p.e6a ev noiovvTes (JTe;?. ji)i. 2, 3, 23). Ta rrji TroAews 
ovras vjri]pxev exovra {JDem. 18, 235; were in this posture). OT'EXAr/i/es (pddvovaiv 
em TM uKpa yevvp-evoi tovs 7ToXep.iovs (J^en. An. 8, 4, 49). 'O ne^os arparus twv 
'Adrjvaiav ^6dvei dvaj3ds eVt ray 'ETTtTroXa? np^v rovs ^vpaKovcriovs TrapayeveaBai 
{Thuc. 6, 97). 'ASiKetrf TToXejjiov dpxofTes Kai anovbas Tivovres {Thuc. 1, 53). 
^K6rjvaiot, roi'S eK Trjs pj'jaov Secr^coroy p-ereixekovro drioSeScoKores AaKedaifMOViois {1/lUC. 

5, 35). 

d) In the same manner the participle stands with the verbs and 
phrases Tvy^dvo), \av6dvco [rivd]^ S-^Xo? elfii, c^av6p6<; et/it, (j^aivofiai 
[s/iow myself, am seen to — ), which are used personally of the person 
who accidentally, privately, or ojoenly does or is something : "Eti;%oz/ 
OTrXirat, ev ttj dyopd KaOevhovre^ (o? TrevTqKovTa [Time. 4, 113 ; ,^0 it 
was that they were asleep — ). ^'YXaOev d(f)6evTa 'jrdvTa Kal Kara- 
^Xe'xdevra [Thuc. 4, 133). KekrjOa e/xavrov (f)t\.Tpov tl elScot; {Xen. 
Mehi. 2, 3, 11; without being myself aware of it, I have the lawwledge 
of — ). ArjXo<; el KaTacppovMv /xov {PI. Tlieat. 189). KTyScrai ns /jaXto-Ta 
Tovrov. 6 Tvyxdvei (pikcov (PI- Sep. 3, 412). Ot GrjjSaioi Cpavepol ndaiv rjaav dvayKa- 
irdrjcrofxevot Karacpevyeiv ecj)" vp-ds [Dem. 18, 19). 'H '^vx^ dOdvaros (paiverai ovaa (PI, 
Phced. 107 ; it appears that the soul — ). 

Rem. 1. When u)v with an adjective is the participle, it is sometimes omitted, 
especially with verbs denoting continuance, and with rvyxdva : ^coKpdrTjs dwrro- 
trjTog KOL dxiToav diereXei (JKen. Mem. 1, G, 2). Viyverai TroAty, eTreidtj rvyxdvei 
f]pmv eKacrros ovk avrdpKrjs aXXd TroXXaiv ei'Serjs (PI. Rep. 2, 369) ^ (Poetically: 
ev dypois Tvyxdva, with a pi'eposition, or with local dative, liypois, Soph. El. 313.) 
With (^aivopai, the omission of S>v is the usual practice. "irevSrjs (paiverai 6 TajSpvai 
{Xen. Cyr. 5, 2, 4). 

' 'O, Tl. oTTov, OTTJ?, oTTOTi Tvyxdvts), Tvyxdveis. &c., what (as it) may chance (with 
me, thee, &c.) : Uepurpexov, onj] Tvxoipi (PI. Conv. 173). 

[part II. 



\ 



§178.] The Participle. 161 

Rem. 2. With \avQaviSi, t?]\os, and (j)avep6s etfiL, sometimes a sentence with Sti [5 
follows : Ot TToXe/iioi SJjXoi rjaav, on eniKeicrovrai eV rf] Karalidaei (Xen. An. b, 2, 26). 1 7 7 ■ J 
Also \av6avei. [tlvo], k)\6v icrri, (pavepov e. are put impersonally with ort : Uaaiy 
^v (pavepov, on jUuXAov t]a-6t](T€a-6e Tois napaKoKova-LV vjxci^ eVt tov noXf/xov rj n^is 
TTfpl elp7']vrjs avfiiSovXevova-iv [isocr. de Pac. 5 = (pavepol r^e Tj(Tdr](r6iJ.€voi). 

Rem. 3. AiVxwo/xat \€yav,Iam ashamed of saying it, (even) ic/iile Isa7/it,aiaxv- 
vofxmXeyeiv, I am asliamedto say [and therefore forbear to say). ^mVo/xaihas the 
infinitive in the sense seem {seem to myself) : "Eycoye fxoi (paivopai 8vo Kadopav e'l^rj 
TTjs p-avTiKiis {PI. Soi^h. 235). (AiroKc'itiva ttouIv n, I give over doing something.) 
"Apxofiai (middle) has nsually the infinitive, rarely the participle. Some other 
verbs and phrases of kindred meaning occur now and then constructed thus with 
the participle, e.g. -rreipapaL liaaavlCoiv n {PI. Phil. 21 ; make an attempt at testing 
something), Kvpws ei/xt noiwvn {Thur. 5, 34; have a right to do something), avfi^aivei 
n yiyvofxevov (and, v/ithout oif, neyiaTov kukov (TVjxjiaivet jj ahKia, PI. Gorg. 479), 
yie(TT6s elfjLi. 6vjxovpi(vos {Sujjh. CEd. C. 768 = Kap.va, am tired out and sated). 

Rem. 4. As bifKos eljii, so, in the poets, and sometimes in prose, apKoi, kavos, 
KpeiTTcov, lieXricov eliii are used personally with a participle instead of an impersonal 
expression with ace. with inf (apxet ep.e — ) : 'ApKeau 6vr](rKov(r eya> {Soph. Ant. 
647). KpetVrcoi/ rjv 6 ■rva-n]p aov pi) Xei-Tovpyrja-as rj Toaavra twv eavrov dvaXuiaas 
{Lys. 26, 4). 

Rem. 5. With some impersonal verbs and expressions, which denote the conse- 
quence and advantage of an action, sometimes, instead of the infinitive, a participle 
stands as apposition to the dative, so that the use or advantage during (after) the 
action is denoted : 'AOrfvaloi Tvep^avie's es Ae\(})ovs iTVJ]pcoTu)v tov 6e6v, d noXepoiKTiv 
apfLvov ea-Tni {Thuc. 1, 118 ; also Xv(nTe\r](Tei, (Twoiaei). 'Upels i)yavaKT0vpev pev 
€7ri Tois Xeyopevois, irXeov S' ovSev rjv nyavaKTovaiv rjplv {Deni. 'So, 31). In the 
same manner •. Merap-iXei poi ovtcos nou]cravTi, to have so acted ; of having so acted} 

Rem. 6. The verb (^Bdva in negative, dubitative expressions is used of that 
which, when it takes place, will not take place too soon ; and, in the second person, 
(ovK. av cpddvoLs, (pddvoiTf) expresses a challenge or summons to do something 
immediately : OiiK av (pddvois XtyoiV, e'l n fjadrjcrai pe (pLXrpov inia-Tdpfvov (Aew. 
Mem. 2, 3, 11).- (More rarely in the third person, of that vyhich, since it must 
be done, may as well be done at once : El pf] npaptjaeade tovtovs, ova av cpddvot 
TO nXrjdns TovTois hovXevov, Dem. 24, 143.) 

a) A participle is likewise attached to the object of certain verbs, § 
to denote that the proper com-plete' {logical) object of the verbs is not 178. 
the grammatical object, in itself, but that state or action ofitwhich the 
participle expresses ; so that the object and participle tog'ether have 
the same meaning- as the accusative with the infinitive n.'itex verba decla- 
randi : AeUvv/j^l riiu ttolovvto, tc. If the subject of the leading- verb 
should also be its object, the participle is put in.the nommative and re- 



^"EoiKas TTjv fvdaipoviav olop,€va Tpvcprjv Koi iroXvTeXeiav dvai {Xen. Mem. 1^.6, 10; 
thou art like one who thinks ; thou seemest to think). 
2 In the editions often incorrectly pointed as a question. 

CHAP. VI.] M 



1 62 The Participle. [§ 178. 

[§ ferred to the subject : AeZ/ci/u/ii iron](Ta'i tl [that I have done something). 

17s.] ^Vith the passive, or the forms used intransitively, the participle is re- 
ferred to the subject : AeixOvcrofxat 7roi7]aa^ tl. Such verbs are those 
■ which denote fo see, 7narh, hiow, experience, rememler, show, prove, find 
{find oneself) , signify/ {xexhs of knowledge and experience) :^ {6p5i,al(Teuvoiiai, 

aKovu), TTVvOavofiai, jj.ai'Bdva), Karafi., oi8a, iirLO-Tafxcu, yiyvco(TKu>, fie^ivijixai, imXavdn- 
vofiai, SryXco, SeiKW/it, eViS., dvroS., dnocjiacvco, e^eXeyxo}, dyyeXXo), evpiaKa.) _ OpO) 

Tov 7r6\€/xov vixlv 'TToXkwv KUKwv aiTiov jeyevrifievov {Isocr. Fhil. 2). 
'EvreSetla Alay^ii'Tjv ovBev aX't]06<i aTrrj'yyeXKOTa aWa (pevaKiaavd Vfid<i 
{Be/n. 19, 177). 0/ "EXX7]V€<i ovk rjSeaav Kvpov redurjKOTa [Xen. An. 

1, 10, IG). "AvOpcoTTOL KoXol KCLjadol eTretSav yvooatv aTriaTOV/xevot, 
ov ^Ckovai TOV<i a-maTOvvTa^ {Xen. Cyr. 7, 2, 17). ^ OtXtTTTro? 'Kcivff 
eveica eavTOV ttolmv i^eXyXe'yKrac {Bern. 2, 8) . Ot tmv ^Adrjvaiwv crrpaT- 
Tjyol rot? re eTTLX^iptj/u^aaiv ecopcov ov KaropOovvTe-i koI tou? arpar- 

iOiTa<^ dy^Oo/xevOV; rfl /J^ovfj {lllUC. 7, 4/). KXeap^o? rJKQVi Kvpov e|<a 
oVra TOV 'EWj^vikov evcovvpov /SatrtXea {Xen. An. 1, 8, 13). ' 'ATvecpavrju (rvp(})opus p.fv 
ovdepLus otVios yeyfvrjixfvos, iToXKa 5e Kayada elpyaap-epos Trjv irvKiv {Lys. 25, 4). 
Mipvripai eytxiye Kcu Tvals (OV {even from my childhood) Kpirlq Twbe ^vvovra ere {PI. 
Charm. 150). "laOi dv6r]Tos lov {Xen. An. 2, 1, 13). ^Konovpevos evpitrKov ov^apas 
av a\\a>s. o i)(3ov'K6pr]v, oianpa^dpfvos, TrAr/i' el ypacjieir] Xoyoy (osrep elKcov tjjs eprjs 
Siavouis {l-iocr. AnticL 7). ILpcoros /Sao-iXet Kvpov enilSovXevovra rjyyeika {Xen. An. 

2, 3, 19). 

Eem. 1. But instead of the nominative referred to the principal subject, occa" 
sionallv a reflexive pronoun stands with the participle in the accusative (cf ace. 
with inf. for the nominative, § 160) : *H be'i^ov ov ireTroi-qKOTa ravra cravTov rj ^Urjv 
vTreye {Dem-. 22, 29). Prom aladdvopai epavruv Tvenpaums comes the construc- 
tion a-vve'^T] pot aladea-dat epavTov nenpaKurc {Dem. 18, 46), by § 157, b. 

Eem. 2. Instead of an object with participle attached, the participle of an 
impersonal verb or expression may also stand alone : 'Op<o kul aol tovtuiv derjcrov 
(Xen. 3Iem. 2, 6, 29). EfSoi/ ol AaKe8aip6vioc ddvvarov ov Tipwpe'iv to'ls uvbpdmv 
{Thuc. 4, 15). (Tol? ^vppdxoi'S Trapd^etypa aafpes KaTuaTrjaaTe, os dv dcjjLO-TrjTai, 
Bavdra ^rjpicoavpevov, Thuc. 3, 40, =: Sei^are.) 

Eem. 3. Earely (for the most part poeticallj-) cos is prefixed to this participle : 
'ils pT]8ev eldoT 'icrdi p av dvia-TOpels {Soj^h. Phil. 253). 

Eem. 4. With these verbs also (cf. § 177, E. 1) the participle u,v is sometimes 
omitted, e. <?. with d7ro0atVw, ol8a : Ei tis c'xet \l/evdrj diTocl)fjvai, a elpijKapev, XeyfTco 
{PI. Pt2'- ^. 3G6). 



' 'Akoixo Tivh rJKovTa, I hear {learn, am told) that some one is come, aKovco tivos 
8ia\eyopivov, I hear some one speak {hear him speaking), § 58 a. E. 3. 'ApiaToj f;a6eT0 
Kvpov TreirruiKuTa {Xen. An. 1, 9, 31), A. perceived, became axcare, that C. loas fallen; 
fia6i](Tai TTiowore pov crvKo(}}avTovvTos ; {Xen. Mem. 4, 4, 11,) hast thou (thyself as 
present) ever perceived me acting the part of a sycophant {jjractising chicane) ? This 
distinction, however, in the use of aladdvopai. is not always observed. 

[part II. 



§179-] The Participle. 163 

Rem. 5. The verbs mentioned have also, some more frequently, e.g. olha [§ 
others less frequently, a sentence with on (or wy mostly after a negation, see i/^-] 
§ 159, R,. 3) with no difference in point of meaning, hut only as the convenience 
of the general form of the sentence may require : Toiy x^'-P'^'^^V°'^ ?/^'?' °''''- ^ ^P'/- 
<Tot/it TToWa Ka\ KoXa eVto-ra/x/fou? {PI. Apol. 22). "HiadovTO ol "EWr-jves, otl 
^aa-iXevs avv tw crTparevjiaTi iv roty (rKevo(p6pois etr] {Xen. An. 1, 10, 5). Ovh eKelvo 
tvvafxai I8e7v, cos ovx). TTcivres avdpatnoi tovtcov tvx^h' a^iuxTovaiv {Dein. 23, 123). 
'sis nv TT€jro[T]K€ Mfi8las, a KarriyoprjKa, tovto SetKwro) [Dem. 21, 2S. A challenge 
which Demosthenes assumes will not he accepted). 'Padicos ala-drja-fo-de rovrovs, 
cTi fieri l3iaL0L koI dcreXye'is avdpwTrin {Dem. 43, 23 ; on tovtovs, otl, see § 191). 
(Blending of two constructions : Tvovs 8e 6 KXeoyv kiu Arnj.ocrdei'rjs, otl, el Ka\ otto- 
(Tovovv paXkov fvhaxTOVCTLV ol AaKedaipovLoi, 8ia(l)daprTTopevovs avrovs vno ttjs 
(T(peTepas (TTparias, 'iirava-av ttjv jJ-axW- Thicc. 4, 37. Cf. § 159, R. 4.) ' 

Rem. 6. The verbs signifying to remarh, learn, hear (also ayye\\a>), have also 
often the accus. with inf , rarely those signifying to knoic .• 'Akovco kcu aWa 'dOvrj 
iroKKa roiavra flvai {Xen. An. 2, 5, 13). Ylvvddvopai peXXeiv Ar]pn(T6ev7]v kut- 
apiBpiicrdai npos vpds, ocra nenoXiTevTai. {^sch. 3, 54). (Ev vvv (TTiaTo) ravde jx 
al(Txvvr]v e'xeii'. So2)h. El. 616.) Viy vmctkci} has the ace. with inf (not the par- 
ticiple) in the sense perceive, assume, consider. Kupos dyavas KaT€aTi]a€v airdvrav, 
onoaa iyiyvuxTKev dcTKeicrOai dyaOov eivM vno crTpaTiaToyv {Xen. Cj/r. 2, 1, 22). 
{TiyvuKTKCL), gire sentence that something shall he done, — see § 164.) 'ATro^aiVco, 
aTTo^aiVo/nai, f?ec^«re (that something is ; not to prove), has the ace. with inf-: 
dii€(pr]vav tovto hiKaiov to'is dpxop-evois elvai {PL Rep. 338, e). 

Rem. 7. Ivvoihd tivi r]8iK.7]iieva {Dem. 21, 2) and (the meaning of o-w almost 
disappearing) 'Ewicracn tovs npo avTav TeTvpavvevKOTas tovs pev vno tu>v yovtutv 
dvr]pr) pfvovs, Tovs 8e vtvo tcov Tvaibav, tovs 6e vtv d8eX(p5>v {Isocr, de Pac. 113). 
"Zivoiba €p.avTca i-^evcrp-ivos and (■^evajxevco. 

b) So likewise a participle is attached to the object, to complete the 
predicate; with the verbs iravco, cause a person to have done with some- 
thing, TrepiopS), overlook (allow something' to be done before one^s 
eyes); and (more for the purpose of merely denoting a circumstance) 
with ehpidKw, KaraXapijSdvo), cpcopci), jind, catch a person doing- some- 
thing- (passive dXlaKo/jiat), ttolm, represent in a poem, €yypd(f)co, lay an 
information: Trjv (bi\oao(f)lav iravaov ravra Xeyovcrav {PL Gorg. 483). 
"Kjxa Si-v/rwy re TreiravfiaL koX ci/xa rjS6jj,evo<; Bia tov irlveiv {PL Gorg. 497) . 
M^ TrepilScofiev vfSpiadelaav Ti]V AuKeSalfiopa kuI KaTa<ppovi]66laav 
{Isocr. Arch/d. 108). ('^v with evpia-Kco omitted: 'Epe evprja-eTe ov Kakov ovS" 
iixprjCTTov, IscB. 7, 41.) (neptopw Tt ylyvea-dai., tovs '^lavTivds apx^iv ttjs 'ApKadias, 
Thuc. 5, 29, = ew.) 

In a special manner (mostly, however, in the poets) a participle of the aorist is ^ 
joined to the verb e'xo) as apposition to the subject, to denote at once the jJ^ 
preceding action and the present state, almost as a mere periphrasis of the perfect: ' -^' 

' Mepv-qpai, olba, ore {i-jviKo) — , I rememljer the time when — . 
- Mavddvm opxelcrBai, eTriorTap.ai. Xeyav, p-ip-vrjao dnKTTelv, &c., by § 145, do not come 
under this head. 

CHAP. VI.] M 2 



i64 The Participle. [§ i8o. 

lov 8' eywyf Bavfidiras e'x" ''■'^^*^ (Soj^h. Phil. 1362). Tov XJyoz/ aov irnKai davjiaa-as 
f;(Ci), oo-w KciWlco Tov irporepov cnrapyaa-a {PI. Phcud. 257). 

§ a) k participle stands, with or without the article, and with or with- 

l8o. out defining accessories, as attributive to a substantive, with the sense 

(423, of an adjective or of a relative periphrasis : IIoXi? KoXkei hia^ipovaa. 

^^^ 'Ai^>/p KCikoyi TreTraiSev/j.evo'i. O'nrpea^ei'i olirapa ^^CkItt'ttov 7refM(f)6evT€<;. 

'H Mva6)p \eia Xeyofievi] [the so-called loofy of ihe Mi/sknis ; the 

joroverhial M^sian hooij/). At Klokov V7]a-0L Ka\ovfM€vat {T/iuc. 3, 88). 

'Ev TTJ Mecro-771/ia TTore ova-r} <yfi [Thuc. 4, 3 ; in the land which loas once 

Me-ssenian). At aptcrrai hoKOvaai elvat ^V(T€L<; {Xen. Mem. 4,1,3). 

(On the position of the words when the participle, as attributive Avith the article, 

has accessory definitions, see § 9, E,. 1.) 

Rem. It should be remarked, however, that the participle perfect in Greek, 
much more rarely than in Latin {docttts, eruditus, rectus), assumes the signification 
of a pure adjective, merely denoting the property in general without reference to 
the action by which it was produced. ('Epprnpivo^.) On the other hand, the 
participial constructions, instead of the relative periphrases used in Latin, are 
rendered verj' frequent by the use of &v and hoKutv. 

(425) b) A participle with the article (with addition of ease and other 
definitions) can likewise stand substantively instead of a relative peri- 
phrasis of a person or thing (cf. § 14) : 01 KpaTovvT€<i. 'Hv Se 6 rrjv 
yvw/J^rjv TavTT] veliTOiV Y\.eiaavhpo<i [Thuc. 8, Gb). "ESti T-qv 7ro\iTi,K7]v 
a-o(f)ou'i TTOielv tou? irokira'^ Kal eV/o-T>)/i?;? fMeraSiSopaL, elnrep ejxeWev 
avrrj elvai ?} oi^ekovcrd re Kal €vSal/j,ova<i rroiovaa [PL Euthyd. 292). 
'A(peKT6ov TMv ToiovTcov Tu) cTMcppovelv Svv7](T0f^iv(p [Xoi. CoJiv . 4, 26).' 
Tlapa roi<i aplaTOL<; SoKovaiv elvac {Xen. Mem. 4, 2, 6). Tot? 'ApKd8a>v 
(T(peT€pois ova-i ^vppdxoi-s {Thuc. 5, 61; those of the Arcadians whotcere — ,partitively, 
see ^ 50 a). Tois ttws 8iaK(ipevovs XajSotei/ av ol ToiovTot padrjrds ; {Isocr. Aniid. 222 ; 
see 176 a, and 198 a.) 



Rem. 1. On the other hand, it is more rare for a participle without the article to be 
at substantively, to denote 
thing (cf. § 87 a): U\kopi 



put substantively, to denote indefinitely persons of a certain kind, or who do somc- 
' uev eni TroXXay vavs KfKTTjpfvovs {Jilen. Hell. 5, 1, 19). 




rpcov Aeyoi 

697. Elsewhere almost exclusively in the plural.) To denote a person as one 
who can, shall, tdll do something, the article is usually put to the pavticiple (of the 
future, i-arely of the present: jjersons luho do), both adjectively, and especially 



' Tivas Ka\fiv eSet irtpovs ; tuvs, or' e'-yo), yfyovvlas tj^t] rrjs flprjvrjs, ano TrjS vari- 
pas fJKo}v irpfo-lieias, ala^upfvos (pevaKiCopevrjv ri]v ttoKiv, 7Tpoi\fyov Kal hup-aprvpup-qv 
Ka\ ovK elm' npoiadai ILvXas ovdi ^coKeas, Xeyoiras, w? eyw dicTKoXos elpi tis avOpcciros 
(Bern. 6. 29). 

[part II. 



§ iSi.] The Participle. 165 

substantive!}" : OuSe Tov'i ^ovXovs viipl^eiv ol"EWr]ves d^iovcnv, dWa vcfxov d>inca-'a [§ 
rov Tuvra KaXvarovTa reBet-vrni [Dem. 21, 49). 'H X'^P" ttoAAj) km ayaOi] rjv Ka\ iSo.] 
ivr](Tav ol epyaaofjievoi (Xe». An. 2. 4, 22 ; j^^ople to till it). 'O T]yi](T6ixfvos ov8els 
(ovk) earai (JI'eH. ^?j. 2, 4, 6). (rioXAous- e^ofiev tovs iroiixas Kul TrpoBvpas (tvv- 
aycowfo/xeVous rjjuv. Isocr. de Pac. 139.) 

Eem. 2. The poets sometimes make a genitive case depend on a participle with 
the article, as if it were a substantive, e. g. 6 Ik^'lvov r«a)v [Eur. El. 335), In prose 
ol nposrjKovTe^, relations, and to (rvpcpepov, advantage, interest, are used quite as 
substantives (to ttjs i/ews (cat ToiV vavrcov avp(j)£pov, PI. Pol. 296 ; ra pi.Kpa avp<ji€povTa 
TTjs TToAeo)?, I)em. 18, 28). The poets and Tnuc3'dides Sduietimes us3 a present par- 
ticiple in the neuter, instead of an abstract verbal substantive, e. g. to voaovv ■=■ 
7] voaos. 'Ev TM pi) /xeXerwirt d^vveTaTepoi. €(rovTai [Thiic. 1, 142; hy ^oant, ov 
omission, of 2^ractice) ; piTa tov Spcopevov {Thuc. 5, 102; with action, xvlien there 
is doing). (Otherwise : to bQ^dC<^v Trjn ■^I'x^]^^ ^^'((t (part) of the mind ivhich rei^re- 
sents (images) ; to KpaToov Tr/s rrdXeuis. Partitive genitive, § 5u.) 

c) Some few present participles, viz. 8ia(f)epa)v, ex^}" with an adverb (e. g. koWktt 
exoiv), 7rposi]KCi>i', irpinuiv, 8eov, e'^oV, avp(f)epou, sometimes occur, as adjective predi- 
cate-nouns, with dpi or yiyvopai, occasionally also others in connexion with an 
actual adjective: Ti ttot earlv ovros 6 jiios eKeivov huK^tprnv ; (P/. Gorg. 5(.'0.) Toi? 
AaKebaipoviovs ov Sta ttjv dperrjv avTav ecraxTaTe, dXk' on avpcj^epov rju tj] irvKfi acos 
flvai (Dem. 19, 75). Ael ttoXw pev Toijs apxovTas (nipfXea-Tepovs yeveaOm tovs vvv to>v 
Ttpuadev, TToXv Se tovs dpxopepovs evTaKTore povs Kal rreidopevovs puWov rot? 
cipxova-L vvv Tj Tvpoadev (2^en. An. 2, 2, 3U). 

d) A participle of the present or aorist with elpl, as a periphrasis of the simple 
tense of the verb (in like manner as the participle pert'., uncler certain circumstances, 
is joined with dpi) is a poetical licence of not very frequent occurrence; in the 
prose passages where it does occur, there is apt to be a certain emphasis in the 




^Hf piv ovv pfTo. TToWrjs f/Sof^? KOL TTaiSttis TOTf duovopeva (PI. Tim. 26). H tovto 
OVK e(TTi yiyvdpevov Trap' rjpiv ; (PL Phil. 39; or, is not this a thing that takes 
2)lace — .^) ^Hv yap 6 QepiaTOKXijs [deliaioraTa (pvaeas Icrxvv Br^'Kuiaas Kal Sta0epcWa)ff 
Ti is avTo pdWov eTepov d^uis davpdaat (Thuc. 1, 138; a man who, in a 2>re-:mlnent 
degree, manifested — ). (With yiyvopai in command and prohibition: Mr], u> ^eve, 
Tjplv TT]V ye Trpi>Trjv alTr^aavTav X"/-"^ dnapvrjde'Ls yevrj. PL ooph. 21/.) 




']) is (in the manner assigned in § G6,b) 
tence, where a simple partieiple could not be annexed, to denote the rela- 
tion of time of the principal action, its way and manner, circumstances, 
ground or cause, &c., as the simple participle would do : Tew/^ awijudrcov 
6rfKvvo[Mevu)V Kal al '^v)(ul ttoXv appaxTTOTepac yijvovTai (Xen, Gicon. 
4, 2 ; if — ). Ovk av rjXdov Bevpo, v/u,o)V /u,?) KtXeuadvTOiV. "OXrj^ rfj^ 
TToXeo)? iv T0t9 iroXniiLKol^ KLvhvvoL^ imrpe'TTOfievrj<i tco crrpaTT^^/w, lUeyaA-a 
ra T dyaOa KaTOpdovvTO<i avrov Kal to, kuko, hiajJbaprdvovro'i eLKo<i 74- 

CHAP. VI.] 



1 66 The Participle. [§ 1 8 1 . 

[§ jveaOai {Xen. Mem. 3, 1, 3; where the tvhole ciit/ is made over — , — if 
i^i-] he SKCceetis, &c.). Ol P^tj^ulol rj/BovKovro rrjv UXaTaiav eVt iv elp'^vrj 
T€ Koi Tov TToXefxou /u,r]7r(o (f)av€pov Ka6earoiTo<i (= jejevrifiivov) irpoKa- 
ToKajSeiv [ThltC. 2, 2). (AcfiLKero 8€vpoTu7r'ko'Lov,yv6vTaiv Tu>vKe(paXXT]vo}V,dvTi- 
TTpaTTOVTOs Z7]m6efii8os. odev e^firXevae to ttKoiov, ivravOa Kul Karan'kel.u avTo. Dem. 
32, 14; u-/ieu tlie Ceph. had determined, in spite of Z.'s resistance, — . A double- 
£yenitive attached to another. Tt rmv 'PcoKecov fj aWov rivhs apdpijnrcov yueTo rovs trap 
Ala-x'ivov \6yovs e^apaprovTOS ovk oTre'/Sr; to vn avrov Tore prjdivTa ; Dem. 19, 75 ; 
for u-hat oj^ence of the JPhocians — / See § 176, a.) 

Eem. 1. The learner must observe, that as the Greek has the whole series of 
active participles, the use of the passive double-genitive (as in Latin) is hereby- 
excluded, when the action spoken of is that of the subject of the principal sen- 
tence : Havra tlTTuvres aTTr]p.ev, not TovTav Xcx^eVraiv, which signifies, after this was 
said hy others. 

Rem. 2. The relation between the principal sentence and the participial sentence 
is more specifically^ marked, as is the case with the simple participle, by certain ad- 
verbs: fee § 175. Hodiv, « ScoKparej, ai diajSoXai aoi avraiyfyvi'aa-Lv; ov yap 8r] nov, 
aov ye ovSev rav iiXku>v TrepiTTOTfpov Trpayparevopevov, fTreiTa ToaavTq (piiprj re Kai 
Xdyoy yiyovev {PI. Apol. 20). "i^rjCJiLcrpa eypayl/a nXelv eVt Tovi Tonovs, iv oh fir] $iAi7r- 
TTo?, KttL Tovs opKOVi Ti-jV Ta)(^iaTrjv atro'kapL^aveiv, Iv i-)(6vTav rmv QpaKav twv vp-ere- 
pcov crvppdx<>iv ra x^p'i-'^ ravra, to 2eppLov Ka'i to MvpTiov Ka\ ttjv 'EpylcrKrjv, ovto) 
yiyvoivff ol opKoi (Dem. 18, 27). Aiowarobiopov peTo^v TavTa XeyovTOs 6 KXeivias 
eTvxev aTTOKpLvapevos {PI. Euthyd. 275). Especially frequent is the double- 
genitive with (OS, to express the thoii(/ht and supposition ov pretext underjwhich 
somelhiiigjs^ spoken or done {Jjecaiise^as thougji) : ^vWiSas koi MeWau (KrjpvTTov 
i^ievai TTCivTas QrjlBaiovs, ois tu>v Tvpavvav TedvfaTcov (JL'ew. Mell. 5, 4, 9). Ou;)^ cos 
Tols "EWijai TToXeprjaovTcov rjpwv ilnov, a (Ittov {2^en. An. 5, 6, 3). Ct. § 175 d. 
Especially note the use of the double-genitive with ws in connexion with verbs or 
phrases denoting an opinion or utterance, to^ssign the p urpo r t of t he_ppinion or 
uttcraiice {to he of opinion, as thoucjli, i.e. tliat something should he c?OKe), usually 
with the imperative, or at least in speaking of that which is to be thought or 
sjolcen (oftijnjwith emphatic oyrioj before the principal verbj^atl er the genitive) : 
'i2j Ipov -ye Kai dy(iiVi.ovpkvov Kai, ottoToS av tis d), KaTO. Ttjvd^lav Tipacrdai, d^iuxrovTos, 
ovTcos, 0} Kiipe, yiyvwarKe (JTew. Ci/r. 2, 3, 15). 'Os ep.ov Iovtos, orrq av Ka\ vpe'is, 
ovTco TTjv yi'oiprjv ex^Te {JLen. An. 1, 8, 6). "AWo tl as ovt(o aov vopi^ovTos Smi/oco- 
lif6u ; {Pt. Gorff. 472 ; are we not to assume that this is your opi7iio>i / On ciWo ti, 
see § 199 c.) E'inaTe Ka\ irtpl tovtov, TroTepa pevt'iTe Kai crirovbai daiv r) its TroXfp.ov 
ovTos Trap vp.av imayyikai {Xen-. An. 2, 1, 21 ; or, whether I shall repiort — ). 
("O-v/zeo-^e, wSTTep dovXuv aTrodLdpaarKovTcov evpi]p.€va>v, Tois pev iKeTevovTus Tcov tto- 
Xepicov, TOVS §€ <}j€vyovTas. Xen. Cyr. 4, 2, 21 ; just as when — .) ^ 

Eem, 3. Sometimes a double-genitive and a simple participle referred to a case 
(most frequently the subject) in the principal sentence, are connected by and, or by 
fxiv and Se as co-ordinate definitions (e. g. of time, cause, thought, &c.) : KXewv TtavTa 
8La7rpa^dp.evos iv Tfj eKKXrjcria ku) yl/^ijcpLo-apevcov 'Adrivaiav avT^ tov ttXovv toiv t€ ev 

1 'O vopos OVK ia Trepi tcov aTipav \eyfLv, iav p.i) Trjs ddeias 8o6e[arjS {Dem. 24, 46). 
See § 175 e, foot-note 1 {a). 

[part II. 



§ 1 8 1.] The Participle. 167 

rit^Xa) (TTparr^ycov evn TTpojeXo/ifi'of Arifxo(T0evr]v rrjv dvaya}yr]i> 8ia raxovs eTTOifiro [§ 
(T/nic.'i,2'J}. Ol''i:\\T]ves <TTpa(p€VT€s Tvapea-KevdCovTo cos ravTrjirposLuuTos jiacnXeo)! iSl.] 
KOI de^ofifvoi (A'e«. An. 1, 10, G). 

Rem. 4 «:) The subject-genitive in a double-genitive is sometimes omitted, wlien 
it is a pronoun easy to be understood from the context and the preceding mention 
of the same subject, and with no emphasis on it: EIttovto 6e rols MoaawniKOLS tuu 
''EKkT]V(ov Tives, ov rax^devTfs vno rav arpaTijyioi' dXX' dpnayijs eveKev. Oi Se noXepioi, 
TTposioPTCOv, T((x)S p.ev TjcrvxnC'^v, eVei 6' iyyvs iyevovro tov ^'^ptou, (K8pap6vT€i 
TpiTTovrai avTovs {Xeu. An. 5, 4), 16). (The pronoun of the first person omitted 
in an assurance by the speaker himself attached to what goes before : 'Epwra, ecjirj, 
S) Kvpe, cos TdXrjdr] ipovvros, A.en. Cyr. 3, 1, 9.) 

b) Sometimes the double-genitive is a participle plural with an indefinite 
subject of the third person understood {the i^eople ; one) (cf. § 6 b) : Ovk e^airov- 
p.ei>os, OVK 'Ap(f)i.KTVoviKds diKas eTvayovTcov, ovk dneiXovvrcou, ovk inayyiKXopivcov, 
ov8afj.a>s eyw npoSedcoKa rrjv els vfj-ds evvotav (Dem. 18,322 ; not when I was demanded 
to he given up, not when they iverefor bringing me to trial before the Amphictyons). 

c) A. double-genitive of participle without a subject is formed from impersonal 
expressions with adjectives in the plural {eroipd ianv, § 7 b. R. 2), or from a verb 
put impersonally to which some general notion of things can be understood as its 
subject (e. g. '4xei, iirpdxOr]), usually in the plural, and from the verbs denoting 
the state of the weather (§ 7, a 1). (Comp. the double-accusative, § 182) : "En 
ovTcov uKpircov 8iaXXaycopfv {Thuc. 1, 7). Ovtcos exdvrcov {under such circnmstances, 
such being the case, more rarely oZtcos (xovtos), eiKos toIs p-tv iroXep-iois ivavriovs 
elvai Tovs 6eovs, rip.lv be avppdxovs {Xen. An. 3, 2, 10). Tovtov tov rpuwov 
TTpaxdfVTCov, Tfjs 7r6Xecos yiyveraL rd xprjpara {Dem. 24, 12 ; stick being the facts of 
the case). 'AXkij^iciStj? dvrjydyero eVi ttjv Kv^ikov, vovtos ttoWov {Xen. Hell. 1, 1, 16). 

d) A passive participle neuter (usually plural, cf. c) of a verhum declarandi is (429) 
sometimes put in the double-genitive, with a sentence with ort added : HepiK\rjs 
ax^TO Kara rdxos eVi Kavvov Koi Kapias, esayyeXdevrcov, on <I>oti/i(rcrat vt]es em tovs 
'Adrjvaiovs TrXeovcnv {Thuc. 1, 116 ; but briXcodevros, on — , 1, 74). 

Rem. 5. The omission of the participle av in the double-genitive is very rare : 
ndv ev rjcrvxf^, Trarep, e^fcrn (pcovelv, cos epov pvvrjs neXas {Soph. (Ed. C 83). 
(Nt/ctav Kcii Aripoadevrjv ol 'SvpaKovcTLot, ukovtos TvXiTTTrov aTrea-cpa^av, Thuc. 7, 86, 
and ipov ovx ckovtos, Soph. AJ. 455, as if eKcov, ukcov were participles.) 

Rem. 6. The double-genitive is usually put only where the subject of the par- (428, 
ticiple does not stand in the principal sentence in some other case to which the R. 5) 
participle might attach itself. Sometimes, however, although the subject of the 
participle does so occur, the double-genitive is nevertheless used, in order to give 
more prominence to the participial sentence as a special cii-cumstance : ALajBe^rj- 
' KOTOS 7J8r] HepiKXeovs (TrpaTiq es EvjSotav, r]yyeX6r] avTW, on Meyapa d(f)ecTTr]Kev 
{Thuc. 1, 114). Tptwv 6vpcov ovaav, ns e8ei pe BieXdelv, dnacrai. dvecoypevai eTVXOV 
{Lys. 12, 16). Su pev cos (pdcrKovros el8evai nepl coi^ e'pcoTco, Trpos(f)epri npos epe {PI, 
Charm. 165 ; ep.ov omitted agreeably with the concluding remark in R. 4, a). 

Rem. 7. Sometimes a substantive takes a participle as apposition, and then, by 
means of a preposition, especially apa or crvv, is attached to a sentence as a defini- 
tion of time : "Apa rjXico dvicrxovTi yXde npoxX^?, 6 Tevdpuvias apx(^P {Xen. An. 2, 

CHAP. VI.] 




1 68 TJic Participle. [§182. 

[§ 
181.] 

TTefiTTTco ^eru 2vpaKovaas olKia6ei(Tas, Thnr. 6, 3. 'Etti Kc'Spou ^ 

84. 'EttI x'^-'»" Treaova-r], Hdt. 2, 22. after t/iefalliiiff ofunotv, after it has snowed.) 

\ Instentl of the douLle-g-enitive, the aecnsative {douhle-accusafive 

J 3 -7 [ficcnsatlve alsohde]) of impersonal verbs is used (e. g-. heov, i^ov, 
TTpo'irjKov, irapey^ov, fxeXov, /xera/xeXov, also Iokovv, Bo^av, as [zv/ien, 
since] it is, was, decreed) or of passive verbs used impersonally 
(with an infinitive added, e. g. irpo'iraxOev, elprj/jLevov, jevofievov 
iir i/jLol, as it toas in m// poiver, &c.), or of impersonal expressions 
of elfxL and an adjective (e. g\ ahiivarov op). The doubl e-accusative 
is also used of impersonal expressions (e/^e iroujaovTa} after &)? and 
oi^Trepy in tdie oi)mwn^ snjjjiosition^h that^ ox,.as iliQimh.'- "Orav 

dvajKaadfi xi? Svolv kukolv to erepov aipelaOai, ovhels to fxel^ov 
alprjaerai, e^bv Toe\aTTOv{\\z.alpelo6aL. fl.Frot. 35S). OV kQr)valoi 
fxeTefxeXovTO, on fiera ra ev lIi;A.w, Kokox; 'irapaa')(OV , ov ^vve/Srjaav 
[Time, h, 14; a favourable opportunity having offered). '11? KOpo? 
e'yevero ev M^^Soi?, avvho^av ra irarpl Kol rfj fj,r]rpi,'ya/jietrrjv Kva^apov 
Ovyarepa {Xen. Cfr. S, 5, 28). IIpo<iTax0^v ixoi vtto tov StjfMovMevwva 
TOP arpaTrijov ayetv ek '^X\.i]<i'7rovTOV, (p-)(6jxrjv ava'yo/j.evo'; Sia Tu')(ov<i 
{Levi. 5U, 12 ; I put to sea with speed). Ot ^vpaKovcjiOi 'jrapeKekevovTO 
Kpavyrj ovk oki'yr) 'X^pcofxevoL, ahvvarov ov ev vvktI aXko) rw a't]^rjvai, 
[TJlUC. 7, 44). Ki'po? avTitvapea-Kivd^eTo eppwixevus, cos pc'XV^ ^'^ ^^Wov {Xe?i. Ci/r. 
6, 1. 26). Olpai TO T7Xf]6os -^ricpie'Ladai., a l:iuv'K6pe6a, cipa pkv vp.(ov avvayopevov- 
rwv, apa te Kal alaxpov tv avrtyyav (Xen. Cj/r. 2, 2, 20). 0( TTarepe^ Tok 
vleU uTTO TO)V TTOvrjpMV avOpcoTTcov el'pyovatv, ft)? rr]v fiev roiv -^prjcnwv 
OfiiXlav daKi]criv ovaav t?}? dperrj^, rr]v Se Ta)V7T0V7]p(bv KardXvaiv {Xen. 
Mem. \, -l, 20). ' Aire (3Xe->^ are irpo'? aXXyXov^ co? avTO<i p^ev eKacrra 
OV TTonjawv to ho^av, top Be irXrjo-iov irpd^ovra [Detii. 14, 15). 'Evtot 
^IXov; p.ev ktcoptui co? ^orjOoiv heopevoi, twi' 8' dheX<^o)P apeXovcriv, 
co?7rep e/c iroXiTOiV pev 'yiyvop^evovi cplXov^, e^ d8eX(p(hv S' ov ytyvopevovi 
{Xen. Hem. 2, '3, S).' 

Rem. 1. After verbs that themselves express opinion, the double-accusative with 
^s of personal verbs is very rarely put instead of the double-genitive with cos 
(§ 181, R. 2) ; but where the notion of thinking is merely implied in the as, the 
double-accusative is even more usual than the double-genitive. 

Rem. 2. It is very rare to meet with the double-accusative of a personal expres- 
sion without as (with ov or a participle which is commonly used impersonally, or 



1 Hence tvxw, properly, it having chanced, as it happened, is used quite as an 

adverb, perchance, mayhap. 

■^ [part II. 



§183.] The Participle. 169 

with the neuter of a pronominal word as subject), e.g. irposPiKov ifiolrov KXripov [5 
IJiepos {Isce. 5, 12). "HSt; ap^fyoTtpois fxev doKodv dvax'^pelv, kv p a> 6 iv 8e ovdev, li>2.i 
OTTtjvUa xpn oppdaBaL, ol MafceSoVey KaraaTUVTes es al^fiviSiov (l)vyr)v ex^powi' fir 
oiKov (T/iiic. 4, 125).^ 

Rem. 3. Now and then in this construction the participk^wi/ is omitted :'Apa 
Ti]v dimrdv pnv (pavXiCea w? i]ttov pev vyuiva iuBiovTO^ ipov rj (tov, tjttov beiaxyv 
TTapexovra, j] u,s x«^f7i"coTepa (viz. ovra) TTopla-aadai to. e'/ict bimTTjpaTa twv au>v Ota 
TO TToAuTfXeoTepa eluai ; (iiTew. ]\Ic'in. 1, G, 5.) 

The Tenses of the Particijde, present, perfect, and aorist,_ correspond § 
\ 'ith the same tenses of the indicative (so that the aorist is a prajter- 183. 
turn) : "Hy;U77^ei^^fuV«//,at KaKov ae ireiroLT^KOi^ firjhe IBov\ri6ei<i, ov kul crv 
av 6fioXoy7]creL'i vtt e/Jiou /j,7]Sev uhiKeladai ; {Xen. Cj/r. 5, 5, lo ; t/iat 1 
have done thee no evil, neither wished J to do thee any.) Usually hiiKwpi 

TrenoirjKa^, 8. Tivd TveiToi-qKOTa, corresponding with Ttetvoirjua or nenoirjKev as judg- 
ment on the com]deted relation. For examples of the tenses generally, see the 
preceding paragraphs. Hence after a verb of past time (since the par- 
ticiple denotes the time in reference to the principal action) the par- 
ticiple of the present answers to the imperfect, that of the perfect to 
the plusquamperfect, that of the aorist to a more remote past (as 
aorist, not as perfect) : Tavra elirovTes airrikOov (= eVetS^ ravra e^T^o^j* 
'ETTfc'Sei^a Ala-x^ii^i-jv ovhev dXrjOh uirrj^yekKora aXXa (pevaKtaavd vfMaf 
[Deni. 19, 177. = Ovhev a\7]6k aTrijyyeXKev iiXX e^evaKtaev vfid<;. 
The former said in tfeneral, the latter of a particular matter of fact). 

('O rrv yva>fxr)v ravrr^v elncov nei(Tav8pos rjv, Time. 8, 68, as a circumlocution = 
eliTiv. Tis rju 6 iio-qdi-jo-ai rovs BvCavriovs kcu craxras avTovs ; ris S' 6 rf] iroXei Xtyaiv 
Kal ypdcpcov Kal npuTTau ; Bern. 18, 88 = i^oridr^a^v — eXeyev—eypaCpev — eVparrei'.) 

Rem. 1. Sometimes, even after a verb of present time, the participle present 
has the sense of the imperfect, where an anterior time is either plainly denoted by 
the conte.\t or by the addition of rcre : Upos pev rovs ^t'Xov? re Koi npos rovs 
TTuXiras ravra vpds naldas ouras edLduaKopeV oncos 6e TToXepiovs bvvaiade kukus 
irou'iv, ovK olada pavddvovras vpcts TToXXds Kanovpyias ; {Xeyi. Cijr.^ -'-'^ *^' '-^'^ 
^ KyavaKrovaiv los peydXcov rivav dneoiTep-qpevoi Ka\ rore ph (viz. on veoi rjcrav) ey 
Ciiin-es, vdv 8e ovSe (^vrfS (PL Hep. 1, 329). Ot re iv no 8iKa(Trr]pico rore 8iKd- 
(ovres Koi rcov t^mQev Trapovroiv ttoXAoi ravra avviaaaiv {Deiii. 30, 32). " 

Rem. 2. Sometimes, after a verb in the aorist or historical present, an aorist 
participle stands as apposition to the subject, not to denote an earlier but a con- 
temporary (single and momentary) action (in tJiat, hy —, and), so that the past is 
specially denoted in the action of the participle, just as itwould be in a verhumfinitum 
with and, &c. : Eu iirolriaas dvapv^aas pe {Ft. Ftiad. 60; 1/0U did tvell to remind me; 



1 From 86^av we have also 86^au radra {Xen. An. 4, 1, 13) for roira^v 8o^dvru>v 
{Xen. Hell. 5, 2, 24). ^ ^ , ^ . ,1 

2 Ot otxo/iefot, ttie departed, dead, from o'lxopai (see § 110 a, E. 2),o (pevycov, the 
hanixtipd. Poetically, ot 6vr]aKovriS, 1) riKrojaa, for ot 6av6vres, /; rfKovaa. 

CHAP. VI.] 



1^0 TJie Participle. [§184. 

[§ in that thou didst remind me). "HS?? TrwTrore ?; iir]Tr)p r; 8aK0v(ra kukqv t'i (toi i'Sa)Kev ^ 

183.] XanTLaaaa; (Xen. Mem. 2, 2, 7-) Kipcoi/ eKStScocrt ri)i/ Bvyartpa Nauo-i/ieVfi nevre 
Koi f'LKOcrt fjLvas eViSovs {Is(P. 8, 8)- 'O ^pvuLxos Tre/xTiet ws roi^ 'Acrriio^^oi', tcov 
AaKfdaifioviav vavapxov, Kpxx^a i-maTiikas, on 'AXki^ioSt;? avraiv ra npayp-ora 
(jiOeipei {Thnc. 8, 50; and c/ave him to understand. Shortly afterwards : 'o'AXki- 
/§ia8r;s Tre/xTret evBvi Kara ^pvvixov ypdp.p.aTa eV ttjv 2dp.oj' a^iSiv avrw dnodvi](TK€iv). 
Especially note, that with the aorists eXadov and e(f)drjv (or Xavddvco and <p6civu as 
historical present) the participle annexed (by § 177)_ for a single, transient action, 
is always pnt in the aorist, and only Avhere an abiding condition (property) is 
denoted, stands in the present. This aorist of the participle remains, even where the 
principal verb is aorist without preterite signification (subjunctive, imperative, opta- 
tive, or infinitive), and with the future indicative. Also with the aorist o^nepiopdv 
(§ 178 b) and sometimes of ec/jopai/, in all the moods (Trepu'So), &c.) the participle 
stands in the aorist for a transient action : "EXadev cicpBevTa ndvTa koi laaTafpXfxSivTa 
{Thuc. 4, 133). Spi/cpof f(l)6r]S pe epvpevos {PI. Pot. 293). 'O Trefo? (TTparos twv 
' AdijvaiMi' (j)6dp{i dvajdds em rds 'ETrtTroXos 7Tp\v tovs ^vpaKovaiovs Trapayei'ecrBai 
{Thuc. 6. 97). ^QJiovpeda ntpl KXeLVLa, pr] tis 4>^U '7i"-"^ ^''^' dWo ri emTySevpa 
Tpfi|/as avTov Tr]v hidvoiav [PL Muthyd. 275). BovXoipTjv civ, cikovtos aTViiiv Kypov, 
Xadfiu avTOV dneXduiv {Xen. An. 1, 3, 17). EvXa^etcr^e, ottoos prj irepa tov deovTos 
ao(pcx}Tepoi yempevoi XrjcreTe 8ia(j)dapiVTes {PI. Gorg. 487). Tovs dvOpconovs Xijcropev 
{niTTfcrovTes {Xen. An. 7, 3, 43). Aeopai vpwv, a avdpes biKaaTai, ^or]6e'LV rjplv /cat 
p.r] TTepuhfiv vno tcov ex^pwv dvaipedevras (Lj/s. 19. 64 ; not to allow us to be 
destroyed, ruined, transient action). — ''EXdOopev rjpds airovs 7rai8cov ovoev dmcfie- 
povres {PI. Crit. 49). Olpai tre noXXd fxtpipvav ottcos prj XdBtjs (ravTov dyvoav n 
TO}v ds a-Tparriyiav uCpeXipcov {Xen. Mem. 3, 5, 23). Alcrxwoipriv dv,el TrepudoipL 
TTJV X'^pav, r]v t]p7u ol Trarepe? KaTeXnrov, Tavrqv tovs olKeTas tovs rjpeTipovs i'xovTas 
{Isocr. Archid- 8). (After 6^6r]v an occasion for the present can rarely happen.)' 

Ee3I. 3. With the article, the participle of the aorist sometimes approximates 
to that of the perfect : Ol davovTes. 'O tci i'pya 7rape(Txr]KU}S, Trept a>v elaiv ol Xoyoi, 
biKaioTUT uv TavTTjv e'xoi ttjv oItuiv, ovx o eaK€pp.€Pos ouS' 6 p€pifxvT]aas tu 6t/<ata 
XeyiLv vvv {Dem. 21, 192). 

§ [The Participle with av.) The participle of the present and aorist 

184. with dv is used in a hypothetical and potential signification, so that it 
corresponds partly with the imperfect and aorist of the indicative with 
dv, partly, and that more frequently, with the present and aorist of the 
optative with dv. (The aor. as in the opt. or inf. with the signification of 
a dubitative future.) In this manner the participle may stand both 
to denote a circumstance (§ i-l^), and also after the verbs mentioned 
in §§ 177, 178, in circumlocutions with the article, and in the double- 
genitive or double-accvisative. (By this means, the Greek has often a brevity 
and flexibility of expression unattainable by languages in which such a hypothetical 
statement must necessarily be expressed by a finite verb.) c) (Corresponding 
with indicat. with dv) : 'H/ie?? eVel yjKovcra/jbev, on iarl tl Xolttov epyov, 

^ AeXrjdapev dp(j)0T€pQiv ds to ptcTov TreTTTcoKOTe? {PL Thecet. 180). KaraTeiuas 
{awTelvas) Xeyio, epcb {PI. Bep. 2, 358), as forcibly as lean; i. e, with exertion of 
all my nomers {after colleciing them and bending them to the task). 

[part II. 



§185.] Connexion of Sentences. i/i 



€^6pydaaa6aL, a-vveaKvOpwTrdaafjLev, ov (f)ol3ov/jievoi, dWdireTroLijadat, [§ . 
i]8r] Kal TovTO jBovkofxevoi [Xeu. Ci/r. Q, 'Z, Zl, = on- ij/dovXofxed' dv ^ ^^^■ 



heiet 
av 

Kal T. IT.). ^PlXiTTTTO'i HorlSuLap eXojy Kal SvvtjOeU dv aurof ex^i'V, et 
i^ovXijOr], X)Xvv6L0L<i -napehcoKev [Deiiu 23, 107, = rjSvvrjdr) dv). Ey 
laOc /xi]8ev dv /j,e tovtcov i7ri,')(^eipj']aavTd ae nreideiv, et ovvaaTetav fiovov 
Kal ttXoutov kdipcov i^ avrwv yevrjaofievov [Isocr. P/iil. 1-13). — 0) 
(Answering- to the optative with dv) : Oi 'lipaKXeov<; TratSe? rd^ fiev 
dWa'; TToXei? vTrepecopcov to? ovk dv 8vva/jieva<; jBorjOrjcrai ral^ eavTcov 
ovfxcpopal^, Ti]v S' i]fj,eTepav iKavr]v evofXL^ov elvat /jLovtjv [Isocf. Panty. 
50, = oio/xisvoL OVK dv BvvacrOac = ovk dv Svvaivro). O AptcrrtTTTro? 
€p-)(erai 7rp6<; rov Kvpov Kal alrel avrov ek S^x''^^"^^ ^evov<; Kal rpidiv 
/jbrjvcbv /jLiaOov co? ovrco'i TrepLyevofjueva dv tcov dvTiaTaaicorwv [Xen. An, 
1, 1, 10), 'EvpicTKco ravTTjv fMovrjv dv yevo/Jiivrjv tcov Tvapovrwv KaKOiV 
diraWayi'^v, ijv ideXijacofiev eKeivrjv Tr}v hr^fioKpariav dvaXajSelv, rjv 
"^oXcov ivo/xodeTTjaev {Isocr. Areop. 16. On )]v ideXi]awiMev in the con- 
dition, see § 1-35, R. 1, a). AiaKeKpliJt,€6a X&^pt? xa? re Kadapd<; rj8ovd<i 
Kal Td<i crxeSov dKa6dpTov<i 6pdco<; dv \e;)^^etcra<? {PL Phil. 53 = at 
UKadapTOL opdo)^ dv Xe^^^etez^). 'Eyco dixi [belong to; am one of those) tZv 
Tj^eai jiev av iXeyx^fVTav, e'i tl fxi) a\rj6ei Xe'yo), l]8eu)S S' av eXey^avTMV, e'l rls Ti fir] aXrjdes 
Xeyot, OVK ar]be(TTfpov jxevT av eXey^devrcov i) iXey^avrav {PI. Goi'ff. 458). SevoCpcov 
SiajSas Ti-jv )(apd8pav cri/v toIs Xo;^dyoT? (CTKone'iTO, Trorepov e'1,1] KpelrTOv anayayeiv Kai tovs 
BiajSejSrjKOTas i) Kal tovs onXlras Stn/St/Sci^etv, cos aXovros tiv rod xaipiov (AeH. An. 5, 2, 
8; in the hope that the place m'ujht betaken). 'EXttiXo) ravs' A.dr]vaiovs KarairXayevras 
TM dSo/ojrw KaraXvaai av rov nXovv, aXXcos re kul rod ffi-neipordrov tcov crTparrjyuiv 
aKOvros rjyovjjiivov Ka\ dafxevov av ■np6(pacriv XajSovros, e'l n d^LO^pecov dcfi r]jx(>iv ocpBeirj 
(2711(0.6, Sis; especially/ as the most exp)et'ienced of their generals takes the commaml 
against his will, and might, or would, gladly catch at a pretext — ). (Xpco/xe^a tm 
v6p,ci rovTCO eiSoTfS koi i/iias av Kal cikXovs, ev rfj avrj] 8vvdp.et rjpiv yevoftevovs, opcov- 
ras av avrd. Thuc. 5, 105 ; double av as with the infinitive, see § 173, E. 1.) ' 

Rem. The participle of the future with liv rests (in the Attic style) on passages 
in which the reading is corrupt (Xu7rjjcra)i/ or Xvivrjo-as av, not Xvurfacov av) -. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Pecnliarities in the connexion of Co-ordinate Sentences, and of 
Principal and Accessory Sentences. Interrogative Sentences. 

a) Co-ordinate sentences (in prose) are connected coj)ulatively 

' OvSe ravra TiixoKpdrrjs tiTrXoir Kal aSoXco? (^avi](T€Tai, yeypat^coj, aXX q)S av fidXia-rd 
Tis vjius e^anarrjo-ai fiovXopevos (Dem. 21, 79. Elliptical tiv, as § 139 c). (EtVat rcov 
bvvarcov tiv Kplvat, PI. Rep. 9, 577, one of those who might he able ; civ belonging to 
the omitted ovrcov.) 

[- Kriiger defends this construction. — Ed.] 

CHAP. VII.] 



185. 



1/2 Cojincxion of Sentences. [§ 185. 

[§ by Kal, and [re, and), re — Kai, or, /cat — Kai, hofh — and, and (with 

* ^'^ negation) by ovhe, and also not, ovre — ovre, neither — nor. (Te after 

the connected word or the first word of the second clause = qne^ 

Rem. 1. A single re for Kai, by which the second member is joined to the first as 
an addition, is poetical, and very rarely occurs in prose : Tto-mv hi. Yopylav re ida-ofxev 
evhdv (Pt. Fhccd. 267). Thucydides uses re to connect a new sentence which serves 
to corroborate, continue, or enlarge upon the preceding one (almost in the manner 
of K.a'i — Se) : Kai I^^XP'- '''ovbe noXka tI)? 'EXXciSos rw naXuio) rpcTvw vefierai, nepi T€ 
AoKpovi rovs 'O^cXas Koi AItcoXovs kul ^ AKapvavas Koi ttjv ravTr] yjnfLpov. To re 
cridripocjinpf'icrdai tovtois rols i]Tr(ipd>Tais dno rrji naXaias XijaTeias ipiiie^ivrjKiv [T/iUC.^ 
1, 5). (On re — ovre, ovre — re, see Negations.) ■ 

Eem. 2. By annexing a Se to Kai {kuI — be), the new member acquires pro- 
minence as a special corroboration and enlargement of the preceding {and — 
too, and also) : To. TrapanOepeva del '[era avru) te to3 Kupw kcu rois KaXovp-evois em 
demvov I'jv Ka\ rovs n/x^i to (TTpaTevp.a be VTn]peTas laop-oipovs navrav aei erroiei 
{S^en. Ci/r. 2, 1, 31). "Htbei Kvpos 'Apra^ip^rjv, on p.eaov e'xoi rod IlepaLKov arparfv- 
fiaros. Kul Trdvres b' ol rav jSapjSdpcov cipxovTes p.ecrov exovreg fjyovprai (-STeH. jin. 
1, 8, 22). 

Eem. 3. By Kai — Kai the two connected members are marked each by itself, as 
several and co-ordinate members, more strongly than by the usual re - — Kai, bj' 
which they are rather connected so as to form a whole : Kal ^wi^ Kal re\evTT}a-as 
(PI. Pep. 3, 414). Knl irparov Kal p-aXicrra {Pt. Pep. 3, 415). Kal aiirol efxaxovro 
Kal rols oXXots TvapeKeXevovro [Nen. Cijr. 3, 3, GS). KoXXto-Tov re kuI ttpiarov {Nen, 
An. 2, 1, 9). Kepavvvs re on p.ev uucodev dcfjierai, StJXoi', opdrai S' ovt ewicov oijre 
KaTaa'Ki'j\l/as ovre dnLciiv, Kal civep-oi avrol pev ov^ opoivrai, a be noiovcn, (f)avepu Tjp.LV 
ia-nv [Xcn. Mem. 4, 3, 14). Te — re {■=■ Kai — Kai) is frequent in the poets, rare 
in prose: 'EXetVovro rcov crrpariairaiv o'l re bLe<^dapp.ivoi iino rrjs ^i-dvos rovs d<p6a\p.ovs 
Ol re VTTo rov \l/vxovs rovs baKrvXovs rav TTobav dnoo'eariTTcTes (-ie?J. An. 4, 5, 12). 
Mera ra TpcoiKU t] 'EXXay ert p.eraviarar6 re (cai Karomi^ero. Boiturot re yap oi vvv 
e^rjKoa-rai erei p-era 'iXiov akoaaiv e^ " Apvqs dvaardvres vtto QeaaaXaiv ri)v Kabp-rjcda 
y7]u KaXovp.evr]v wKicrav, Acapiels re oyborjKoa-rm erei ^vv 'WpaKkeibais UeXoTTvvmjaov 
ecrxov [TliKC. 1, 12). Kai — re (et — que) is a poetical licence: 'ladi yap boKcov 
efiol Kal ^vixcpvrevcrai rovpyov elpydardai 6', ocrov p.rj x^po"* kolvuiv (Sojph. (Ed. P. 34/). 

Rem. 4. Where re. — Kai connects two single notions which have a common 
article, the re is sometimes attached to the article instead of following the first of 
tlie connected terms : rovs re evoTrXordrovs e'xcov Kal eveibeardrovs [Sen. An. 2, 3, 3 ; 
having tJiose who were l)otli tlie hest-armed and tJie best-looking); and so usually 
with a common preposition : ev re ra Bepporepa kcll yj/^vxporepco {PI. Phil. 24). 
('Ev roaavrrj re dypvTTvia kcu. Xvirrj. PI. Crit. 43.) 

Rem. 5. Sometimes ri is followed, not by Kai, but by Se', alone or with another 
particle (eVretra be, ap.a be, apa be Kai, en be Kai, cosavrms be, ttoXv p,dXXov be), the 
copulative connexion being abandoned, and an adversative put instead of it, either 
because the latter member is intended to be made specially prominent, or because 
it has become remote from re: "Enepylrev rjpi'is r] rcov Sti'coTre'coi/ ttoXis eiraiveaovrds 
re i'pSis, on. eviKure 'EXXijves ovrts jiapjicipovs. eneira be Kal ^vvrjaBrjcropevovs, on 
bia TToXXcbv re Kal beivcov Trpaypdrcov creauxrpei^oi ndpecrre {Nen. An. 5, 5, 8). Tipaios 
re (jbe, evvnp.cordrrjs cav TToXecos rijs ev 'IraXia AoKpibos,ovcrici Kalyevei ovbevos vcrrepos 

[part II. 



§ 1 86.] Connexion of Sentences. 173 

hv Tbiv fKcl. Tcis jj-eyicrrni fxkv ap-)(ii9 re Koi Tifj,as fv tjj TToXei ii.eTaKf)(eipi(TTai, (f)i\o- [§ 
(Tn(^i(ir S' av Kar e)xi]v bo^av in I'lKpov anatTrjS (\riKv6e' KpiTiav 8e ttov navres oi 1S5.] 
Tjjb^ 'i(Tp.€u oi'Sfvos IStbiTTju ovra (ov X/yo/nei' {PI. Tim. 20). * Ei/ t€ tj] tS)V eTTa>v 
TTou](T(L TvoWaxQv Se Ka\ dWodi {PI. Rep. 3, 39-1). (On the irregularity where 
two members denoted by re — kul, as co-ordinate, are not accurately connected, 
see Anacoluthia, § 216, K. 1.) 

Reii. 6. The copulative particle is omitted in oratorical recital, of several (short) 
members. (Between two members the omission is rare, and poetical, e. g. Tov 
Tuv KpaT?]pa 7r\t]cras 65) ; "YSaroff, fieXiaarji' p.r]de TTposcptpau fxtdv. Sup/i. Q^d. C. 
4S1 ; in prose, in certain particular set phrases of two contrasted words, e. g. ava> 
(carco = avM Kcil Kara}.) Kai is omitted before etVa, eneiTa, m the sense and then, 
marking continuation and further consequence (especially in conditional and 
object-sentences) : Et TTporj(jvp.f6a, &> civSpes ' Adi]i'a1oi, koi tovtovs rovs dvdpa)- 
7rou9, elr "0\vvdov ^iXnnros KaTaaTptyj/eTcu, (ppaaaTU) tls ejjioi, tl to KoiXvov eV avrov 
tcrrai ^ai^i^eiv, oyrot fiovXerai ; {I)em. 1, 12.) ^nfinvfj-cn, firj iravrei nep\ tSov I8la)u 
fKitCTTos opyi^ijfxevos kolvov e<^' rjpLO.^ uyaycuai tov iruKfp.ov, to. tSdv 'Ajj.<piKTv6vu>v £0- 
yfxUTa Tvpo(rTi]iTafj.evot. etV eTncTTaaScbcnv eKcicTTOt. mpa tov crvficpepovros iavTois rip.lv 
7ToXep.rj(Tai {Dem. 0, 19). 

l?) A copulative connexion with kul (sometimes re — /cat) is used 
in Greek, where in a narration it is stated at what point the matter 
stood, what had taken place, wl/eii a chang-e or new event occurred : 
Oi;t<u Sv' Tj rp€t<; Bp6/J.ov<i TrepieXrjXvdoTe I'jaTrjv (Fju9v8r]/j.o<i /cai Aiovvao- 
Stwpo?) K al el'iep'^eTai KXea'io.? {PL EntJi^jd. 'll'-'i). ^ktoIo^ iJKcov irvy- 
y^avov KoX 7] p^rjTrip ISouad /ne Kal 7rpo<iei7ra(ra ryjv "^vxh^ d(f>P]Kev {Dem. 
50, 60) . Ot AaKeSacfMOPLOL ouk €(p6r]aav vrudo/Jbevoi tov irepl rrjv ^Attik')]V 
TToXe/uiov Kal irdvTWV to)v dXXcov d/j,6Xy]cravTe<i rJKov tj/jlIu dfJbvvovi>Te<i 
{Isocr. Pcnieg. (S6. So often ovk €(f)Orjv 7roirj(Ta<i — kul, I had not (jot 
the start in doing it, tvhen = / had not done it, before — ) . 

c) Kat also introduces the second term of a comparison with adjectives and adverbs 
denoting likeness : Ot aWoi TroirjTqi ov^ opoiois TTeTTon']Kacn KaV Op{-jpos\{Pl. ZoM, 531 ; 
have not compo.'ied). "Op-oios y, Sy avSpes 'Adrjvaiot, IvKav vojjiodeTTjs Kal Ti/noKparTj? 
{Dem, 21, 106. Ironical exclamation). IlapaTrXrjaia enenijvdea-av ol 'Adrjvalot ev 
^vpaKovaraLs, Koi edpaaav avTol ev HvXco {Thuc. 7, 71 ; also oldnep edpaaav). Cf. 

§ 37, R. 2.1 

A disjunctive connexion is denoted by ■>], or, ■>] — rj, either — or ^ 

{rjTOl — i]). (EtVe — e'lre, be it that — or that ; e'lTc — fire Kal.) lS6. 

Rem. "H, or else, is often used to connect a sentence which assigns what is to be 
assumed and will be the consequence, in case a certain condition is not realized, or a 
certain command is transgressed : Ti yap 8i]7roTe t« pev ^iX/ttttw ttuvto tAXXu ttolo-v 
i^ovaiav Saxropev, av Trjs 'AttikPjs ciTrixriTM, rw i\i07rei6ei S' ov8e ^o-qOdv rolj Qpa^lv 
e'^eVrai, fj nijXepov noielv avrov (prprnpev ; {Dem. 8, 8 ; 0/* else we shall sa>/ that he is 
commencing a war.) When 7 in this manner is attached to an impersonal expression 

^ On KOI in the signification also, even, and its various applications, see the Appendix. 

CHAP. VII.] 



J74 Connexion of Sc7itcnccs, [§ 187, 188. 

[§ denoting' necessity or duty with the infinitive, it is also followed by the infinitive 

186.] (in English we should use the future indicative : or else toiU), although the same 

governing term cannot be repeated ■without alteration : Sevovs nposr^Kei aoi rroX- 

Xoiis Sexecr^at Koi tovtovs /LieyaXoTTpfTTcos, eVftra Se TToXtVas Sfinvi^fiv /cat ev iroulv, 77 

epr]fj.ov crvufJidx^cov eivai [X^eti, CEcon. 2, 5). 

§ All adversative connexion of two members contradicting" each other 

187. is denoted by aXkd, so that either (by way of correction) an affirma- 
tive cLause is joined to a negative (ou^ aira^, aXka TroWaKt^. ov fiovov 
— aWa Kal, or merely aWd, ou)(^ otto)? — dWd, /j,r] on — dWd, see 
Negations), or that which is negatived is joined to the affirmative (in 
EngHsh, and not, onli/ not, in questions and irony : and not rather) : 
IIpo9 T7]V TOiV TTpoyovctJV dp€Tr)v aX,X,' ov Trpo? rrjv roiv TpuiKovra ttovt)- 
plav a fMiXXrjTeov rj/jblv ecrnv {Isocr. Areop. 73). 'E«; hrj irdvrwv roiV 
elprjixevcov tl'^ ixri-)(avi], m Sw/c/^are?^ hiKaioavvrjv TLfidv eOekeiv, co Ti? hvva- 
fit^ virdp-^ei '^v'xf]'^ V %/3^^«Ta)y rj crco/J-aTO'i i) yevov^, dWa jxr) yekdv eirai- 
vov/Jievr}<i dKovovTa ; {PL Ixep. %, 306 ; and not rather laugh when one 

hears it praised^ ^ ^AKXa yhp 'la-ui nfra fxiKpas Sia^oXJ/s rj (pavXav KaTrjyopav 
fKivtvvevov, cDOC ov 8ia twv eppcopeuearaTOiv kul Xeyeiv koi TrpUTTeiv {Antluc. 4, 37). 

Rem. 1. Sometimes aWa merely adds something that does not correspond with 
■what goes before, but without setting it aside : Kal 6 'A^paSara? etVei'" 'AXXa to. 
[xev KaB" Tjpas epotye Sokei, <u Kiipe, KaXwy i'x^'-^ aXXa ra TrXciyta XnTret pe (^en. 
Cyr.!i, 1, 16). The use of aXXa (alone or with other particles), further than as 
sei'ving for the gi'ammatical connexion of the sentence, must be learnt from the 
Lexicon : in part the oKkd elliptically intimates a thought not expressed. 

Eem. 2. With the adversative conjunctions may be reckoned the exceptive 
particle TrXi^f : liavres ttjv ttoKlv e^fXinov tt\i]v ol tci KOTrr^Xeta e)(0VT(s, 2^en. An. 
1, 2, 21, except, only not — ; irKrjv el, ttXtjv otl, 7tXi]v octov. (§ 91, R. 2.) 

§ By Si is denoted something which is distinguished from what goe^ 

188. before, but does not set it aside nor contradict it : 'Bv/xTrovrjaeTe iv t| 
iroXei eKaaroL iv fiepei, rov Be iroXvv y^povov fier dWrfkoiv oiKijcrere ii 
Tw KadapcZ [in freedom and, rest, PI. liej). 7, 520). Aerj n ^oTqOeia'i A 
7} fjidT7]v i(f)o(3r)6r]'i, ol 8e TroXeixtoc ouk ep-)(ovTai [Xen. C//r. 2,, \, 3 ; am. 
the enemy are not coming?)? Hence Se serves as a particle of transi- 
tion (adverb), to annex each successive term of the discourse which is' 
not connected with the preceding by another adverb (e. g. a conj 
elusive, ovv, a causal, ydp), and does not commence a new series 
thoughts. Answering to a preceding pukv, it forms a partitive conl 



" ^ But sometimes also Kal ov (p-q) and simply ov [pr]), e. g. av he Troifj, pi) Xeym 
{Bern. 21, 183). 

^ Occasionally, especially in poets, for dWd : Ovk enpa^nv, a tj^ovKovto, cnTrjkdo 
he hi.a Taxpvi {Time. 6, 79). (But never ov povov — he, or the like.) 

[rAKT II. 



§ i88.] Connexion of Saitaices. 175 

nexion, by which two terms or clauses (or^ with Se repented, several) [§ 
are made to stand out in opposition to each other. fO y^ev ^aaC\ev<i ^ ^^ 
— , 01 he arpaTLWTai — . Ae7ei9 /xei/ ev, TrpdrTei^ B ovSev. Nyi/ /Jbev — 
Tore Se — . IIoA,Xa fiev koX aXKa hvo he fxe.'yLcna. Et fiev viKtjaei^, — 
el Be 01 6eol aX\(i)<i l3ovX€uoi'Tai, — . Opposed or contrasted accessory 
definitions, denoted in two independent sentences by fiev and Be, by 
which particles, at the same time the two sentences are connected, 
have often a different grammatical form : tm fj.ev irpocnw erec — , eVet 
Be — . Tiplv fxev rrjv p^d'^rjv yeveadat — , vtK-qaa'i Be — . In English, 
the relation is denoted sometimes more strongly by but, hotoever, hit 
then, sometimes more weakly by and, or by the mere position of the 
words and the accent.) Where fiev and Be connect principal sentences, 
they are often separated to a distance from each other by a number of 
clauses attaching themselves to the first clause, in consequence of 
which the connexion becomes less apparent. See e. g. Xen. Anab. ii. 
4, 2 — 5 {Toi<i [lev 7roX\.oi<i roiv 'YXK.i)vcov ovk i]peaKov — KXea/j^o? Be, 
Cyr. viii. 2,2—7).' 

Eem. 1. Mei' and Se are placed after the word in which the opposition lies 
(which word with be is always at the beginning of the sentence), or, where the 
opposition lies in an entire dependent sentence or a relative periphrasis, after the 
conjunction or the relative (eVei Se, as fiev, as fj-ev). With a noun with the article 
fifv and 8e come after the article, 8e also (more rarelj^) after the noun : to. fiev 
dvdpcoTreia Trapevres, ra daijiovLa 8e (TKOTvoiipres {JS^en. lilem. 1, 1, 12. Usually to. 
hi h.). With prepositions, jxev and Se are apt to come immediately after the pre- 
position [iTpos p.€v p.€(TJ)fxiipiav, also with 6 fxiv — 6 Se), e. g. iv p.tv upa to7s (rvfKpo)- 
vovfiev, iv he rois ov. {PL JPhcBcl. 263.) (In the poets some anomalous positions 
occur.) ('Hi/ 8' iya, rj 6' os, after an entire sentence.) 

Eem. 2. Especially note the use of p.ev and he with the article (as'demonstrative 
pronoun 6 p.ev — 6 8e, in later writei's also os p.ev — 6? he) and demonstrative 
adverbs of time and place {rore /xeV — Tore he, ev6a p.ev — ev6a he) to denote an 
indefinite and general antithesis : the one — the other ; this — that (also 6 p.evTLs 
— o he Tis), now — noic, here — there. ('O ptev — ol S 'Adrjvaloi, with definite 
term in the second member. 'AXyet, rore he xa'P"; Ft. Phil. 35 =Tor€ pev akyel. 
Tore he xnipei.) In Herodotus, when the opposition with p.ev and he is between 
two predicates of the same subject, in the second member an 6 referred to the 
subject is inserted and the he attached to this : TeXau Tavrqv pevrrju ohovrjpeXr^ae, 
6 he aWrjS e'txero (7, 163, = aXkrjs 8' e'l^ero). 



' Rare constructions are : pepvrjpevos, opav 8' ov {PI. Thecet. 164. The first member 
put absolutely), (^ii Trot UrfKeois, narrjp 8' epos. Eur. Ilec. 534.) (Kat ere pev y rjhr) 
ed(rto, TOP he \6yov tuv nepX Tov"¥,pu>Tos Tretpdaopai vplv hieXdeli'. PI. Coni\ 2(Jl ; pev 
made more prominent by ye. Et p.ev hi] hiKuia Troirjaui, ovk olha' alp-qaopM 8' ovv vpas 
Koi avv vplv, o, Tt av hej], neicropai. S^en. An. 1, 3, 5. See likewise the Lexicon for 
fiev ovv, pevTOL, &c.) [They are given in the Appendix of this Translation.] 

CHAP. VII.] 



176 Connexion of Sentences. [§ 188. 

[§ Eem. 3. \^AnaplwraP\ Often in the opposition of several members, the term (espe- 

188.] cially the verb) which is common to all is emphatically repeated with \xiv and hi, 
instead of a copulative connexion: IloXXi) a6v\i.ia rjv Tols'"EWriaiv, opSia-i jjLev rod 
TTora^ov Tr]v SvsTVopiav, opuxri 8i rouy dLaj^aiveiv KcoXvcrovTas, opuxri 8e tols diajSaLvovcriv 
sTTiKfiaopfvovs roil? Kapdovxovs onicrQev {21en. An. 4, 3, 7). "^vv ptv aol mtcra /ney Tjplv 
686s evnopos, Tras 8e Tvorapos diafiaros, civev 8e aov iracra fxev Sta aKorovs i) 686i, ttus 
df TroTajj-os dviiropos, Tras 8e ux}^os (pol^epos {2^en. An. 2, 5, 9).' 

Rem. 4. When the opposition denoted by yiiv and Se lies in a relative sentence, 
and to this a demonstrative reference is annexed (oi — , ovtoi, onov — , ivTcwQa), 
often p.ev and Se, or one of them, is put twice, first with the relative, then with the 
demonstrative: npcorayopas Xeyet, wj, ola fxev eKacrTa epol (paiverat,, Toiavra p.iv 
icTTiv €fj.oi, ola 8e aoi, roiaura 8' ai itol {PI. Thecet. 152). Ot p.^v av twv crarpa- 
Tvcov Tov api6p.ov Tov reraypLfvov tcov picrdocpopcov eWXecoi/ f'x^ovres (pau'MVTab k(u 
rovTOVs 8oKipois Ittttois Koi ottXois nnp€crKevacrp,(vovs Trapi)(^CL>crt, tovtovs p.€v rovs 
ap)(^oi>Tas 6 )ja(TL\evs kcu ripais av^a kcu 8u>pois p.eyuXois Karm^XovTL^ei, ovs 8 av 
evp7] Tu>u dp^ovTiai' KarapeXovvras, tovtovs )(a\eTTS)S KoXd^ei (Jew. Q^ron. 4, 7 ; only 
/LieV repeated). The same takes place, when to a participle with the nominative a 
demonstrative is afterwards annexed (by § 100 e). Isocr. Paneg. § 60. 

Rem. 5. Sometimes pev is put to denote the opposition to something following, 
without a corresponding 8e to follow it, when either (a) this is consndered super- 
fluous because certain adverbs are used which themselves express an opposition to 
■what goes before {eneiTa, eha after Trpwrov p.ev, recoy pev), or [h) the opposition is 
more strongly marked by pr]v, yet (ye priv), or pkvroi, however, or {c) the second 
member, by a less accurate formation of the sentence, follows in a different con- 
struction, and is not expressly drawn out as opposition (anacoluthia), or (r/) pkv 
refers to an opposition whicli is understood without being expressly mentioned 
(tcrco? pev, (Ikos p'tv, oipal pev. ws pev \iyovcnv, eyo) pev, in opposition to some dif- 
ferent view or statement which is possible) : {a) "Eyooye paXia-Ta idavpaaa tov 
'^(jdKpa.Tovs TvpMTOv pkv TovTo, o)S r)?iecos KCU fvp€vS)S Totv veavicrKcav tov \6yov aTT(8e- 
^aTO, iTveiTa i]pa)v us o^eco? ijdOeTO b eTreTr6vB€Lp.ev vtto twv Aoycof {PL Phcvd. 89; 
remarked what impression the discourse had made upon us), {b) Ol pev iraduvrfs, 
a8r]Xov rjv, el a8iKcos eTiTipcoprjVTo' i] ptvToi liWr] ttoXis €v tw TrapuiTt ntpKpavws 
oyCpeXrjTO {Thuc. 0, 60). {c. Xen. Anah. 1, 10, 16.) {d) EIkos pev, i'(pr], ovs av tis 
ijyrjTai ^prjCTTOvs, (piXelv, ovs S" av Trovijpovs, picrelv {PI. Pep. 1. 334). Ap' dv 6\iya 
TOLavTa 'Evav8pov iv tj] dp)(J] Siairpd^acrdaL Trpos8oKUTe ; eya yap pev ovk dv olpai 
{Li/s. 26, 7).- (Other irregularities in the construction of the members denoted 
by p.kv and Se, see under Anacoluthia, § 216, R. 1.) 

Rem. 6. The particle Se in the more ancient poetical language (Homer) is 
frequently used with a certain emphasis (akin to 5?'/) in the apodosis after relative 
sentences or conjunctions. In Attic this is rare (especially in prose), and occurs 
only where the apodosis after a conjunction or a relative adverb of comparison 
(a)f, Sisirep) is made to stand out with special emphasis by a demonstrative word 
or a personal pronoun denoting an opposition to some other term, and in the same 
manner after a participial construction containing an opposition to the leading 

^ Bt'a pev, opcos S' aTrexovTai {PL Rep. 10, 607; they refrain perforce, hut still 
they do refrain). 

"^ TovTovs oiiv TTuvTas (pihouocpovs (f)i](Topev ; Ov8apa)S, enrov, aW opoLOVS pev (fiiXo' 
(Tocjiois {PL Pepi. 5, 475 ; the antithesis (piXocrocpovs 6' ov lies in what pvpcedes). 

[part II. 



§ 189.] Connexion of Scntcjiccs. 177 

sentence : Et qvv iym firj yiyvaa-Kco firjre ra oaia fxrjTe ra BiKain, vfxels Be SiSd^are jue [§ 
(JTeH. Hell. 4, 1, 33). 'ETrei Be yjj eKeiro T\T]fj.ciiv (loKiiaTr]), Beiva 8' rjv TuvGevh^ iblb.] 
opav {Soj)/i. (Ed. R. 12G7 ; cf. Thuc. 5, IG). 'ETnri/xo) toIs fiovapxiais, on, beov 
Tovs fJLovdp^ovs Ti-jv (ppovTjcriv da-Kelv fiaXkov rav aXKav, ol 8e •^(e'ipov ivaihevovTaL tSjv 
iStwrwi' [Inocr. l?aneg. 71). 

Eem. 7. Especially note the use of ro Be (the article as pronoun) to attach a 
sentence which, in opposition to some less correct statement wliich has just been 
made, sa3-s what is the true state of the case (Jjut in truth; whereas realty) : O'lovTal 
fxe eKaarore ol Tvapovres ravra avTOv eivai aofpov, a hv liWov e^eXey^w to Be KwBvvevei, 
S) apBpes ^Adrji'aLoi, tu> ovtl 6 6eos aofjios elvai Ka\ ev tw XPI^-H-^ tovto) rovro Xeyelv, 
oTi J] dvOpwTvivrj aocpia oXiyov tlvos d^ia e(TTiv (PI. Apot . 23). The expression 
ori^nnates in the omission of a sentence merely intimated by ro [to Be aBe e^ei' 
KiyBwevei K.r.A., PI. ThecBt. 166J. 

a) The Greeks not unfrequently use two sentences connected by § 
fiev and he, when the scope of the discourse does not refer to each 189. 
sentence by itself, but to the connexion of the two and their con- (320, 
joint matter; which rehxtion would be more distinctly expressed b}^ ^^'^ 
making' the sentence with jxev a suhordinafe sentence, appended by 
a conjunction to that with he. Two sentences connected in this 
manner are put either interrog-atively (inquiring whether both can 
subsist together; whether the one beside tlie other is probable), 
or negatively (so that the negation of both precedes), or they are 
joined in the infinitive, accusative with infinitive, or by el (&)?, on) 
to a statement denoting something absurd or wrong. Sometimes in 
this manner a clause which asserts something actual, and a hypo- 
thetical clause with av are connected, it being asked whether the 
actual state of the case and the supposition accord and can be con- 
ceived to subsist together : Tt ovv ; ol /xev apa vlkt]<; eveica 7raXr]<i koI 
hpofiov eroX/MTjaav ajre^ecrdai Xejofiivov Trpwyfiaro'; vtto tmv ttoWmv 
evhat/iiovoi; ; ol he i)fieTepoi vraiSe? aSvvaT}]aoucn Kaprepelv iroXv KaWiovo'i 
eveKa vUr]^ ; {Fl. Legg. 8, S-iO.) 'Ap' e^ laov olei eivau aol ro hUaiov 
KaX rjfjLLV {Tol<i vofioif;), Kol arr av r)fiei<i ere iin'y^eipoo/J.ev rroielv, Kai aol 
raina avnTroielv olei hiKaiov elvai ; i) Trpo^ fiev apa aot rov Trarepa ovk 
i^ laov r]v ro hUaiov kol irpo'; rov heaTvorrjV, el crot, cov ervy^^^avev, co<ire, 
airep 7rd(T')(0L<;, ravra Kol avmroielv, 7rpo<i he rrjv irarplha apa Kal rovq 
v6fiov<; i^eo-rai croi ; {PL Grit. 50.) (By cipa, then, the thing inquired about 
is denoted as the result of a reasoning and a consideration, sometimes in one clause, 
sometimes in both.) "ESet Al(Txlv7]V, el ahiKOVvrd /xe ecopa rrjv ttoXcv, raj? 
eic rwv voficov rif/,coptac<; Trap avra rahcKi^ixara '^prjaOai, el /xev el<iay'ye\ia<; 
a^ia irpdrrovrd /x ecopa, el'^ayyeWovra, el he ypdipovra Trapdvo/Jba, rrapa- 
vojxcov 'ypa(f)6/jievov ov yap h-qrrov }s^rrj(TL(^oivra fxev hvvarat hicoKeiv hi 
ifie, ifie he, eiirep e^eXey^eiv evofjuKev, avrov ovk dv iypd-yjraro [Dem. 18, l-i. 
For it cannot be supposed (ov) that he nan indeed pirosecute Ctesiphon, Ijut would not 
have impeached me, if — / or, that if he can prosecute Ct., he ivould not also have im- 

CHAP. VII.] N 



178 Connexion of Sentences. [§ IQO- 

f§ feaclied me. In tlli^5 way the connexion of an affirmative and a negative clause is 
'^9-] often nco-atived.) ' Oj) Becvov, dWoLf fxev ricn Oecop Vfivov^; koI Traidva^; 
elvai iiiro tmv TroirjTOiv ireTTOtriiJbevov^, T<a S" "Kpcon, TrjXtKovrro uuti Kat 
TocrouTO) 6eco, /xi]8e eva iroinroie TreTTonjKevai, /xrjSev ijKWfxcov ; {PL Conv. 
177.) Udpu 6av/jiaarov K-vpcu iSoKEL elvai, el ol fiev ^dvavaoi laacrt rrj<i 
eavTOV Te-)(vrj<i eKacTTO'i rwv ep'yaXelwv to ovojxa, o he crTpaT7]'yo<; ovTa)<; 
tjXlOlo'; eaoiro, w9Te ovk etaerat tmv v(f> eauToJ rjye/jiovayu to, ovo/xara 
{Xe)i. Cijr. h, 3, 47. In the first member after the proeteritum^ the 
indicative retained, in the second the optative put; see § 132 a and h). 
b>.eiva av etn^v elpjaafievo'i, el, ore fxev /xe ol ap'xovre'i erarrov, tote puev, 
ov eKelvot erarrov, efievov (fact), rov 8e 6eov rdrrovro^, evravda 8e 
(fio/SijdeU Odvarov Xlttolixi r7]v rd^iv [fihoidd noio desert, PL AjioL 28). 
On the double fiev and he, see §188, li. 4. 

Eem. 1, In the same manner is denoted the prohibition of acting in two cases 
so that the actions do not accord : M17 roivvv, av fxev e'ljrp ris {brings forward, pro- 
poses) irapdvoiia, opyt^o/iei/oi (j)aivea6e, av Se Tioi^, fir] Xeyrj, npdais diaKeiade {Dem. 
21, 183). 

Rem. 2. Sometimes some inaccuracy appears in the construction of the two 
members Avhen they ought to be dependent (e. g. ov 8etvuv, el — ), in case the first 
is somewhat long, 'and the connexion is become less perspicuous, so that e. g. the 
second member is added as an independent question or statement, or changed in 
some other way (anacoluthia). See e. g. Lysias xii. § 36. Xen. Cyrop. iv. 2, 46. 

b) Sometimes, partly in an apodosis, partly (especially with &sTe) before that 
which is the main thing to be affirmed or denied, a co-ordinate member with fiev 
(and he following) is inserted, containing a remark by-the-bye of something which 
obtains at the same time, which should more accurately have been attached by a 
conjunction [while, whereas, although, as) or in a participial consti'uction : 'ETret eldov 
ol "EWrjvfS TO T€ ^apva^d^ov Ittttikov 'in avvea-njKos Ka\ rovs Bidvvovs 'nmeas npos 
TOVTOVS dBpOL^Ofievovs, aTrfipi'jKea-av p'tv, o/^iW? Se ihiiKei km eVt rovTovs Ireov elvai ovras, 
oTTcos bvvaivTo {Xen. An. 6, 3, 30 ; they thought, although they were weary, yet — ). 
OuTco poi SoKcls KaXws 'keyeiv, o) 2u>KpaT€S, wsre TTpuaQev pev oi) Trponeprjv Baveiaaadai., 
elbo3S, on. dvoKuxras, o, tl av Ad/jco, ovx e^w aTvohovvai, vvv he poi hoKw els epya)v 
d<^oppr]v vnopevelv avTo iroirjaai {Xen. Mem. 2, 7, 11 ; that although hitherto I 
never took to horroimng, nevertheless I think that I — ). 

^ "When the nature or quality of an action or a relation is first 

190. denoted in a merely general way by a demonstrative pronoun in the 
neuter {rovro, rohe, roiovhe, roiovrov, ravrov, as object or as subject to 
r'/l'yvopuaL), by a demonstrative adverb, by an adjective of reference 
{rovvavriov, ra dvrlarpocpa), or a similar expression, in order to be 
then more precisely assigned in a new sentence, the latter in Greek 
is attached without any connecting particle, in the same mood, even in 
the infinitive. (Apposition of an entire sentence.) Tt he ; ol Koaynoi 

' Ovx o pev, 6 S" ov {dW oTrai/Tes). Denial of a partitive representation, because 
the truth demands a universal statement. 

[part II. 



§ IQI,] Connexion of Sentences. 179 

avTMV ov ravTov rovro ireTrovOaaiv, uKoXaaia tlvI auxppove^ eicrtv ; [Fl. [§ 
Plued. 68.) AeSot«:a, //.^ rovvavriov, ov ^ovXo/xat, ttolm, a(f)68pa ukoi- '^"'^ 
/Sw? hieKvyvai ireipMfievo^ Slo^^Xm iraXai tovt avTov<; vfid^ elSora^ [Deiii. 

19j 3;J9). 'Q,i ot Tr]v bmaLoa-vvrjv iniTqbevovTfS liKOvm emTrjdfvovai, fiaXiar av 
ala-davoi^e6a, (I TOi6v8e Troiryo-at/xev rf/ Siavola, dovres i^ovarlav iicarepw ttolsIv, 6, Ti ai/ 
^ovXrjrat, tw re ScKaia Ka\ t(3 ddUco, etV iiTaKo\ovdr](raLp.ev demjievoi, not J] f-rndvixin 
iKurepov a^u {PI. Rep. 2, 359). 'H av\i]TiKrj ov Soicet aoi Totavrr] ris dmi. S) KaX- 
XtKXfis-, Ti'iv ijhovrip fxovov 8iaKfiv; [PI. Gorg. 501.) 'Opoifxev, octol tiv puKpurfpov r// 
(j)i\o(TO(j)La fvduiTpi-^coaL, Tovs pev TrXet'o-rous Koi Tidvv oWokotovs yiyvopeuovs, rovs 8e 
(TTieiKea-TUTOvs doKovvras opois tovto ya vnb rod €iTiTr]8evpaT0S, ov av eiraiveis, TTd(TXpv- 
Tas, dx^prjarovs rais vroXecri yiyvopevovs {PL Rep. 6, 4S/). 

With declarative object-sentences, denoted by on or wq (see § 159, § 
R. 3), as also with dependent questions, it should be remarked, that in ^9^- 
Greek the subject of the object-sentence is often drawn (by an attrac- 
tion) as object into the principal sentence, and then the accessory sen- 
tence attached, whereby the object, which till then was incomplete, is 
fully and properly represented ^ This attraction often takes place 
although the principal verb (a verb of saying-, thinking-, or knowing) can- 
not otherwise in itself be constructed with an object-accusative of the 
kind denoted by the substantive, e. g. not \e7eiy Tiva for Trept Tti^o<?. KO- 
po? ^'Sei jSaarCkea, otl fxeaov e%oi rod liepcnKov aTparev^iaTO^i {Xe/i. An. 1, 




OTTOG-ovi 6S6vTa<i e-xet ; {PI- Eu,tli//d. 294?.) Ta? twv irarepwv d/u.apria^ 
d^iere Bed rou? TratSa?, ou? oviro) tcne elre djaOol etre KaKol rjl3/]aavT6^ 

yevijaOVTaL {Ll/S. 20, 84) . {^AvepvrjO-drjv Tov Kovvov, on, poL KUKelvos xaXcTraiVei 
e/cacTTore, orav avra pr] vireiKco. PL Euthyd, 295.) 

Rem. 1. Sometimes the subject of tlie accessory sentence is drawn into the 
principal as the subject to a pcassive or intransitive verb, which otherwise shoukl 
stand impersonally : Ilepl rov pr]ff eaXaKuros prjT eyvaxrpcvov, norfpov 8e8paK(v ?} 
oil /cat TTorep' ukcdv fj ckcov, TtdvbfLvov ypdc{)eiv, as iK^orkov toIs iyKaXoxxTiv {Deiii. 
23, 79 ; about a man — , of whom it is not yet known viliether — ). (Ot Aa/ce- 
haipovioi <j-)(r]parit^ovra\. dpadels elvai, ha prj KaTdSrjXoi orniv, on (TO(f>La tCov ''EXkrjvwv 
TTepiei(jiv, PI. Prot. 342 = Kardbrfkoi wai a-ocpia — Trepiuvres, by § 177.) As the 
subject of the accessory sentence becomes the accusative to the princii^al verb, so 
it may sometimes become the objective genitive to a substantive: 'HX^e rols 
'Adqvaiois €v6vs f] dyyeXia tu>v ■nokemv, on uCpea-rdaLV {Thuc. 1, 61 ; the tidings that 
the cities have revolted). 

Eem. 2. A somewhat similar attraction sometimes takes place in sentences 
with prj and oVco? after verbs denoting fear and appr^'hension: 'Icrxupwff edeiaav ol 
"EXKrjves tov ^lucrova, pr] Tvpavvos yevoiTO {J£en. Hell. 6, 4, 32). 



\} E. g. as in nosti Marcellum, quam tardus sit, the proper object is, not Mar^ 
celluJ7i alone, but Marcellum quam tardus sit.'] 
CHAP. VII.] N 2 



i8o Comicxion of Sentences. [§ 192, 193. 

^ a) The particle on, which denotes a declarative object-sentence, is 

192. often also put before a person's own speech^ when it is given in oral, 
recta and introduced by a verbuni declarandi : ^Hp(OT7]aev Ys.vpo'i tov 
^Op6vT7]v "En ovv av <pl\o<; koX iriaro'; fxoc jevoio ; 'O Be atreKpivaTO 
OTi' OvV el yevoL/jirjv, w K.vpe, aol <y av en irore S6^ai/Jii {Xe?i. An. 
\, 6, 8). Tc5 lavra elirovn ijo) av SUaiov Xoyov dvreiTroi/jit, orr Ov 
/caX&j? Xeyei^, 5) av6pa)7re, el o'iei Kivhuvov viroXo'yL^eadai tov ^rjv rj 
reOvdvab dvBpa, orov tl kuI a/ni/cpov 6(f)€\o<i [Fl. Ajwl. 28). ( Att- 
eKpLvup.r]i>, on ov, I answered, No.) 

b) A report of a person's speech commenced in the oratio olliqna 
(in the infinitive, or with on or 6)9) often (even in a sentence dependent 
on the oratio oblicpia) passes suddenly into the oratio recta, so that 
the words of the speaker are g-iven in their own proper form : Kupo? 
direKpivaTo., on tiKovei, ^A/BpoKO/jiav iirl tco ^v^pdrr] 7roTa/j.w eivai, dir- 
eyovTci BcoSena araOixov^' irpb^ tovtov ovv e(})r) j3ov\ea6aL eXdeiv kuv fj^ev 
17 CKel, rrjv Binrjv €(f)r] ')(^pr]^eiv einOelvai avTu>, dv Be (pevyrj, 77/xei? e«:et 
7r/309 Tavra ^ovXevoofxeOa {Xen. An. \, "d, 2(J). Mera tovtov aXXo<; 
dvecTTr), eTTiSeiKVV'i fiev ttjv ev't^deiav tov tu irXola alTelv KeXevovTo<i, inrL- 
SeiKvii^ Be, CO? ev7]6e<; eh] rjyefxova aWelv irapd tovtov, a> Xv/u,aiv6fxeda 
Tvv irpd^iv {Xen. An. 1, 3, 16). AeyovTo<i e/xov TavTa dTroKpiveTal jxoi 
UoXvkXi]^, OTi 6 crvvTpi-qpapxo'i avTO) ou^ tJkol iirl ttjv vavv ovkovv 
irapaXij^lrofiat fiovoq n^v Tpujpr] [Bern. 50, 37; therefore [said he] / 
(Polycles) will not undertake the trireme hy myself, i. e. therefore he 
would, &e.) . 

Rem. Ou the use of on in the signification, tliat, tlie circumstance that, see 
§ 17U a. E., and below, § 197. On the sense because, see the Lexicon [and Appen- 
dix]. Note also the hreviloquentia , bj which on and ws- obtain the signification, 
for proof til at, to show that : "Ort 5e ovrui Tcwruexfi', Xeye juot to tov KaXXiaSevovs 
y\ri)(piafjia {Dem. 18, 37). 'i2? S' elKora iroLov^ev, kcu rab' ivvorjO-aTf {X.en. Hell. 2, 
3, 34 ; consider also tchatfollotcs). 
^ The verbs 8ok5>, SokeZ ^oi,ol}jLai are often put before a sentence or are inserted in it, 

]Q-> without grammatical connexion, to denote the thing said as o])inion or conjecture; 
in the same manner we have dUt (o'UaBe) with a question, and iv 'laOi (iVre) with an 
a&Burance ; also 0j;/xi, (paaiv, eiVe /xoi are inserted in the same way. ^Aya6ovs apa 
uvdpas ovK ifiovXeTo IlepiKkrjs TTOirja-ai rovs vUls ; AokS) p.(v, ilSovXero, dWa /jlt] ov 8i8a- 
KTQv fi {Ft. Menon, 94 ; but I fear it is not ; see § 124 a. E. 2). ^fmrepos Trpea^vTepov 
ovre liXKo /Suifecr^at eTnx^ipr]a-ei nore ovre Tvirreiv, w? to (Ikos' oijxai oe, ovde hXXws 
(irmacrei {PI. Sep. 5, 465).' 'Av6vr]Ta Brj novaiv 6 dvrjp ovk, o'iei, dvajKacrBrjOiTat, 
reXevTav avrov re fjnae'iv kcu ttjv roiavrrjv npa^LV ; {PI. Hep. 6, 486.) 

Eem. The expression 8fi\ov on, which originally introduces a declarative object- 



' "Opvpos'^Kfavop re deoiv ytvea-iv (Prjai Km firjTepa TrjBvv' oipai Se Kai 'HaioBoi ('viz. 
(j.riaiv. Pt. Crat. 44)2), but more frequently ■« here the verb is omitted in this manner: 
oluai 8e KCU 'Htn'ofioi/ (viz. (f.idvai). Tavra eydo avi ov nddofxai, w M'Arjre, ot/xai 8' ov8e 
aXXov upBpconoy ov8eva {PI. AlJol. L5). 

[part II. 



§ 194.] Connexion of Sentences. i8i 

sentence, is then also appended after a sentence witl) the sense of a mere adverb, [§ 
assuredly : 'EAorrw e/< Ti]'i TroXeco? aTTihi][ir\<Tm rj ot ;^wAoi re koL rvc/)Xot kciI o'l aXXoi 193- J 
dud7n]pof ovT(o aoi 8La(f)€ puvrws toiv dWcov 'A6r]vcucov rjpicrKev rj ttoXis kch ^jfiels oi 
vofxoi brjXov oTi {PL Crif. 53, and. nf course, we Laws likewise). {i^rjkovvTL.) The 
expression 6^ otS' ort (o^S' 6Vt, eu la-ff on) is usually inserted in the sentence before 
the verb, so that the proper sif,niiiication clearly appears (e. g. Etnsepotro- 'Elirejj.oi, 
Ti]S vvv ovarii 'EXXaSos ravrrjai ead' o, Ti oJKeir' av vtto tmv vvv ix<^VTCjiV EXXijvcov, 
€1 /ii7 Tag apero? vnep avrmv iKelva<: ol MajjaBibvi Kcil 2a\afji7vL irapea-xovTo ol 7]fieT€poi. 
TTpuyuvoi ; ovS' dv els fv oi8' on (prja-fiev, Dem. 19, 312) ; but it remains with the 
intinitive and participle (with the sii^nitication of an adverb of assurance) ; e. ^. wyre 
ndvTas vpds flheum rd perd Tavra Kai iXee^v ev otV on tovs drii;(ei5 Kai ToKanvapovs 
dvdpasTTovs, Dem. 19, 309. {Movoitutos ydp el dv Travrav a'inos, /cat rav kukoiv koI 
TQiv dyuBoiv, (V IcrB' on, jJ.rist. Jrl. 183.) 

a) Conditional propositions are denoted by el, edv {rjv, av, see § 125, § 
R. 1); enrep, edvrrep, etje {if that is: if at least; wenn sonst, falls 194- 
dann, wenig-stens wenn ^) put the condition with a peculiar prominence. 
A plurality of cases in which something- equally holds good, are de- 
noted by etre — etre \8ive — sive'\ (elfr' ovv, or be it that), edv re — edv 
re, more strongly by ehe (edv re) Kai — ehe Kai (e. g. ehe Ka\o^ e'lre 
7fKovaio<i etVe Ka\ 'yevvaio'^ eariv elVe Ka\ rdvavTia tovtcov, PI. Ileiion, 71. 
'Eciy re Ka\ dvTi(ptXi]Tai edv re Kai ficai^Tai, PI. Li/s. 212). 

Rem. 1. More rare combinations are eire — rj, d — etVe (the latter poetical). 

On el' and eire, as interrogative particles, see § 199 h and c. 

Rem. 2. Especially note the use of ei, ei Trwr, edv ttu>s, in the sense, wJi ether 2]er- 
cJiance (=■ to try whether — ). AtaXuo-a? tov ^vXXoyou 6 'ApxiSapos MeXrjaiTnrov 
TrpwTov aTTOo-T-eXXei els rds 'AOrjvas, uvbpa ^TrapndTrjv, ei' ri upa pdWov eu8oiev ol 
^Adrjvaioi, opcovres ijSrj acfjas [tovs AciKebaip.ovLovs) ev oSm ovtus {Thnc. 2, 12). Ot 
AaKfSaipovioi npodvpia re Tracrr; exptiiVTO /cat TrapaKeXevcrpa). et ttws aa-dp-evoi tovs 
'Adipmiovs eXoiev TO Te ixi(T pa {Th/tc. -^ii, 11). BovXei ovv 8ecopeda tov dvTLXeyovros 
OKoXovdricraL I'jp'tv, edv ncos impels eKeivm evbei^copeQa, otl ov8ev ecTTtv eTnn)8evp.a idiov 
yvvaLKi npos 8ioiKJ]aLv noXecoS {PI. licj). 5, 45o). 

Rem. 3. In animated and concise discourse, the condition is sometimes ex- 
pressed in an independent sentence, as an assumed position or as a question : TJapd 
nda-iv dpdpdiTTOLs dpm 8ia>pio-peva /cat TeTaypeva ttcos tu ToiavTa : ASt/cet rt? e/ccof 
dpyi) (cat Tip-wpia /cara tovtov. 'E^ripapTe tls ukcov dvyyvcapr] avri ttJs np.copias 
TovTM {Dem. 18, 274). Sometimes to one condition there is added another, of a 
more special and precise character : Et ervyxavou tre epuiTav, tis eVrt tcov ^coypd- 
(JJMV Zev^Ls, et poi etVey, ort 6 Ta ^wa ypdcf)u>v, dp' ovk dv 8iKaiuis ae i]p6pr}v, 6 Ta nola 
TOiv ^b>(ov ypd(pcov /cat ttov ; {PI. Gurg. 453 ; — and then tliou shouldest say — .) 

b) A negative condition is denoted by et p^rj, which also indicates 
an exception : if not, e.rcept if unless [el fXTj dpa, unless after all, unless 
perchance, sometimes ironically; of a case which is possibly to be 
excepted also et yu,^ et, nisi si, el jirj dpa el : 'O ')(^pr]ixaTi(7TLKo^ rrjv tov 

{} 51. therefore rejects (I think correctly) Hermann's '«'iWe difference' between etye 
(as assuming the truth of the condition), and etTrep (as leaving it doubtful). — T. K. A.J 
CHAP. VII.] 



1 82 Conncxio7i of Saitcjiccs. [§ 194. 

Ti\xaaBai t'jBovyp ?) t'ijv rod fiavdavetv ovS€vo<i a^iav <p/](reL elvac, et /mt] et 
Ti auTMV dpyvpLOV iroiel. Fl. Hep. 9, 581). Ei 8e p;, without a verb, denotes, 
nut only the opposite to an affirmative condition preceding {if not), but to the pre- 
ceding condition and discourse generally, even if that be negative {in the opposite 
case) otJierivise : "\a<x>s ov8e\s ov8ev ae kukov epel, av jj-rj nva 'kvnjjs' el Se firj, uKovaei. 
TToAXa Koi dvd^ia aavTov {PI. Crit. 53, = av 8e nva \v7rf]s). TIpos tu>v Beuiv, w Kupe, 
/xr) oiIt-co Aeye- tl 8e fir], ov dappovvrd fj.' e^eis {£en. Cyr. 3, 1, 35). Conversely, et he 
especially after el p.ev ^ovKei {^ovXecrBe) for el 8e fir) : Aeyat irdXiv, anep rore, ft fiev 
(iovXeaOe, ws nai^cov, el 8', a>s anovSci^av {PI. Lec/g. 3, 688). (Et ju?) 8ia rrjv 'Ap^i- 
ddfiov jj.eWr](nv, Thuc. 2, 18, if it had not heenfor A.'s delaying ; hut for that.) 

Eem. When what seems to be the natural and desirable condition, what one 
must expect and assume, and i;pon which the consequence follows as matter of 
course, has first been put with ft p.iv\ and then, by et he fxrj, its opposite, and what 
would then follow, the apodosis to the first condition is often entirely omitted (e. g. 
ev e'xei, then is it well, or generally, toell and good) : Et fiev toivvv, e(f)r] 6 "EaKpdTrjs, 
Ka\ diayiyvwcTKeiv ae rois dyadovs koI tovs kukuvs eS/Sa^ef et 8e jxiq, tl aoi uCJieXos 
liv epaOes ; {2ilen. ]\fem. 3, 1, 9.) 'hlXdovTcov rav AaKcovav eXe^e Xapplvos' Et pev 
av Tl e^eis, a> MijSoVaSe?, npos rjpds Xeyeiv el fie prj, rjpels TTpvs ae e-^op-ev (ie«. 
An. 7, 7, 15). 

c) With verbs which express a feeling" of approbation and joy 
(pride), or of disapprobation and surprise (shame), the Greeks often 
use a sentence with el, instead of an object-sentence with on [that, for 
that, hecause), even when an actual fact is denoted, this being- con- 
sidered as the condition on which the feeling depends : M^ tovto \idov 
S6^7]Te e')(eLV, el oi Kvpeiot, irpoaOev avv rj/mlv rarTO/jievoi, vvv a^ecrr^;- 
Kaatv en <yap ovtol KaKLove<i elai tmv vcj) 7]/j.coi> 7]tt7}/i6vq)v [Xen. An. 8, 
2, 17). T')]\iKovTO}v KaKwv atno<i je'yevrjfievo'i Arj/j,oa6evrj^ ovk ayuTra, 
el jUT] hUtjv BeScoKev, aX)C el fir] koi 'y^pvaw crTecjidi'rp (ne(^avw6'i]creTai, drja- 
vaKTel [JEsch. 3, 147; I), does not think himself well off to have 
escaped the pnnishment ; is not satisfied with having- — ). ot enlTpoTToi 

OVK rja)(yv6r]aav ouS jjXerjaav rrjv e'pi]v d8e\(j)r]v, el dvolv raXdvToiv virb rov Trarpos 
a^tcu^etcra {accounted worthy of a dowry of two tal ents) prjhevbs rev^eraL rmvirposriKov- 
T(ov {Dem. 27, 65; nothing of what she has a right to). [So often alter BavpdCw, ..tc] 

d) Kat 61, eve7i if even in the case that : 'Eai/ tovto Tioirjarjs arra^ rj 8is, r] Xvy^, kqI 
el Trdvv la^vpd eari, navaerai {PL Conv. 185), el Kai {if even, wenn gleich) sometimes 
more inclining to the affirmation of the condition, almost = although, but often only 
distinguished from (cat et by its less emphatic character : Et rts rjv r]8iKt]pevos, el koi 
rov (iXXov xpovov ijavxiav ei)(ev, ovk av 7]peXr]ae rov Kaipov tov irapovros {Isocr. de 
permiit. 33). (Et to p-dXiara, if after all — .) (The concession of an opposite fact 
is (properly speaking) expressed by Kaiirep with the participle, see § 175 e.) ^ 

^ About sentences with conjunctions of time, there is nothing particular to be 
remarked; nor, again, about sentences with causal conjunctions, on, hecause, enei, 
eVeiS)}, as, since ; {enel also with the ground or reason following, in the sense, Jor ;) 
ore, then, ottov, Sttov ye, when that is {as, in that, for, with the reason annexed). 
[KatVep f=: quanquam) a verb. fin. PI. Conv. 219 {Kamep , . . coprjv) and Theoph. 
Char. 2 ] 

[part II. 



§ 1 95-] Connexion of Sentences. 1S3 

Relative sentences are sometimes less accurately joined to the principal sentence. 1^ 
On this point it should be remarked : 195- 

a) A preceding relative sentence with a relative in the neuter, occasionally assiii^ns 
merely the action, opinion, or utterance, upon occasion of which something is remarked 
in the principal sentence, so that the relative obtains the signification, as regarch^ 
this, that — ; 'O fie l^fis fwodre, on i]TTov av arairt? ('ir] evos upxovTos r] TroXkSyv, fv 
i'(jre,ori aXXov fxev eXofxevoL ov)( evpi]cr€Te (fie (TTa(Tia^ovTa,iav diffxe eXrjorde.ovK av aavjjia- 
(raifjLi, f'i Tiva evpoire Koi iifjuv kcu epol axdoyLevov (Xen. An. 5, 9, 29). ° A Se r/Tret'XT/cray, 
(OS, T}v vp.lv SoKjj, KopvXav kuI IIa<pkay6vas ^vpp.a)(ovs Troii'](re(Td€ e0' t]p.as, 7;;xfT? oe, i]V 
pev avdyKT] j), jroKepi'jaopev dp(poTtpoii, i)u Ss S0K7 r]plv, ku\ (piXov noirjaopev top UacpXn- 
yova {Xen. An. 5, 5, 22). On fie after rjpels, see § 188, li. 6. (Cf. on, § 170 a. R.) 

d) "Osns, OS av sometimes stands, (not only without an expressly corresponding 
demonstrative, but also without its being possible for such a one to be understood 
agreeably with the form of the principal sentence,) in the sense of ei ns, in general 
expressions of opinion about a certain manner of acting (where also an infinitive or 
ace. with inf. might be used) : UavrdTraa-iv aTropav earl Kal dvdyKrj ex^H-^^^" '^"' 
TovTcov TTovrjpmv, o'lTives edeXovai St' en-iopKias re npos deovs Ka\ aTrto-ria? irpos dv6p6)- 
TTovs npaTTeiv n {Xen. An. 2, 5, 21). Nd/xt^e to Kcikas ap^ai tovt elvai, os av rrjv 
narpiSa (l}(f)iKi](Tj] as TrXeTcrra /) eKcov eivai ov8ev ^Xdyj/j] [Thue. 6, 14). 'Eym kcll tovto 
rjyovpai peya TfKpi'jpiov dp^ovros dperris eivai, co av eKuvres oi arpartuTai eTvcovrai Kai 
iv Tols beivols irapapeveiv iOeXaa-iv {Xen. OEcon. 4, 19). ("O, rt put first, whatever, 
so often as any thing: Ei ravra iya> Xeyco nepl vp,a>v dXXcos yiyvwaKcov, epavrov 
i^mraTO)' 6, rt yap p.r] roiovTov dnoj37]a(TaL Trap' vpS)v, fls e'/xe to eXXe'nrov );|ft, A.en. 
Cyr. 1, 5, 13.) 

c) Sometimes a relative sentence which calls attention to a particular circumstance, 
is annexed to a person who, though thought of during tlie speech, and given in the 
context, is not expressly named : Ilcbr oZv dv ns pdXXov eXeyxOel-rj Tvapdvapa elp-qKws 
77 TovTOV TOP TpoTTOV ; OS {tkoic tcho) T7]V Tipcopiav, rjv oi'fie Kara rav e^e\i]XeypiV03v 
8i86aaiv ol v6p,oi, Tavrrjv Kara twv dxplrav eypayl^as [JJem. 23, 36). KaAot/uai ae [I 
sue thee for) rav habiKa pvwv, as eAa/3es covovpevos tov i\/apov Ittttov. Ittttov ; ovk 
aKovere ; ov Trdvres vjiels 'la-re piaovvra ImnKrjv {Arist. Nuh. 1224 ; me, icho, as ye all 
know — ; I to buy a horse, I, who — .''). 

d) To a relative pronoun pointing in a general way to what goes before, a more 
particular statement of the thing meant is sometimes appended by an infinitive, or 
ace. with inf., as apposition to the relative, or by a conjunctional accessory sentence : 
'^ O KOI beivdraTov av ei'?/ avp(3a1vov, tovs p-ev TroXXa Ka\ peydXa Tvoi7]aavTas ipus ayaoa 

pr] Tvxelv ravTTjS rffs bcupeus, tov fie vTrepTrXrjdr] €^7]papTi]K6Ta (paLvtcrBai e^ovaaiv Trap 
vpwv TOV TTapavopelv fiXr](f)6Ta (Dem. 2(3, 7). Ovrto e^rjprijpfBa tuiv eXTvi8u>v, cost ov8 
ol KeKTrjpivoL tovs pfyiarovs tvXovtovs peveiv eVi tovtois eBeXovaiv, aXX' oet tov ttXsovos 
opeyopevoi nepl tu>v VTrapxovTav KLvhvvfvovaiv' OTrep a^Luv ian Sefitei'ai, prj (cat rjpeis 
evoxot yeva>p,i6a ravrais rais dvoiais {Isocr. de Pac. 7). 

Rem. In consequence of this, and by a breviloqnentia, the relative pronoun in 
the neuter (o. clrrep) occasionally comes to have merely the signification of a con- 
necting particle {while, ichereas) : Aia<pep6vTcos rofie i'xopev {ire possess tn a pre- 
eminent degree the characteristic lyroperl y),(jiSTe ToXpdvTe ol avTol pdXiara Kai',7rept 
hv eTTtxftpi^o'opev, iicXoyi^ea-daC o rot? «XXots' dpaOia pev Opdaos, Xoyiapus Se okvov 
(pepei {Thitc. 2, 40; which in others is otherivise, since — , or simply, ;r/}e/-eas, on 
the contrary). (In the poets 6 Kai, a Kai, wherefore also.) 

CHAP, vil.] 



184 ConnexioJi of Sentences. [§ 196. 

[§ e) The sentence annexed by the relative, has sometimes itself an accessory sen- 

•95-] tence, or an accessory definition in the participle, to which the relative also belongs, 
(-37) and to whicli it often attaches itself in point of case : BoiiXou /cat tovs aXkovs fifj ras 
eWia-fievas ayeLV aoi Scopeay, aXXa roiavras, ais kciv a(f)6Spa xpfl *<«' firjSefxiav r^jiepav 
8iaX{L7rr]s, ov Kararpl'^fis aXKa Koi nXeiovos d^lai Truu'](reLs [Isocf. ad JV/c. 54 = as, 
Kav a<pij8pa avrcus Xpfl' °^ — )■ 'ETren}^rj^e ris, on tovs (pvXaKas ovk €v8a[p,ovas ttoioI- 
fiev, ois i^ov ircivTa e^fiv to. twv ttoXitcoi', oij8ei> 'i)(ouv {PI. Hej). 5, 466, = o'l, e^ov 
auTo2s TV. e. t. t. ttoXitcov, ov8ev e^oiev). Sometimes the relative alone belongs to the 
accessory sentence or participle : Oi 'AXels, ovs "iva StaXXaTTuxn, Karaa-xf^v tovs 
Trpea^eis 4>tXt7r7ro's (prjai, ToiavTrjs reTV)(r]<no'i- biaKkayr]S, wst e^€\t]XcwTai koi dvdcTTaTOS 
t] TToKis avToiV yiyovev [Dem. 19, 39). ' Apa vvv ovrat rfjbe Ttj rfptpa elXrjcpapev, o 
TrdXai Koi ttoAXoi tuiu aocpcov ^TjTovvres nplp ei/pelu Kareyripaaav ; {PL Tkcivt. 2(J2.) 

Rem. On relative sentences as expression of the purpose and definition or 
cause, see § 105 a, c, d, and § 115 a, R. 

V a) The jjarticle 70^ in an independent sentence often assigns a 

190. I'elation or a circumstance which has been pointed at by a preceding 
demonstrative pronoun (oSe, the follmoing , ToaovTo<i, more rarely ovTO<i) 
or adverb {evOivSe, hence =from this ; from the following circumstance, 
eKeWev), and which might equally well have been annexed in an acces- 
sory sentence with on (or oaw after Toaovrov) : ArjXol 8e /jlol koX 
ToSe roiv TToXacMV aadeveiav 01)^ iTKiara' irpo yap rwv TpcoiKOiv ovSev 
(^alverac irporepov Koivfj ip'yacra/j.evr) rj 'EA,Xav {Thnc. 1, 3). 'D.'i ol 
irepl rbv K-XeofM^porov to nrpoiTOV eireKparouv ry p^ciXV^ aacpel tovtw 
T€K/XT]pLO) jvoLT] TC<i dv ov yap OV TjSvvavTO avTov t,MVTa aireveyKelv, 
el jjii-j ol irpo avTov /j.a-\^6fMevoi iireKpdrovv iv eKelvep tco ')(^p6v(p {Xen. 
Hell. 6, 4^ 13). "Oxi iylo Tvy^dvco o)v rocovra olo<i vrrb rod deov jf] 
TTokei SeBocrOai, evOevhe dv KaTavoi'jaatre' ov yap dvdpcoTrlvcxi eoLKe to i/xe 
TOiv fiev ejxavTov uttuvtcov 'r)ixeX,riKevai, to he v/xeTepop irpuTTecv del iSla 
eKaaTO) '7rpo<;i,6vTa M^Tvep iraTepa rj dSeXcpoP TvpecrjBvTepov [PI. Ajjol. 31). 
(In English, namely, or omitted [or that substituted ibr it].) 

Rem. Such a sentence is often added to the elliptical expressions reKjxrjpiov Se, 
(TTjpilov 8e, fiapTvpiov 8e (viz. rode eVrtV), dfjXov 8f (viz. e'/c rouSe iaTLv), sometimes 
also to Ke<pdXaioi' de {the main thine/ in), to 8' ntTLov {the reason is) : Kdpes kui 
^oiVLKfs Tcis nXeLaras tu>i> vqcrav UKicrav. Maprvpiov 8e' ArjXov yap KadaLpopevqs 
VTTO rav Adrjvaicov Kot tcov Br-jKwv dvaipedeia-ojv, oaai rjcrav tu>v TfdveutTav iv rfj 
VTjaw, vTrep rjpicrv Kdpes i(pdvrj(jav {Thiic. 1, 8). MeyicTToii 8e reKfjirjpiov tov rpimov 
Tov Evayupov' tcov yap 'EXXrjvav ttoXXo). Ka\ KaXol Kayadol ras eavrav naTpi8as 
anoXiTTiJVTes rjXBov els Ki/npov olKijcrovTes {Isocr. Euag. 51). Sometimes yap is 
omitted : Kara tovs Trporepovs vojxovs iroXXd. Ka\ 8eLvd Trepi rot's." t pirjpapxpvvTas 
eyiyveTo' to S' u'Itiov' iv toIs 7rivr]<nv rjv to XeiTOvpyeiv {Dem. 18, 108). 

b) With yap a remark is sometimes inserted parenthetically, which introduces the 
principal sentence Jhllowing, and serves to explain what is said in it : KapTepds 
yevop.(vrjs vavfiaxuis, ovk eXaaaov exovTes iv rw fpyw ol Xioi Ka\ ol ^vpfiax^i. {ij'8r] yap 
KOI 6yj/e Tjv) dvexaiprjiTav is ttjv ttoXlv {Thuc. 8, 61). Sometimes (especially in 
Herod, and Thucydid.) the principal sentence attaches itself very closely to the 

[part II. 



§ 1 97-] Connexion of Sentences. 185 

parenthesis, sometliing in the parenthesis heing necessarj^ to he understood in the [§ 
principal sentence: Kal — r]v yap tl Ka\ iv 2vpaKov(rais fiovKofxevov toIs 'Xdrjvaiois ig^'l 
TO. Trpdyfiara ivbovvcu — fTreKrjpvKeveTo (viz. ro fiov\6p.€vov t. A. r. tt. evo., the party 
which — ) (uj Tov ^iKiav Kai ovk e'ia dcjiLO-TaaBai {Thuc. 7, 48). (Hence aXka yap, 
dXX' ov yap, hut then, but then — not, as a transition to something new.) 

A peculiar intercliang-e and partial intennixtuve of different con- '^' 
structious takes place, where a circumstance appended to a preceding* "' ' 
statement, is marked as the g-reatest, the utmost that is to be said 
about it, or as being, in some other respects, the most remarkable 
feature of the case. This may happen (1) so that the circumstance is 
alleged in a sentence with on as a matter of judgment or reflection 
upon the case : To he ixe^tarov (viz. iariv), on (the verb almost always 
omitted) ; or (2) so that the characterizing adjective is put foremost, 
as apposition to the sentence which states the circumstance : To he 
jjie'yLajov, ouS* ecopuKci TrcowoTe rov avhpa. (Cf. § 19, R. 3.) Instead of 
the adjective in the apposition, there might, further, be a relative 
sentence as a premised remark: "O he jJbe.'yLcrrov (viz. ecniv), ovh^ ecopuKa 
TTOiiTore TOV dvhpa '; but, by an interchange between this form and 
the first, we have (3) : '^O he fxe'^iarov, on ovh' ecopuKa TrcoTrore rov 
avhpa, where, therefore, both sentences have the form of accessory 
sentences and a principal sentence is wanting-. Lastly, we have 
either (4) the adjective alone (which is rare), or (5) the relative sen- 
tence quite detaciied, as an intimation of that which is to follow, and 
then follows an explanatory sentence with ^up (as in § 196, a) : To 
he ixe'yLOTov' ovhe jap ecopuKa ircoTrore tov avhpa, or '^O he fxeyiaTOv 
ovhe <yap k. t. \. (1) To he ttcu'tcov v7rep(f)ve(rTaTov, otl ev fiev rot? 
iStot9 ol dhiKoufxevoc haKpvoucri Kal iXeeivoi elaiv, ev he rot? hri[jboaioi<i ol 
fiev dhiKovvTe^ eXeeivoi, vfi.eL^ he ol dhcKovixevoi iXeetTe {L//s. 27, 12). (2) 
To hi irdvTcov heivoTaTop, v/iieL<; fiev Arifioadevijv ov rrpovhore ovS" eidauTe 
KpiOrjvaL ev tu> tcov 'EjXX7jvcov auvehpuo, ovto<; he v/xd^ vvv irpohehcoKev 
[^B-sx'/i. 3, 101). (3) '^O he irdvTWV KaTayeXaaTOTaTov, otl tmv yeypa/uu- 
fievo)V ev Tai<; 6/j,oXoyiac<; to. ^(eipLaTa Tvyyctvoixev <^vXdTTovTe<i {jsocr. 
PaJieg. 176). (4) To he p^kyia-Tov Kal TrepKpaveaTaTov irdvTOiv o yap 
dhcK7)del<i Kal eVt/:?ou\eu^et9 vtt epuov, w? (f)7]aLV, ovk iToXfirjae TeTTdpcov 
eTMV eTTLo-Ki'j^^aaOai, el<i vp,d<i {Li/s. 3, 39; to malie complaint to y oil). 
(5) " O he TrdvTcov cr'^eTXccoTaTov oy? yap ojnoXoyijcrai/jiev dv irovTjpoTd- 
rovi elvat tmv ttoXitcov, TovTov<i 'TTLo-TOTaTOVi (f)vXaKa<; rjyovfjieOa tt}? 

7roXtTeia<; elvat {I-SOcr. de FaC. 53). (°0 he ttcIvtcdv fidXicTTa dyavaKrr^a-ai, e(pi}- 
avPTV)(e'iv yap aTricov Arpecrrt'Sa Trapa ^iXiTrnov Tropevopei/co Kal per avruv yvvaia Kal 



* 'Qi 8e paXiara rjpMv 7rpo€)(nv(nv, Ittttovs T€ ttoXXovs KeKTTjVTai Kal (tItco oiKet'o) /ca' 
OVK eVaKTw xp^VTUi {Thuc. 6, 20). 
CHAP. VII.j 



1 86 Co7inexion of Sentences. [§ 198. 

l§ TratSapia w? TpuiKovra (^adi^eiv. Dem. 19, 305. The character of the circumstance 
97-] not expressed by a single adjective.) 

Eem. As a sentence with on (in the third form), so a sentence with d or with 
a tempera] particle may be connected with a characterizinor relative sentence: °0 
8e TrdvT(i)V SeiuoraTov, orav tls 'lStj tovs ttjv fj-ye/jLOviav rrjs 'EXXaSos ex^^v d^iovvrai 
tnl TOVS EWnvas Ka6' €Kd(TTrjv i-jjiepav arparevofjiepovs (Isocr. Plat. 45 ; btct the 
worst of all is, tv/ieii — ). 

^ a) Of interrog-ative sentences, it is to be remarked, that in Greek a pro- 

i^S. nominal interrog-ative may be referred to a participle, so that the question 
424, relates to the circnmstanee expressed by the participle, see Participle, 
^■3) § 176 a, and § 181 a. In the same way an interrog-ative pronoun 
may stand in an accessory sentence with a conjunction ; or with the 
word which characterizes a substantive notion with the article (an ad- 
jective, a participle, or a preposition with a case), — to inquire with what 
accessory definitions, or for what more precisely assigned descriptions 
of persons or things something- holds g-ood. (In English the acces- 
sory sentence or characterizing notion must be expressed as an interro- 
gative principal sentence.) Hot' ovv, oi clvSpe'? 'Adr]va2oi, Trore, a XPV) 
irpd^ere ; eneL^ap ri yevrjraL ; [Dem. 4, 10; literally, tv/ieu what takes 
place ? = ^ohat must take place, in order that yoib — ? [before you 
will — ?'\ ) }io7)6ovvT(ov rj/xcov el<i "Apyo'i, ov^^ eroi^iov fjid'^eadai AaKS- 
Saifiovloi<; ; Lva tl fyevrjTai ; {And. 8, 36 ; loith a view to lohat result ?) 
OlaOd Tiva<i dv6p(i)7rov<i d'^^apicnov^ KcCKoviJLevov^ ; Kal p,d\a, €<pi] o 
veaviaKd. l\aTa/u,efjid07]Ka<i ovv, tov<; ri iroiovvra^; to ovofxa tovto 
uTTOKaXovaLv ; [Xen. Mevi. 2, 2, 1.) Tol"? ttco? BLaKeifievov; \dj3oLev 
dp at TOiovroL fJLa6riTd<i ; [Isocr, Antid. 222.) ' 

Eem. 1. Two interrogative pronouns may be connected in one sentence : T'lvas 
vno TLvcov fvpoifiev av pel^ova evepyerrfpievovs rj 7rcu8as vtto yoveav ; (uSTeH. 3Iem. 
2, 2, 3.) Eis rponos 6p66s navros enaivov, Xoyo) tteXdeLU, olos olonv airios cov 
Tvyxdvei irepl ov dv 6 Xoyoy ^ (PI. Conv. 1&5). 

Eem. 2. On the construction of a demonstrative pronoun with the iuten-ogative, 
see § 100 b. 

Eem. 3. A sentence with olos, as is added to expressions of praise, blame, or 
wonder, to assign the reference to a certain quality of the person or thing men- 
tioned, in the sense : «^jo» the reflection, or, considering, huw, &c. (almost ■=■ on 
TOiovTos, OTL ovTas) : Kupos aTtrjei, KaTOiKTeipcov ttjv re yvvoLKa, olov dvdpbs arepoiro, 
Koi Tov civdpa, oiav yvvaiKa KaraXiTTcbv ovKer o\f/oiTO {SKe?i. Cyr. 7, 3, 13). Eu^ai/icuf 
/iot 2(i>Kpdri]s e(paii>eTo Kol tov TpvTvov Kal Tcbv Xdycor, u>s dSecos Kal yevvaias eTeXfVTa 
{PL Phml. 58). 



* Hence lva tl; (viz. yevqTai) rvherefore? to tohat end? ort ri; (otu) tl ;) for 
what reason .^ (lit. because what ?) 

[part II. 



§ 1 99-] Connexion of Sentences. 187 

Eem. 4. Note particularly the originally elliptic use of oto?, and especially oo-oy, [§ 
■with adjectives which denote a surprising, or, generally, a strikingly and uuconi- 198.] 
monly high degree, ^aujuacrros o<to^ {marvellous kow great, siirprisingly great ; ori- 
ginally, €0' w BavfjLd^eiv tfl, oaos iariv or on toctovtcs eVri"), a(l)6(>vos, afxrjxavos, 
V7rep(pvr]s o(tos, afiTjxnvos olos. (icfiopTjTOS olos. Muyis koi peTa IdpooTos OavpcuiTov oaov 
{PL Be}}. 1, 35U). {'Ynep(f)vrjs tls a>s peyaXi] /^Xa/iJ?;, Fl. Gorg. 477.) In the same 
manner adverhs of the same kind take <»s after them : Qavp.a<TT5>s: {lnep(})v(os) ws 
XaLpo). 

b) For the indirectly interrogative pronoun 09Tt9 (also o? : ©e/it- 
crroKkriq (f)pd^€L rw vavKKi]p(p o^irL^ icrrl Kal 8i a (fyevyet, Thuc. 1, 137. 
At' a? alria^ ra irepl rr]v aKorjv ^u/ji/3aLvei Tradij/j-ara, \eKreov, PL Tim. 
67) not unfrequently the direct interrogative ti9 is put in a more ani- 
mated way : At yvvaiKC^ rjpcoTcov avrov<i, riVe? elev [Xen. An. 4^ 5, 10). 
Ov irdvv 7]p2v cppovrtcTTeov, rl epovcriv ol iroXkol rjfidt;, aW b, re o 
iiratcov mrepl rcov SiKatcov kol dtUwv [PL Cr'ii. 48), and in the same 
manner irolo'^, irocro^, 7ro)<i, for orrolo'^, oiroao^, ottco?. Ovk olSa, 
OTTQLa roXjxr] i) iroioL^ 'XojoL'i ^p&ytei/o? ipS) {PL Pej). 3^ 414). 

Rem. "Oaos and ohs, in exclamations of wonder, occur in the form of direct 
interrogation : 'i2 irdmre, oaa Trpdynara e'xeis iv tw SetTrvM ! {Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 4.) 

a) A direct question without any interrogative pronoun, or pronomi- § 
nal adverb, may stand in concise and animated expression, without a 199. 
particle to denote the question (e. g. with a single verb in the second 
person), especially with an expression of doubt or wonder, or after 
>ve7e, etVe p-oi. Ovk olaOa, on ravTa Xijovcrc fiev vraz/re?, iroiet 8 ouSet'?; 
— Mr] diroKpiimfiai ; {PL Rep. 1, 337; am P not to answer?) 'E/u,e 
^xovov ov 'yLyvcocTKei';, o) K.vp6, rcov avyyevcov ; {Xen. Cyr. 1, 4, 27.) 
Etra {and then) tovtcov jxev iTTifxeXeladai "Trapea-Kevaaat, rrjv 5e firjrepa 
OVK olei. Stlv Oepanreveiv ; {Xen. Mem. 3, 2, 13.) Tt ovv ; iv rat? oXty- 
ap'^ovfj.evai,'; TroXeai tttco-^^ov^ out^ opa<; iv6vTa<; ; {PL Pep. 8, 552.) 
Often such a question is attached by i], or, sometimes as an expression 
of the conjecture and opinion of the person asking : Tt fievo/xev ; r) 
OVK iinard/jieOayOTC ^aat\ev<; rj/j.d'i diroXeoai irepl iravro'^ dv irou^craLTo ; 
{Xen. An. 2, 4, 3.) %v Se, e^r] 6 Xap/xtS?;?, w XvpaKoate, eVt rw /x,iya 
(f)povei<i ; rj hifKov, otl iiri roj iraiSl ; {Xen. Conv. 4, 52.) (Ou Sr/, ov 
tr]iroT€, ov 8rj nov, ov rl nov, surely not? see in Lexicon [Appendix].) An indi- 
rect simple interrogative sentence must always be denoted as such. 

d) 1. A shnple direct question is denoted by the particles ?/ (with 
emphasis, sometimes doubt), dpa {dpd ye), dp" ov (also dpa alone of a 
conjecture, especially dp' ovv: perc/zance — ?), pLrj (mostly expressive 
of doubt, or at least uncertainty), dpa /i?; (stronger), jjlwv (from jxt] 
ovv), fXMv ov, ixo)v ixr] (strongly inclining to denial), and the elliptical 
expression dWo ri r/ {is it any thing else than — , is the case otherwise 

CHAP. VII.] 



1 88 Connexion of Sentences. [§ 199- 

than — , ought not ■ — ), or, with 77 omitted, aXko rt {aWo ri rj ov — , 
dWo Tt ov, should perhaps. ''), and lastly ovkovv {not tlien?). (See the 
Rem.) — :2. A simple dependent question is most generally denoted byet, 
if, tvhether {el apa, whether then, whether after all ; whether perchance)., 
and more emphatically by apa, whether then, rarely by fxi], viz. after verbs 
denoting- look to, and consider (§ 124, R. 1) ; with the same verbs also 
edv {lohether, perchance, at § 19-i a, R. 2). (For the particulars of the 
special meanings of these particles, see the Lexicon [and Appendix].) 'H kol 
(T')(o\r} fOTTai, a> rrarep, aonxacTKeiv tovs CTTpanayTas ; {S^en. Cqr. 1, 6, 17.) Ap , o) 
'AiTi'cr^efes, etcri rti'es a^iai (f)L\uiv u)STT€p oiKercbv ; (-Xew. Jlfeni. 2, 5, 2.) 'Apa ye, 
a> TToi, iv Tois err parity lkoIs Ka\ olKovop.ia^ Tt croi fnep-vi-jcrdrj 6 SlMctkoXos ; (J?e«. Cj/r. 
1, 6, 12.) 'Ap' ov (dp' ovu oil) TTavra, uda xitto fivBoXoycou t] TTOirjToyu Xeyerat, dLrjyrjcns 
ovcra Tvyxdvei fj yeyovoTcov ?) ovtcou r) peWuvratv ; [PI. Hep. 3, 392.) EtTre pot, ft 
bzoiiieOa (piXov dyadov, ttms tiu iTTi.)(eLpoirjjxev (Tuonelv ; apa {ought not — ?) rrpcorov pev 
^rjTrjTiov, osTi? up)(eL -yacrrpu? re (cat (pikoTrocrias ; ( JTew. JMem. 2, 6, 1.) Ap' oiiv avp- 
l3alveL peytcTTov kukou i) aStKt'a Koi to dSiKelv; {PI. Gorg. 4:79. On crup/^atVet, see § 177 
b, R. 3.) Mr) Tov'Ax^iWea o'Ul 4>povTicrm davciTov kol Kivbvvov ; {PI. Apol. 28.) M7 
dp)(^LTeKTUiv l3ov\fi yeveadai ; {^en. Mem. A; 2, 10.) 'Apa pi) aXAo rt tov Odvarov 
iivai ip/ovpeda rj Tr]v Trj<: \lrv)(rjs ano tov crupaTos dTraWayrjv ; {PI. PIkxcI. 64.) 'Ap 
ovv, e(j)u(rav, prj kol fjplv evavTicjaeTai 6 avr-jp Trepi rrjs tcov orpaTiarcov anayooyris ; 
{^eii. An. 7, 6, 5 ) 'AXXd pwv koI Trpoj rjpds tovto Telvei iv tm TvapovTi ; HavTdaaai. 
fiev ovv, ijv 8' eyu) [PI- Rej). 5, 451). Tt hi ; 01 ttjv r]8ovriv dyadov 6pi.(6p€voi, pS)V prj 
eXaTTovos TrXciff^? epnXeoi TOiv eTepu>v ; {PI. HejJ. 6, 505.) NOi' ovf, eTretS^ crot fj 
aocpla povT] eiibaipova kol €vtv)(?] rroielv tov avOpconov fioKet, ciWo ti f) (pairjs av avay- 
Kalov eivai (pikoa-o(pelv Kot avTos iv vai e'xeis avTo iToieiv ; {PI. JEuthyd. 282.) "AXXo rt 
ovv, r]v 6' eyco, pdQr]pa dvayicalov TToXeptKM di'Spt drjaopev Xoyl^eaOaL re Kat dpidpeiv 
dwaadai ; {PI. Sep. 7, 522.) 4>fpe ydp, o dyados dvi]p kch enl to (SeXTiaTov Xeyav, a 
av Xeyj], oXXo rt ovic eLKi) e'pet dXX' dnojSXeTrcov npos Ti ; {PI. Crorg. 5U3.) A. Ovkovv 
KOL Xvnai aisavTcos ai pev XPW''^''- f 'O"'^, "' 8e TTovqpai ; B. Has ydp ov ; {PI. Gorg. 
499.) — OvK ot'Sa, el crvyxoiprjcreTe. 'lipaiTrjaa, el avve^eXdelv (SovXolto. "EKonovpat 
TovTo, el apa, cosnep tcov otKerwf, ovto) Ka\ tcov (pCXav elalu d^iai (A'e«. 3£em. 2, 5, 2). 
'H '^v^r] pov, Std TO vjSpiarBai (cat opyi^eadai, de\ tovto Kvovcra dii^yev {brooding over the 
thought), apd rrore earai dTvoTia-aa-Qui tov Ka\ deals e^Opov Ka\ dvdpooTTois {Xen. Cyr. 
'5, 4, 35). 'Opaypev, pr) NtKt'aj oleTui rt Xeyetv Ka\ ov Xoyov eveKa TavTa Xeyei {PI. Lach. 
196). Et TOVTO pi] iKuvov SiKaioavvris eni8eiypa elvai aoi 8oKe2, (TKe'>\rai., edv ro'Se pdXXov 
dpeaKrj' (f)T]p\ ydp eyu> to vopipov 8LKaiov elvai {^en. ]\Ieni. 4, 4, 12). ('H ytip; Is it 
not so 1) ^ 

Reji. From ovk ovv comes ovkovv as one word, denoting literally, not then, or, 
therefore not, whence at least not, in which sense the word is not unl'requently used 
(in answers : no) {ovkovv — ye), and then the orthography is by most supposed to 
be ovkovv {ovkovv elKvs ye). This orthography ought then to be retained in the 
interrogative signification likewise, which in many editions is not the case. The 
interrogative signification often passes almost into that of a simple affirmative 
inference {tJierefore), and then most commonly the note of interrogation is omitted, 
and the particle is assumed = ovv. In this case it is always written ovkovv. 
'AXX', o) XeLpiaofpe, ecpr] 6 Sevo<pa>v, doKel pot ^orjdelv eirl tovs KaiovTas Tr)v yrjv a)S 
vnep Trjs rjpeTepas. 'O 8e Xeipt'crot^off eiireV Ovkovv epoiye So/cet" dXXa Kot rjpels, e(}>rj, 

^ Uiis ov {8ei.v6v, TToXXi) d(f)po<Tvvt], k.t.X.) : Is it not — ? Can one deny that it is — / 

[part II. 



§ 200.] TJie Negations. 189 

Kaicofiev, Koi ovra Bclttov Travaovrai {Xen. An. 3, 5, 6). — A. 'AXXa irpos rw fxadelv 

Koi dnoTicTOP dpyvpiov. B. Ovkovv i-neibav fioi yevrjTai, elnov {PL Itep. 1, 33/ ; 

yes, when I have got any money : then shall it not he ^vhen — / hut surely not 

till I have — /). 

f) 1. A disjunctive direct question is denoted by irorepov {irorepa) — ?';» 
or, in concise and pointed discourse, without any particle in the first 
member. 2. A disjunctive dependent question is denoted in the same 

way or by et r], etVe elre. 'Hv llpxav n? rv^J] o-oi koI apaprrj, TTOTipov 

fas apxfi-v rj liWov KaBla-Trjs dvT avrov ; (Xe«. Oi/r. 3, 1, 12.) HoTepd croi doKovaiv 
01 drrfpya^opepoi e'lbcoXa a(ppoi/d re Kai dKivrjra d^iodavpadTorepoi eivcu r) ol ^coa ep(^pova 
re Ka\ ivepyd; (Xen. Mem. 1, 4, 4.) Ovhevi rpoira (jxiixev eKovras ddLKrjreov eivai rj 




per avrov neaovras avaipc 
AoKel poi xprjvai ivapd. rwv Trpea-jBvrcov Trvvduvecrdat, cosrrep rivu bhov TTpoeXrfKvdoroiv, 




eyd 

aXXois XdkSaiOLS [SovXevaaa-Bai, e'ire (iovXeaOe TToXepelv rjplv eire (plXoi dvai [Xen. Cyr. 
3,2,13). 

Rem. 1. Sometimes Iipa — rj is put where tbe question in the first member is 
not yet denoted as disjunctive: 'S.K.e^iopeBa ro bihovai diKtjv apa ptyiarov rcbv 
KaKQiV iuriv, ws arv aov, r] pfi(^ov ro prj 8i86vai, wj av eyco o)pr]v {PI. Gorff. 4/6). 
{*H — TJ for d — fj in the Epic poets.) 

Rem. 2. An affirmative answer is most simply expressed by vai, yes, more 
strongly by ndw ye {yes, certainly ; to he snre), irdw pev ovv [TvavrdnaaL pev ovv~\ 
{of course ; unquestionahly) , rravrccs 8r], Trdvrcos brj tvov, pdXiara, koi pdXa, (T(p68pa 
ye, ea-ri raiira {it is so), (^ripi. {I say ' yes ;' so say I), or by repetition of the verb 
or another emphatic word, with the predicate (OpoXoyels ; 'O/LioAoyw), often with 
the ^ 




\oyovpev ravra; 'AXX' v7rep(f)va>s u>s Spnkoyo}) or by eycoye with the verb understood 
from the question {Aeye is ; "Eycoye. AoKel aoi ; "Epoiye). Sometimes the affirma- 
tion is expressed in the form of a question by Ti ydp ; oKXd ri ; r'l pr]v ; {what 
else? doithtless it is, must, &c.) ttw? yap ov ; {how should it he otherwise? neces- 
sarily) nas {rl) 0X1 peXXo) ; {peXXeL ; with verb understood from the question : how 
{what) else should I {he), than — /) rl yap ov peXXei ; (/cm noXXd, yes, and much 
so ; eaypcov yap, yes, for I saio it.) An answer in the negative is denoted by ov, no, 
ov BrjTn, ovdapuis (as answer to a demand, pi], pi] yap, p7]8ap.b}s), ^Kiara, iJKiard ye, 
TTuis ; TTodev ; {whence should that come ?) 



CHAPTER VIII. 

T/ic Negations. 

a) The simple neg^ative particles in Greek are ov {ovk) and /la?;. § 
The difierence between them, expressed generally, is, that with ov it 20o. 
CHAP, viu.] 



1 90 The Negations. [§ 201. 

[§ is stated absolutely, that something- is not, or does not (reality is denied 
°^'-' ohjectiveli/), while by jxrj is denoted merely a subjective representation 
(a conception of the mind) in a neg-ative form^ without its being said 
that something- is or is not, the representation being put as a loish, 
will, purjiose, condition, or as a merely general representation of 
persons, things, or actions of a certain kind. This distinction, how- 
ever, is not always accurately and precisely carried out, so that more 
special rules must be given. (In some cases the usag-e is not fixed.) 
Whatever holds of ov and /x?^, applies also to all neg'ative words formed 
by composition with them, as ovhe, ovre, ovdei^, ov8afio)<;, &c., and 
/u,7;Se, fJ^i'jre, /XT^Set'?, firjSafioi)^;, &c. 

I?) Ov is used in all principal sentences (affirmative or interroga- 
tive) in the indicative (with or without dv), and in the optative with 
dv. In general ov is to be regarded as the simple mode of denial ; 
which is also used in accessory sentences, whenever the following- rules 
do not assign that /jl^ can or should be used (e. g. ov stands in 
declarative object- sentences with oti or &)?, without regard to the 
nature of the principal sentence : MT/Set? vTroXa/jL/Saviro) fxe Xeyetv, 
<W9 ov XPW ^l^TJ'p^TTetv Tov<i 6(}iei\.ovra<;, Dem. 22, 51). 

Rem. Mr], however, is used in a peculiar manner with the indicative of the future 
in the prohibitive question with ov fxrj, see § 124 a, R. 4. In some quite occasional 
passages, where juij is otherwise put in a principal sentence with the indicative or 
optative with liv, this irregularity rests in part on some peculiarity of the sentence. 
'S^oK;] yup tiv tl aWo <p6opav ixi) Se^^otro, el to y aQavarov Koi dtSiov (fidopav ^e^erai, 
PI. Phced. 106, where /i?) 8exot.To is put as one notion = escape, which is then 
virtually negatived by axo^fi, scarcely. (In the declarative object-sentences ov 
is retained from the oratio recta.) 

^ a) In principal sentences, /at; is used only with the imperative, with 

01. the subjunctive in demands or requirements, and pro/dditions, together 
with questions about what one is to do \deUherative suhj7\, and with 
the optative (or indicative) in loishes: M?; op^i^ov, fjui] 6pyi^a)/u,e6a, firj 
opyiadfj'i. M?) aTroKpivcofjiaL j Mt) yevoLTO ravra. Aei^aTco "A(^o/9o?, 
fjbi] ScirXuaia fnjhe rptTrXdaLa fioL yeyevqixkva, aXh! avrd rd dp'^ald fioL 
irdvra dirohehopLeva {Bern. 27, 59. M?; to Sei^arct)). M?;7roTe io(^ekQv 
Xiirelv Trjv I^Kvpov [Soph. Fhil. 9G9). (M?;, fj,7]ha/jba)'i, in prohibition : 
no. See § 199, R. 2.) 

d) M?y is used in all sentences of intention \_ final sentences'] , and in 
object-sentences after verbs which denote a working, an endeavour, fear, 
and apprehension (object-sentences of the action), with the subjunctive, 
the optative, and, in some cases, the future indicative. See the examples 
to § 122, 12a, and 124 with the Rems., together with § 131. When 

[part II. 



§ 202.] The Negations. 191 

the object of a fear or apprehension [cpo^ovfiai, /a?; — , opa, [jbrj) is [§ 
itself negatively expressed, this last ne<>'ative is usually ov [vereor, ne ^°'-J 
— noil). Ou %k^oiKa, fXTj ovk e-)((o, 6, re Sco eKacTTa) roiv (f)iX(ov, av ev 
fyevTjTai, aXXa firj ovk e^^co iKavov^, ot? 8co {Xen. A)i. \, 7, 7). AWa 
firj ov TOVT ^ ')(aXe'Tr6v, m afSpe?, ddvarov eKcfyvyeiP^ aWa iroXi) %aXe- 
TTcoTepop 'jrovi]plav [FL ApoL 39. See § 124< a, H. 2)'. 

a) M?7 is used in all conditional sentences with el, idv, elre, edv re. 5, 
Ei /xev (xoi SoKet, iroirjaov, el he p^r] [el Se p,r] SoKel), eacrov. Uoirjreov 262. 
ravra, etVe /SovXet, eire pui^. TavTa hiavoiidel<i ]s.\e(i)vvpb0<i, elr 6p6o)<i 
etVe /Lt?;, ra? 8ia6)]Ka<i ravTa^; BceOero [Isce. 1, 11). 

Rem. Sometimes, however, ov is found in a sentence with et [iav). This hap- 
pens now and then where the negative, taken in close connexion with the verb, 
forms a negative notion, which is emphatically" opposed to the affirmative ; or where 
the emphasis in the condition lies in some single word other than the verb : 
nai/ro)? ovras e'xfi; u> MeXrjre, edv re av KaVAvvros ov (jirjTe edv re (j)rJTe (PI. Apol. 
25). Et fiev ovv ov no\\o\ fja-av, KaB' eKauTov civ Tvepi avraiv rjKovere, vvv he crvXkr]- 
^Srjv Tvepl irdvrav {Lj/s. 13,72; the emphasis on ttoWol). Ma Aia, tovtcov jiev 
ovhev 'iaov iariv, e'iye d(ji rjfxSiv tu)V ev ixecrco ov8els ovdeTTore ap^erai (iew. Ct/t\ 2, 2, 
3) -. But especially ov is frequently put in one or other of two sentences connected 
(§ 189) bj' p.ev and 8e, which are governed by el, where this does not so much con- 
cern each sentence by itself, or even in both of them : Aeivov av e'lrj, el ol fxev 'A^r/- 
vaiiDV ^{)fX}xa-)(oi, eTU bovXeia rij avrutv -^prifxara (pepovres ovk dnepovaLv, rjpe'is fie fVi 
TO) avTol aco^eardai ovk apa 8aTravr]a-op.ev {Thuc. 1, 121). EtV ovk alcrxp^v, w av8pes 
^ A.6r]v(uoi, el to p.ev ^Apyeicov nXfidos ovk ecpojiijdr] rijv AaKeSaipovicov dp^rjv ev eKei- 
j/ots rots Kacpols, vfxels 8' ovTes'Adrjvaioi ^dpfSapov avdpa>7Tov il)oj3T]6i](re(jde ; {Dem. 
15, 23.) (Here p} is more rare.) 

b) After conjunctions of time with av {orav, See), put] is always used ; 
where the conjunctions have not ai/, it is used where a past instant 
which has several times occurred \_iudefi)tite/requenc//'\ is denoted {eacA 
time, so often as, when), otherwise ov. Likewise usually (but not always) 
pbTj is put with ore, oirore, and oirov, in the sense when, seeing that, 
because : Tore KuXkicna Xoyi^erac 7) ■y^v)(Ti~i, orav pbrjhev tovtcov avTrjV 
irapakvTTfi, p.i]T aKorj p,i]Te o'-v^t? piTjre d\'y7]8o)v piJ]re xi? rjSovr'] [PI. Phad. 
65). 'Aei, oTTOTe p,ri dXko tl a-TrovSaioTepov irpaTTotev, TavTj) ttj iraihia 
e'X,po)VTO {Xen. Cj/r. 2, 3, 20). 'H irov ;)^aXe7rco9 dv Tov<i ciWov; irec- 
aatpLL dvdpco7rov<i, &)<? ov ^vp^cjicpav rj^ovpiac ttjv irapovcrav tv')(1]v, ore ye 



^ Rarely (f)oj3ovpai, firj — prj : ^'Edavp.a^e ScoKparT;?, ei tis (^o^olto, firj 6 yevopevos 
KoXos Kayados TO) to. p,eyi(TTa evepyerrjcravTi pi] rijv peyicrTrjv X^P''" ^^o' (-STew. JSIem. 
1,2,1). _ ^ ^ ^ 

' el pr] Hpu^euov ov^ vneBe^avTo {Dem. 19, 74; if tliey had not omitted to 
receive P.). 

CHAP. VIII.] 



192 



The Negations. [§ 203. 




the contrary : 'Hf Trore 
"Ecos \xkv ot avfxfxaxoi 
Xen. Hell. Z,b, 10. 
'ETTft fiaxop-ivoi ovK e8vvavTo Xajx^dveiv to xo>pi-ov, anuvai 7]8r] eVexetpoi/j^. Xen. An. 
5,2,5.) 

Eem. Causal sentences -with on, biori, because, inel, eneibr], as, then, liave ov. 

§ In relative sentences, /u,j; stands {a) where the relative (pronoun or 

203. adverb) has av with it, and (b) wliereacerlain, kind and class is denoted 
o-enerally by a circumlocution {ke that — , iliose loho — , such — as, if 
one — , not' merely indefinitely: jwojde who — , ihhigs which — ), and 
therefore also with exceptions (^oaoi \ir]) . In relative sentences to an 
indefinite and not general notion {anij one, peo2)le, things, who or 
which — ) [ir] is commonly used wdiere the relative-sentence expresses 
[c] an effect or puriwse {toiovto^ 09 [ir]) or {d) serves to complete a 
condition (el' Ti?, 0? y^r]) or a representation expressed in the infinitive, 
which is put by the speaker as merely thought, not as actual. In 
relative sentences to definite singular subjects, /i?? is put only some- 
times {e), when a quality is expressly put prominently forward in 
relation to the principal sentence as cause and ground or antithesis. 
But this prominence is often wanting. In all other relative sentences 
the particle is ov. {a) Mia kXIvk) {one bier) Kevr] (fyeperai. eaTpwixevq 
TOiv a<f}avo)i>, at av yu.r/ evpedoi^LV eU avalpeaiu {Thuc. 3, 34^). {b) ' A firj 
ol8a, ovB€ olofxat eiUvat {PI. Apol. 21). Tou? veKpoM, evdairep eireaov, 
eKaarovi eda-yfrav o&? Se fir] evpiaKov, Kevordc^tov avToh eTrolrjcrav fieya 
{Xen. An. 6, 2, 9). Tt jdp ; 6<;tl<; Sa'jrav7]po^ mv /J.r] ai^rap/c??? icrriv, 
a\X ael tmv 'jfkrjalov BelraL koI Xa/x/Sdvcov /xrj hvvarai d7ro8LB6vat, ov 
BoKel a-OL Kal ovTO<i ^^^aXeTro? ^/Xo? ehac ; {Xen. Mem. 2, 6, 2.) Et? ra 
7r\ola rov<; re d(T9evovvTa<; evejBi^aa-av KoX iralSa^ koI yvvaiKa'i Kai roiv 
aKSvoiV oaa fxr) dvdyKT] yv ex^iv {Xen. An. 5, '6, 1) . 'H OdXaaaa eTirjXde 
T^? TToXeo)? /u.epo9 rt Kal dv6pwTrou<i hiejiOeipev., oaot firj ehvvavTO (f)6r]vat 
nzpo^ rdiieTewpa dvahpaix6vTe<; {Thuc. 3, 89). {^'Oaov fii], oaa fn],Kad' 
oa-op fjbJ], 6,TL fi/], so far as — not) \ — («?) '^ri(^L(Taa6e roLavra. e^ oiv 
fMriheirore vpZv fxerafxeXija-et {Andoc. 3, 41). KarotKiaai Tr]v ttoXiv ek 
ToiovTov TOTTOV, OV 67ret,<iajci)'yL/j,Q)v fjbr) he^aerat, a^eBov re dhvvaTOV {PL 



> To ye dvsTvxiCTTaTos ehai dvdpcorraiv ovbanfj €K(pevya>, ore 8?) vpoayo^evrjs fxh Trjs 
iruXeas em ravTcis ras avfUpopas oii8e\s efxov dvsdaiixoveaTepos r)v, pedi.(TTap.evrjs be ttoKiv 
els TO acrcpcikfs. andvToiv e'yu ddXiuiTaTos (And. 2, 9). 

- But : 'ETretSui/ Tis eyyi'S' ,'/ tov o'leadaL TeXevTrja-eiv, elsepxerai avra 8eos Kal (f)povTi? 
TTfpi av epTrpoa-dev ova elsjjei (Pl. Bep. 1, 330, ahout tilings : not ; about^ the, or, ttiose 
(definite) tlihigs, ahout all the things). Rare : Ot ttoWoItcov tKeToyv, oaoi ovk e^nei- 
a-Bvaav, ws eapav ra yiyvvueva, 8u(p6eipav avrov ev rw lepa dX\ij\ov£ [Thuc. 3, 81). 

[part II. 



§ 204-] The Negations. ■ 193 

Rep. %, 370). Toaovrov fi6po<; rod Xoyov 8t,e\6e2v xPVj oaov firj Xvirrjcrei, [§ 
Toy? 7rap6vTa<; [Isocr. Aiitid. 12). 'H KoXwq ovv omo^ 6 e7raivo<; e;;^et, ~°-^-' 
TO opoivra tolovtov avhpa, olov kairrov Tt^ fiyj a^iol eivac aXX at,a-)^vvoLTO 
dv, '^atpeiv re kuI eTraivelv ; {PI. Hep. 10, 605.)' [d) "Aftot ovtol elcn 
c}>doveicrOaL, el \r]y\rovraL., a fjuy) irpo'^rjKei avToh {Isce. Q, 61). Ov-)(^ opa<i, 
ox? (T(f)a\ep6v ear I to, a jjurj olSe Tt<f, TavTa Xiyeiv koI irpaTTeLv ; [Xen. 
Mem. 3, 1 , 10.)' [e) Td\al7roip6<i Ti? av ye dv6pwTro<i el koI ovSe ^ KOrj- 
valo<;, (o fji^jTe 6eol TraTpcooi elcn fiyjre lepa fjbi]T dXKo fMijSev koXov koI 
ayaOov [PL Eiitliyd. 302). IIw? av opQois ifMov KaTayiyvcocrKotTe, o5 to 
irapdrrav Trpo'i rov dvdpcoirov tovtovI /j,r]8ev av/x/36Xai6v eariv ; [Bern. 
33, 34). T?7 TToXei, virep ri<i to, orrXa /i?) riOecrai, jJbrjhe avfJi/3ovXeuetv 
d^iov [JEseL 1, 29).' 

a) In simple dependent questions the neg-ation is commonly ex- ^ 
pressed by oh : ^HpcoTrjcra, hia tI ovk eXOoL. TlpcoTayopa^ epoira, el 204. 
ovK ala-^vvofiab rayada Seiva Ka\o)v [PI. Prot. 341). But in questions 
with el it is also /x?/ : Tijpr/Tiov tou? dvhpaq ev aTrdcrai^ ral<; 'qXcKiai'^, el 
(f)v\aKLKol eldi TOVTov rov SoyfiaTO'i koI /xrjre yorjrevoixevoL fiTjTe ^ca^o- 
fjuevoi eKJ3aXkovaiv [PI. Rep. 3, 412). Also /i// stands in dependent 
questions denoting- a purpose (how something- can take place), espe- 
cially with 07r&)9, see ^ 123, R. 1. Tc5 roiv YlepcrSiv ^acnXel ovhev 
TrpovpyiaiTepov ecTTiv rj aKoirelv, e^ &v firjSeTrore Travao/meda 7rpo<i aWrf- 
Xovi TToXe/jbovvre^ (Isocr. Paneg. 134). Ov CKOirel'^, o,tl p-i) Xvm^aei,^ 
Tou<i dX\ov<; iroioiv {I)em. 21, 135). 

b) In the second member of a dependent disjunctive question 
[whetlier — or not) the neg-ative may be either ov or ixrj. In a 
dependent question denoting a distinction and separation [what — 
and what not) ixr} is used when the verb is understood, but either ou 
or fjii] when it is repeated : 2«07r&>/xei^, el irpe-rrei r) ov [PI. Rep. 5, 451). 
S/ceTTTeoy, TTOTepov BUatov ifie ivOei/Se TreLpdaOat, i^tevac, fir) d^ievrasv 



^ Also ToiovTos, OS OV, where the representation of a consequence and purpose is 
not made, or not prominent: Toiovrav Serjaofievot ndpfo-nev, ev ok Kivduvos ov8f\s 
evea-Tiv {Isocr. Plat. 2). With negative precedin^^ it is always ovbeh {^irj^iis) 
ToiovTos osTis (os) ov — , oiSety ovras — , osns (09) ov. No/Ltoi/ Tide^iev, o'tKrja-iv Ka\ 
rafiulov firjSfvl elvai firjdev roiovrav, els 6 ov nas 6 (SovXajjievos e'lseia-LV {PI. Sep. 3, 416). 
Mf/SeV Twv (Tco^aTcov ovTcoi av (jiairjv elvai (f)av\ov, 5, Ti yop-vaaQev ovk av e'lrj jSeXriov 
{Isocr. Antid. 210). 

2 Ot KepKVpaloi Kal avTol avayKa(T6r](Tea6ai e<pa(Tav, Kopivdicov ^la^ofievoiv, (pikovs 
iroLela-Bai, ovs oii (BovXovtm {Thuc. 1, 28. Ov retained fVoni the oratio recta). 

^ But also : QuvpacTTov noiels, o? r]ixiv (rats olai) rats Kal epid trot Kal apvas Kai 
Tvpbv wapexovaais ov8ev 81800s {Xen. Mem. 2, 7, 13). Ovkovv StKaias {yvvalKU KaXSi 
'Ap-wiav), fjTis ov aipareverai ; {Arist. Nub. 692.) 

CHAP. VIII.] O 



194 The Negations. [§ 205, 

l§ ^ KOrjvaioiv., rj ov BiKaiov {PI. Cnfo, 48). "Nvv efiadov, o \e<yet^' el Be 
^'^'' aX7]66<; rj firj, Treipdaofiai juadelv {PL Pep. 1, 839). ToiJt' avro, el '^a[pei<; 
rj firj 'y^aipei'i, avdjKrj By irov ae dyvoelv, Kevov 7' ovra Trdarji; (^povi]aeu)<i 
{PL PJiiL 21). Ov Bel vfid^ e/c tmv tov KaTT]j6pov Xojcov roixi v6[xov<i 
Kara/xavOdveLV, el /caXw? vfilv KelvraL rj jxr], d\X e/c tmv vofKov roix; tov 
KUTrjjopov \6<yov^, el 6p9(t)^ Kal vo/jlI/xco^ v/u.d<; BtBdaKovai ro irpd'y/xa i] 
ov {Antipk. 5j 14). — Ot etSore? eavroix; rd re eirnr^Beia eavrol^ icracn 
Kal BiajiyvcoaKovaiv, a re Bvvavrac koX a firj {Xen. Mem. 4, 2, 26). 
'AXXa roL Trepi 76 (fyvXaKrj'i t?}<? ^copa? olS" on aot rjBt] fie/xeXrjKev Kal 
olada, OTToaai re (^vXaKal eiriKaipoi eiai Kal orroaaL jjh], Kal oiroaoi re 
(f)povpol iKavoi elcTL Kal oiroaoL fir] elatv {Xen. Mem. 2>, 6, 10). 'O vofxo- 
6eTri<i 8iappi]Br]v drreBei^ev, ov<i ')(^prj Brj/j-rjiyopelv Kal ov<; ov Bel Xejeiv ev 
Tft) Brjjxw {JEsch. \, 27). 

§ An infinitive (both simply, with and without article, and also an 

205. accusative with inf.) is neg-atived by fx^r] {ci). But in the accusative 
(nominative) with the infinitive (h) the particle is usually ov after 
^77/Ai and the verbs which absolutely and without any special accessory 
meaning denote to think {oJfiai, rjyovfxai, vofxitoy, vTroXa/x^dvo), also 
BoKO), a/couft)), and sometimes with other verba declarandi et sentiendi 
(e. g". Xeyco, inna'yyoviJiai,, iXTri^o), et/co? ecrriv, o/xoXoyo)) , but only when 
the governing verb is not itself, in a form (imperative) or construction 
(et, &c.) which requires /at; for its negation j for then the infinitive 
thereby governed is negatived by /jlij (c) : {a) Ala'^pov firj /3or]$elu. 

TiapeaKevaa fiat firjBevl VTreUetV. Afo^iai crov /xij nepiopav e'/xe dwoWvfievov. 
Tavra vp.as prj ayvoeiv r]j3ov\6fj.T]v. Aienpa^aixriv firj^eva fjfuv ivavTi(x)6r}vai. Ae8oKTai 
Tus vavs firjTTU) eKnXflv. Outws dvaidxyvTOL elcriv cosre fx-qSevos a7re;^e(j^ai tcov Kep8os 
(pepovTociv (but wsre ovbevos dnexovTai). IldvTa iroiovaiv vnep tov fxr) dovvai diKtjv. 
To prjdffjLiav twv ntiXfcov dXavai TToXiopKia, p-iyicrTov icTTi <Trip.fiov tov 8ia tovtovs TTft- 
adevras tovs ^coKeas dnoKcokevai {Dem. 19, 6l). 'O virfp tov tovto fif] yeviaOai dywi' 
(Dem. 18, 201). Setp^fes tovs dvOpanovs eVaSovo-ai KUTeix'^^ wsre fifj dnievai dir' 
avTuiv {Xen. Mem. 2, 6, 11). {l^) TloXXou? (paai ytyvdxTKovra'i rd /deXnara 
ovK ediXetv irpdrreiv {PL Prof. 352). '£70; olfiai, el rotavrrfv fxrf Bvvaaai 
(fiepeiv firjrepa, rdyaOd ere ov BvvaaOai (pepeiv {Xen. Mem. 2, 2, 10). 

Ev^uStj/xos vTTtXa^ev ovk av ciXKws dvrjp d^iokoyoi yeveadai, el p.T] otl fidXiaTa StOKparei 
avvfir] {Xen. Mem. 4, 2, 40). Sevocfiaii' edelro tcov (TTpaTicoToiV Tvaa-j] firixavfi fif) 
aTroXdneaOai {to strive tcith all their might not to he left behind). Ot M afpaTTfiv 
€KeXevov' oiSe yap av Bvvacrdai iropfvBrjvai {Xen. An. 4, 5, 16 ; supply '4(pa<jav, con- 
tained in fKikfvov). ¥.ivhvvev(x) {■=^ 8oku)) dnXms ov8ev etSevai {Xen. Mem. 4, 2, 39). 
^opp.t.a>v rfKni^ev ov jieveiv rmv IlfXoTrovvTjcriayv ttjv to^iv {Thuc. 2, 84). O/itoXo-yw ov 
KUTa MeXr]Tov Kal "Avvtov fivai prjTap {PI. Apol. 17). Kai TavTa cIkos ov^ t]ttov 

ovT(x)s i'x(Lv {PI. Soph. 254). 1 — (c) No/ut^e fxrjBev elvat rcov dvdpuiirlvcov 

* After verbs more specially denoting an assertion or concession (e. g. (Tvyx(^poi>), 
an assurance {papTvpoj, opvyfn), a conviction {neiBojxai., yiyvaaKco, Tna-Tfva)), ov is a 

[part II. 



§ 2o6.] The Negations, 195 

pepaiOV [Isocr. Dem. 43). nept/cX^y ovtws eKva-firjO-e TT}V TTokiv, Sjst en Kai vvv [§ 
Tovs elsa(f)iKvoviJLevovs els avrrfv vofii^eiv fir] fxovov ap^eiv d^iav elvai rmv 'EWrjvtav 205. 
aXXa Km twv aXXcov aTrdvrcov [Isocr. Antid. 234, because vofil^eiv as infinitive after 
asre would have fJ-r]).^ 

Rem. 1. From the ov belonging to the infinitive treated of in the paragraph, we 
must distinguish an ov which, though it stands with the infinitive, belongs, strictly 
speaking, to the governing verb : Ovk eVl tovtco Kadr^rm 6 SiKacrrrjs, eVi t« icara- 
XapL^eadai tu 8iKaia, dW eVt rw Kplveiv ravra, Ka\ 6fia>fjL0Kev ov ;;(aptetcr^ai, ols av 
doKij avra>, dWd BiKdaeiu Kara tovs vvpovs {PL Apol. 35 ; he has sworn, not that 
he wiU — , but that — ; ofMapoKe pi) )(^[ipu'i(T6aL, he has sworn not to — ). (X/);'; — 
ov — aXXci — , and ;(pr; — pr] — aKkd with slight diSerence.) (Ov 0J/pi levai = 
<^r]pi OVK 1., and ovk d^ico = d^io) pr], e.g. Oi 2a/xtoi ovk rj^iovv 7repa8eiv Qpnav- 
^ov\ov (TCJids diacjidapevras, Thuc. 8, 73.) 

Rem. 2. When, agreeably with the Greek idiom (see § 209, b), the negation of 
the preceding verb is repeated with the infinitive, ov is retained from the principal 
vei'b : 'O vopos OVK ea elsievai, ov av j] 6 rereXevTrjKms, ovdepiav yvva'tKa aWm n 
Tas TTposrjKOvaas /^teXP' dvei^i6Tr]Tos {Dem. 43, 63). 

Rem. 3. Even with an infinitive after wste, the negative is ov, when wsre follows 
after an ace. with inf. governed by (/)>;/iii, olpai, &c. : Ovtco Kamcppovels rtbu diKaa-rSyv 
Ka\ oiei avTovs aireipovs ypappdrav eivai asre oiiK elSevaL, oTi rd ' Kva^ayopov j3ijiXia 
yepeL tovtojv rav Xoycoi/; {PI. Apol. 26.) ' 

Rem. 4. Ov with the infinitive after other verbs than those mentioned, or after 
those in a form and construction in which the}' ought themselves to have pr], is a 
rare anomaly, for the most part occasioned by the circumstance, that the negation 
is more strongly urged in reference to a single notion : Ovkovv riBccpev dno 
Oprjpov dp^apevovs Travras tovs TTOirjTiKoiis pipr]Tas elbakav dpeTqs eluai, Tiji S' 
dXr]0eias ov)( anTeadai ; {PL Rep. 10, 600.) 

a) An adjective or participle without article as attributive or appo- § 
sition (therefore also in the double-genitive or double-accusative) is 206. 
negatived by /mi] when the substantive notion to which it is attached 
belongs, in this negative form, to a sentence or a single notion (e. g. 
an infinitive) which should itself be negatived by fii] ; otherwise ov is 
used. After tu?, a)<i7rep, as tlwngli, when the principal verb is an im- 
perative, yu7] is always used with the participle, but otherwise usually 

rare exception. Examples of px] with infinitive after 0?;/xt, oXpai, &c. : <t?a'ir]v tw 
eyaiye, pr)hev\ pr]hep'iav eivai iraihevcTiv napd tov prj dpecTKOvros {Sen. Mem. 1, 2, 39). 
Ep.01 re eSo^e kcu toXs dXXots irdai Tols Ibovcri, prjiroTe (pvvai pr]8€ yeveaOai yvvalKu drro 
6vT]TSiv ToiavTrjv iv tj] ^Acria {J^Len. Cyr. 5, 1, 7). Mixed : "Odei> 8e avTo {Tr]v noXt- 
TiKrjv Texvrjv) rjyovpat. ov didoKTov eivai pr]8e vn dvdpaircov Trapaa-Kevacrrov dvdpooTrois, 
bUaios elpt elirelv {PL Prot. 315). 

^ Olpai helv ov — 0??/^'' XP^""' "" {^^ after olpai and cfirjpi) and oipai ^PV^oi fir]. 

* Otherwise a very rare exception : "Hdrj yap rinTai Ka\ KaTeipyaa-Tai nvpi ("iXtos) ; 
QsT ovS' 'ix^os ye Teixea>i> eivai {Eur. SelL 108 = eaTiv). 

CHAP. VIII.] O 2 



196 The Negations. [§206. 

ou, altliougli the principal sentence would require /xr; : "K6\lov firj 
vytel '^v')(rj avvoiKelv {PL Gorg. 479). ^ Kiriv^ov ryjv re yvvatfca koX rou<; 
TratSa? ixrjhev avrwv KaraOek [Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 37. M/y because of the 
imperative). Olfiai ae, idv tl ataOr] creavrov firj elSoTa, ^i]Teiu rov<i 
eiTiarafxevovi [Xen. Mem. 3, 5_, 23. Because of idv). Ovy 01 /lltj 
B6vTe<;, a fir) BoKel, Seivov elcriv ovSev elpyacr/nevoL, aA,X' ol Bovre^ fxev, 
iruXiv Be varepov, firjSev ejKaXovvre^, dcpaLpov/mevot, [Dem. 20, 117. 
Because it would be ol fir] dcpaipov/xepoL, as 01 fxr) B6i>Te<;. See the fol- 
lowing- §). Ao^fw rrip TToXiv eXarTovv, el &7]^ahi [xev e^ovai (d6cnrid<; 
KOI JlXaraid'i, j}/zei? Be e^i/juev /xTjBe/j.id'^ dvdyKT]'; ovor7]<; e^ o)v Tvy)^di'Ofiev 
€)(^ovre<; [Isocr.de Pac. 17). — 'fl? ovv firj aKOvaofMercov ij/u.cov, ovra)<; 
BiavoelaOe [PI. Rep. \, 327). — Et w? ov rd ^eXriara ifiov irokirev- 
aa/iievov KT7]cn(f)covTO'i KaTwifrrjcfiLetade, rj/j,apT7]Kevai avrol Bo^ere [Dem. 
18,207). 

Rem. Sometimes, however, a participle or adjective stands with ov, although 
the principal verb requires /Liij, the representation being less closely attached to 
the verb, but put more iudependeutl}' by itself, e. g. "Atotvvv eari irepl tcov Stfcaicoy 
vfias diSdcTKeiv aliTov ov to. SiKaia noLovvra [Dem. 15, 25 ; without oneself doinq what 
is just, where avrov ov ra SiVaia ■n-oiovvra might be expressed otherwise without a 
negative), especially where the participle contains an independent act'aal fact : 
Et (ipa Koi idoKovfj.ei' ri di/eiruiKeaTepoi/ irpa^ai ov nera tov ttXtjOovs vjjlcov elseXdovres 
(in coDiina into the city against the will of your people), to. ojjioia ovk diraTreSore 
rjfuv [Thuc. 3, 6Q). 

b) Mt; stands with the participle when this assig-ns a condition 
with the principal verb (= et /i^ with a verhum Jlniium) : OvSeU dv 
TOi? (70(f)taTat<i BceXiyero fxrj VTria-^vou/xevoii; els rd TToXiTL/cd Beivorepovi 
TToielv TOi)? avvovra^ [PL Soph. 232). Tt9 dv TroXt? vtto jllj] ireidofievcov 
d\oti] ; [Xen. Cyr. 8, 1, 2 ; hy men not obeying, i. e. by men if they do 
vot obey. Otherwise : Aeyco ev ovk elBooriv, among p)6op)le who are 
ignorant of it.) Mr/ BrfKco6eia6i)v tcov alrtwv 7roX\.o2<; dv caa)<; dro'iro'i 
6 X0709 elvai Bo^eiev {Isocr. Antid. 1). (Tt ')^p)]aaLr dv rt? laj^vpui rf 
uvBpelcp, fii] adxppovL ; Xen. Cyr. 2>, \, 16 = (jlt] oWt cruxppovi.) 

Rem. 1. In other constructions, an adjective or participle without article is 
regularly negatived by ov. {TXavKcov 67i-e;^et'p6t ^i-jpr^yopeiv, ovSenco eiKocnv err] 
yeyovas. JLen. Mem. 3, 6, 1. Oi (ro<pi(TTal Karrjyopovcn rcov padrjrSjv, a>s ddiKovai 
acpas avToiis tovs re pta-dovs arrocmpovvTes Ka\ aWrji' xup'" ovk dnoSidovres. PL Gorg. 
519, by depriving them, and not — . Ol8a, on ov ypdyl^avros 'Adrjvalcov ovBevos 
TTcXf/j.oi' ^iXmnos TrnXXa e^^ei ttjs noXecos. Don. 8, 58 ; without any one of the 
Athenians having — . "¥.yva>v twv ttoXltcov rivas ovk eivo'iKcos nposepe SiuKeipevovs. 
Isocr. Antid. ii. Aurddvopai. ov8ip 8taTT€wpayp€vos,a>i'i]j3ovX6pr]v.) Now and then, 
however, prj occurs exceptionally with a participle of the circumstance, or a par- 
ticiple which, by §§ 177 and 178, stands Avith the subject or object: Ovx opas, on 
ol 'Adfjvrj(n BiKaaral noXXovs rjhr] prjSep ddiKovvras dneKTeivav ; (£en. Mem. 4, 8, 5.) 

[part II. 



§ 207-] TJie Negations. i97 

"ElotSa, TTai, ^uo-et tre /x^ necfivKOTa ToiavTa (fiavelv fJLrjde rexyaa-dai koko. (Soph. Phil. [§ 
79). {Al(TX,yvoiJt.ai fxf] noiau =: ei fxr) iroioi.) I 

Eem. 2. Ao'^a op(97 Seii/wv Trepi Kai /xij (P/. -ffe/). 4, 430; = nepl tov, ti Seii^oi/ 
Koi ri fj.j], bj § 2U4 b). 

An adjective or participle with the article denoting- generally a § 
certain kind and class is usually negatived by /j,/] {a), yet sometimes 207 
by ov {b). But if it means some persons or things indefinitely of a 
certain class {persons who — , things which — ; see § 180 b, R. 1), or 
individual definite persons or things which are characterized, then oh 
is used (r), («) At yJi] Kokat kinQvybiai. yikvwv rou /xr] iravovp'yov tmv 
airaiheuTWV ii'o/jn^ev dvai {Xeu. An. 2, 6, 26). Tcof aTpancorSiv 01 /J,r] 
BvvdfievoL SiareXiaat ryjv ohov ivvKrepevaav dairot kol dvev irvpo'i {Xe)i. 
An. 4, 5, 11). Ta opard kuI rd fir] (viz. opard. PL Fhad. 79). T^ 
TToXei TToWdKi'i fi6T6fi6\r]cre twp [xeT opyi]'; kcli /jUT] /xer iXeyxov y6i'op.e- 

VCOV (IsOCr. Antid. 19). (T6 jur/SeV = to iirjdi ev, not TO oi'd^v.) — ('^J No/Xt- 

^ere hrjfxoTiKWTepovi elvai rov^ /jb66vovra<; tcov vr](f)6vTWV Kac tou? vovv 
ovK eyovTa<; tcov 6u (f)povovvTcov {Isocr. de Pac. 13). Tov ovfc op^co? 
'X^pdofMevov jfj prjTopLKfi ixLcxelv hUatov, dX)C ov rof hi.hd^avra [PI. Gorg. 
457. But sbortly before: Ovx rj re-^vr] alria tovtov, dXX' 01 fxr] ;(pd)/ifi'ot, olfxat, 
opdas)- (c) OiSa ')]8t] dvOpcoTTov^, toj)? fiev iic StaySoXi}?, tov<; 3e kuI i^ 
viro-^ia'i, o'l (f)ol3T]9evT€<i dXkt^Xov^, (^6 da at ^ovXo/xevoi irplv TraOelv, 
eirolrjanv dvi]KeaTa kuku tov? ovre fxeXXovrwi oure /SovXofievovi tolovtov 
ovSev {Xe)i. A)i. 2, 5, 5 ; to persons neither going nor ivishing — , inde- 
finitely). OvK. rja-^vvovTO ol Tore TroXiTevofxevot iirl rov'i ovSev ttcottot 
et9 r]/xd<i i^a/napTOVTaii (npandv tWe/xTTOz^Te? [Isocr.de Pac. 84; meaning 
the Sicilians). Bofcorot. ol irpoaOev ovS" ev rfj kavTWV ToX/Awyre? 'A^??- 
va[oL<i dvTirdTreaOai, vvv aTreiXovcnv ifx/SaXelv etf rrjv 'Attlkt^v [Xen. 
Mem. S, 5, 4). At ouk opOal TroXnelai avrat [PI. Pol. 302).^ 

Eem. 1. (To §§ 201 — 207.) It is not uncommon for oi to standin sentences 
wbich would require p.r], wben the negation concerns onlj^ a single part of the 
predicate, e.g. the object or an adverb, whereby a negative antithesis is annexed 
to the affirmative form, to make it more forcible [ovk — ak\a, dXX' ov, Ka\ ov, or 
simply ov, ovx oircos — aXXd, ov y.r]v, yet not, sometimes also ov jxovov). But we 
also find ^jj. ^AvajKr] tov toiovtov ^rjv ovk av6p(OTtov jBlov aXXa twos TrXeu/Ltofo? 
(PI. Phil. 21 ; of a mollusc). Xpr] ttjv a-cjffypoua nvXiv rov eV raJ avpjBovXevav prj 
TVXOVTa Trjs dp6r]s yvaprjs ovx '"'"'^^ f'?/^'ovi' dXka /ijjS' aTCna^fiv {Thuc. 3, 42). 
'ETvaidfiidrju oi'rws vtto ri^sSe rrjs eprjS re Ka\ vperepas narpidus rots npfa^vrepois ov 
fiovov dde\(po'ii. cWkd koi TroXtVais Kal 68cbv (cat 6dK(ov Kol Xoycoi" vneLKdu (JiTe;;. Gi/r. 8, 
7, 10). AiaCJ^ipeL i] epi) Ttx^V ''"<{' i^cu Tas yj/vxds twv dv8pa>v (TvidKOTiilv aXKa prj Ta 
ui>pxiTa {PI. Thecct. 150). (Ae'o/xui vpwv, idv eindei^co Mfidiap tovtovl p-rj povov eis 

^ Hence in Thucydldes (3, 95) : Sta ttjs Aev*cdSos t»)i/ ov T:epiTeix<-cn-v, their not 
having drawn a wall round L. 
CHAP. VIII.] 



19^ The Negations. [§208,209. 

[§ f/ie ahXa Kai (Is vfias Koi (Is rovs vo^ovs v^piKora, ^orjdrja-ai Koi inol Kai vfiiv avTois. 

207.] De>?i. 21, 7. Here firj fxovov eiV e'/xe is an essential part of the condition.) 

Rem. 2. Later writers (e. g. Plutarch, Lucian, Arrian) often use /xj; in different 
kinds of accessory sentences where the older writers have ov, as in object-sentences 
with oTi (S(o'ri) or ms, and in causal-sentences with 6ti, because, and ine'i. Also 
they, much more frequently than the older writers, use jutj with participles which 
merely denote a circumstance, without having an occasion in the form of the sen- 
tence (see § 206 b, R. 1). 

§ By ovhe or jxr^he [and — not, and — even not) a negative continua- 

208. tion is added, often with intensive force [not even). (Aa-anos noranos 

eppvT] peyas Kal ov paSt'coy dia^arus rjv. T/iuc. 2, 5.) The Connexion of tvVO Of 

more members into a whole is effected by ovre — oure, ixrjre — /ij^re. 

('Eyw dpaais ovt dpi prjre yevoiprjv. Bern. 8, 68.) A neg-ativC and au 

affirmative clause are coupled by ovre — re, [xrjre — re, more rarely 
by re — ovre : "fl/j^ocrav oi Te"EXX7;i/e? kolI 6 WpLaio<; kol twv crvv avrco 
01 KpaTiaroL, /xijTe irpoZcocreLV aXMJKov^ (jvixixayoi re eaeaOat (Xe/i. An. 
2, 2. 8). 

Rem. Where the negative closely coalesces with the verb into one notion, we 
also find re — ov {prj) for ovre: 'AXXa prjv Koi tov craipaTOS avros re ovk rjpeXei 
Tovs T dpeXovvras ovk firjjvei [JH^eii. Mem. 1, 2, 4). Ovre — ovre — ouSe {ovbe ye, 
oi'8' av), neither — )ior — 7io, nor yet {and also not). Instead of the regular dis- 
tributive connexion by ovre — ovre {prfre — nr]Te), the second member has occa- 
sionally ovS av {prjS" av), and on the other hand also not, or hi for re: Ovt apa 
avdpmTTOvs d^iovs Xoyou Kparovpevovs vno ytXcoros iav ns TtoLjj {represents), tiTro- 
heKTeov, ttoXv 8e ijttov, eav Beovs {PL Rep. 3, 388). Rare (poetical) connexions are 
ov — oi), OVT — ov, or (where the verb is the same) the omission of the first ovre. 
{Tpocprjv re ov8e\s e8l8ov Kal al ^olvt(r(rai vrjes ov8e Ti(Taa(f)fpvrjs tjkov. Thuc. 8, 99.) 

§ «) A simple neg-ative [ov or iir]), combined with a predicate into a 

209. negative expression, is cancelled by a foregoing negative : Ou/c e'/iot 
ixovw ov SceSi^aro rioXu/cA-r}? Tr]v vavv [Dem, 50, 68 ; succeeded to me 
in the shij)). Ovhe rbv ^opfiioova 'AvTijuaxo^; ov-^ opa [Dem. 36, 46; 
and A. sees Ph. verij well). Mr; ovv, otl kuI AaKe8aifioviov<; Kal <t>(OKea<i 
e^rjTTaTrjae ^iKtTT'JT0<i, 8ia ravO' S)V vfxd<i Alcr^[i>7](; i^-qTrciTrjae, fj,7j Sorco 
hUi^v [Bern. 19, 77 ; let not j^sch. escape the punishment). 

Rem. 1. There are, however, some passages in which (by a kind of anacoluthia) 
an ov is inserted after an interposed sentence, merely to repeat the negative 
which stands immediately before the interposed sentence : 'Opuy, on r\ acocppoa-vvi] 
ov)( asTTfp rj avdpfia Kal rj <To(j>La iv pepfi Ttvl eKaTepa ivovcra r; ptv o'ocfirjv, t] fie 
avopaav ttjv noKiu Trapei^^eTo, ov^ ovtco noiei avrrj, dWa hC oXr]s dTe)(uais reTarai 
{PI. Sep. 4, 432). OvS" as 7rpose8uK(ov KaXoytC^upr/v eyo) Trparas irapeaeadai 8evpo, 
rds Axapveoiv ywa'tKas, ovx rjKovaiv {Arist. Lys. 61). 

Rem. 2. Ov pa TOV At", o\> — (in answers) : No, by Zeus, not — . (Also, without 
further addition, merely : Ov pa tov A", ov piv dr).) 

[part II. 



§210.] The Negations. 199 

b) A composite neg-ation, which follows after another, simple or [§ 
composite, with the same predicate, does not cancel the former, but ~°9] 
continues it, either heightening and confirming it (e. g-. ov — ovhk, 
non — ne — quidem, ovhe — ovhe, neque — ne — qu'idem, ov fievroi 
ovhe, ov firjv ovSe, yet also not), or distributively (e. g. ouSel<i — ovre 
— ovTe) or i-epeating it with the indefinite pronominal notion (pro- 
noun or adverb), often several times (e.g. ovSi — ouSei? ovSev, ovSeU 
ovBevl ovSev) : M^ Xavdaverco ae fxrjSe tovto {Xe)i. C//r. 5, £, S6). T( 
Be av ; ttw? 7rot,r]cr€t<i ; ovSe jap ovSe rov crov kralpov hel TrapekOelv [PL 
Fhad. 278). K\ea/3;^o? eirl ^Iv rovf; 7ro\6/uou<; ovk rjyev jjSet. jap 
d7retpr]KnTa<i roi/? crrpari,(i)Ta<i' ov iievroi ovS" aireiiXive, (j>v\aTTOfxevo<;, fMrj 
BoKOiT] (f)€vjeLV {Xen. Ati. 2, 2, \Q). 'E^ ov r-qv iroXcv olnov/jbev, ov8el<; 
ovre KivBvvo<; ovre TroXe/^o? rrepi rrfkiKovToyv to /Mejedoq tj/jlIv jejove, 
irepl oawv win ^ovXevcrofMevoi avveXrfkvOaixev [Isocr. Archid. 7). 'Ai^eu 
TouTov oySet? el<i ovSev ov8evo<i av vfjuoiv ovBeirore jevocTO a^LO<i {PL 
PhlL 19). 

Eem. This last repetition of the negative with the several pronominal words is 
only used where the negative is emphatically urged as universal ; otherwise it is 
said : OiiSety TTcoTrore /caXXioi/ ddvarov rjveyKev fj IfCUKpaTrj? {Xen. Mem. 4, 8, 2). 
Ovre Tcbv noXiraiv twv ^Xiaa-iav ov8f\s ndw Ti fTri)(a)pid^€i to. vvv 'A6r]va(e ovre Tis 
^evos d(j)'iKTai ^povov (Tvx^vov eKfldep (PI. Phted. 57). 

With sundry verbs which contain a negative notion, and are con- ^ 
structed with the infinitive or ace. with inf., p,/] is attached to the 210. 
infinitive, to give prominence to the negation (only the affirmative 
part of the verb being in the speaker^s thoughts). {Mq with rt? 
becomes /AT/Se/?.) Such verbs are those which denote a denial and a 
contradiction [dpvovpui, i^apvovp,ai, €^apv6<i elp,i,, dvTt\ej(o),Si prohibi- 
tion [dirajopevw, aTreiTrov, d7ro\lrr](pi^op,ac, aTro-^ecpoTOVo)) , a desisting 
from or a retracting of an opinion or resolution {dirojLjvcocrKci}, diro- 
BoKel, p.erajijvaiaKU), dvaTl6ep,aL, also direvycuiaC) , an acquittal [oTroXvoi, 
d(f)Lr]p,L), a shunning or hindering and holding back or freeing from 
something {evXa/Sovfiai, (f)vXdTTop,at,, kcoXvco, BiaKcoXvo), ep^iroBoiv elfii, 
evavTLOvp^aL, etpjw, d'ire')(U), d(f>aipovp,ai, dTrocnepo), aco^u), ike), lastly, a 
doubting of something [dTrtaJW, dirpo'iBoKrjTO'i elp^i). Twv diroiiTeivdv- 
Tcov }^v(f)pova ol /j-ev dXXoi rjpvovvTo firj avTox^tp^'i jeveadai, eh Be 
oi)/xoXoj)JKeb [Xen. HelL 7, 3, 7). 'A(TTvdjr]<i dTrrjyopeve fj,r]Beva /SdXXeiv 
irplv Kupo? e/jLTrXTjadelr) 61-jpoiv [Xen. Cyr. 1, 4, 14). Mai^rtm? d-we^r\- 
(f)LcravTo roU iepoh ')(^pq/jbacn, firj ')(^pr)a6ai [Xen. HelL 7, 4, 33). Tt/^o^eo? 
^Apio^ap^dvec dTrejvco fiq /dorjOelv [Dem. 15, 9). Ylavaavia<i Kpidel^ 
VTTo TWV XirapTLarcov direXvOy] p,i] dSiKelv [Time. 1, 128). ^ivXajSelaOe 
ravra /jlt] iroXXciyv evavriov Xejeuv [PL Eubthyd. 304). Ot BtaKoyXvaavTei 

CHAP. VIII.] 



200 The Negations. [§2ii. 

,\.h ravra firj yeveaOat Tive'i rjaav ; {Avdoc. 3, 21.) 01 'AOijvaloi ov irap- 
rjcrav ral<i vavalv, airiarcvvTe'; tov SixaX/cTyy ix-q ij^eiv {Thac. 2, 101). 

Eem. 1. Mj7, however, is sometimes omitted (e. g. 'OKVT](Tovcn, fifi airoM^r] r^fiiv 
Tas anovSas Troir]aaa6ai, Xen. An. 2, 3, 9 : eiXafSovaai e^nfirflv, PL Sep. 10,608), 
especially with verbs denoting a holding hack, &c., and with ku>\vco and its com- 
pounds, this is the most usuah On the genitive of the infinitive of the verbs 
which denote Iwldhicj hack, &c., Avith or without /X77, see § 156, R. 3. "With 
avTiktyai, (jLerayiyvwaKbo. avariOfnai the omission of fxr) gives a different sense : 
fierayiyvwcTKco ttouIv, resolve, icitk ahandonment of my j'ormer ^^urpose, to do} 

Rem. 2. Verbs which denote denial, contradiction, and doubt, may also be fol- 
lowed by an oh in a sentence with ins, which ov belongs to the affirmative part of 
the principal verb {apvoifxai u>s oii ^ apvoi/iat ^77, Xeyo), on ov) : Ot 'AOrjvaioi 
ovoafiov avre'iTTov, as ovk ubiKovai rovs rjfieTtpovs {tcop AaKfdaiixoviav) ^vp.jx6.-)(ovs 
{Time. 1, 86). 

^ d) After a principal verb, either directly negative or denying- in the 

211. form of interrogation, the negative (both the usual one and the super- 
fluous one mentioned in the preceding paragraph) is usually put 
twice by ^t) ov, the principal negative being repeated : OvSel? 0*09 
T ecTTti/ dXXo)^ Xeycov firj ov KarayeXaaro^ ehai {PL Gorg. 509 : can 
help hemg ri dim Ions). "Alvvara ?> (= ov Bvmrov), 'AOrjvaiwv 'Opco- 
irov i'xpvrwv, /ur] ov [xeydXa ^XuTrreiv ro '^wpiov rrjv Ev/3otav [Thuc. 
o, CO). Et uXrjBi] ravra, TL<i firi'^avrj fxr} ov'^i Trdina KaravaXoidrjvai et? 
TO reOvdvai ; {VI. Plmd. 72 = ovSe/u-ia ixi-j'y^avr}.) Tiva oiei a-Trapvt]- 
aea-Oai (= owSet? dirapvijo-erai) fii] ov')(l eTrio-TaaOai rd hUaia; {PL Gorg. 

^ol.j ( Httcov etjut Ka\ tov ertpov vjiav, wsre ttoXXov Sfco prj ov 8vo yf (pfvyeiv. PL 
Eidliyd. 297. IloXXoi 8eco as denial.) Ovhe. to ')(^p7}/xaTi^€o6aL [Lv6vS7]fjbo<; Kul 
Aiovvo6Sa)p6(; (fyarov StiiKcoXveiv ovSev /nr) ov TrapaXajSelv rrjv a^erepav 
<T0(j)Lav {PL Euihijd. 304, hinder not ihe receiving). Ei yevr^aopieOa eirl 
paaiXel, ri ifj-irohcov jxr] ov')(l irdvra rd SeivoTara 7ra66vTa<; v^pi^ofxevovi 
aTTOoavelv ; {Xen. An. 3, 1, 13.) OuSet? ehvvaro KpvirTeiv to /u,r/ ovy 
7]hea><i dv koX cd/xwv eadieiv rwv SirapriaiMv {Xen. llelL 3, 3, 7). 

Rem. Rarely pi] alone (Ov dwrjcrovrai prj TteiOecrBai roh Qr]^alois, Xen. Mell. 6, 
1, 1), except with article prefixed (jo pi], see § 156, R. 4) ; for here, after a 
denial, both to prj and ro prj ov are used. With the genitive of the infinitive {tov 
pi}) ov is not added. {"^sTe prj ov after a principal verb negatived.) 

d) In the same manner prj ov stands with the infinitive after 
expressions denoting a disapprobation of an action thought of (there- 
ibre a demand that it should be forborne), e. g. Seivov, alaxpov, 
aLa-x^vvT) eoTtv, dvoTjrov, TroXXi] avoid iariv, also alaxvvo/xat : Udatp 

' 'Ap(f)is(BT]Ta), maintain (in controversy with a different opinion), e. g. dp(j). ttjv 
iprjp Tfxvrjv pti^ovos ayaBov aWiav elvai, dp(f). pi) aXrjdi] ae Xtytw. 

[part II. 



§212,213.] The Negations. 201 

aia'xyvr] rjv fi7] ov ava-TrovSa^etv {Xen. Afi. 2, S, 11). IToXA,?) dvoia /u,r) [§ 
ov'^i ev re Kal ravrov rf^eiaQai to evri ttclcl toi<; aoo/xaai KaWo<i [PL 

Conv. 210.) (More rarely simple yLt): 2oO Trpodvfiov ovtos alaxpov jiyvfTai ffxe 
ye ftj) fOeXdv, PL Goi'ff. 458.) 

c) Mrf ov is also sometimes put (but in Attic prose rarely) with participles, or 
other accessory definitions denoting an exception from the negative or quasi-nega- 
tive statement of the principal sentence : Al noXds TToWm Kal xaXenai Aa^eii/ al twv 
^coKecov firj ov XP*^'"^ '^"^ noXiopKiq. {Dem. 19, 123). I\Iore usually: Oii yap tjv 
npa^ai firjdeu ^.f] Sihovra Swpa (T/iuc. 2, 97). (In the poets here and there with 
the participle merely in the sense without (doing, etc.) where the preceding prin- 
cipal verb is negatived : [Ou yap av fxaKpav 'ixvevov avT<it9, fxfj ovk excav ti crvp.^okov 
{Soj)Ji. (Ed. T. 221).' 'HKeij yap oil KevT] ye . . . fii] ovxi ^e'lfx ep.o\ (f)epov(rd Ti, 
(Ed. a 361].) 

Of special negative expressions, which at the same time denote relations of con- ^ 
nected sentences and clauses, the following are to he remarked : (1) ov ixovov, not only „' 
{dWd), (2) fxTj (in, not to say ; not merely {/jlt] oti Idiarrjs ns dXX' 6 ptyas jBaaiXevs) ; "' 
when a negative follows in the predicate common to both members, pr] on denotes 
{not to say not, i. e.) not only not (non modo) : 'ATrarovpios prj on 8iKcta-a(r6at, aXA' ovS' 
iyicaXea-ai fxot eroXprjaeu {Isce. 10, 1) ; the common negative may also be put first 
(ov — prj oVt, aXX' ov8i) : To Ipdriov fj aXXo ti, hv icfKTrjaai. ov8ev\ av pi] oti. TtpolKa 
bolrjs dXX' ovSe eXarrov ttJs d^ias XajSwv {Xe)i. Mem. 1, 6. 11). After a negative 
clause pr) oTi is {not to say, i. e.) much less (non modo) : OuS' dpawveiv, prj on Xeyeiv 
Ti 8vvr]a6pe6a {Xen. Conv. 2, 26).- (3) For prj on, in the sense not only and not 
only not sometimes, but more rarely, ovx on is used : Tfj twi/ ^kv6oiv fiuaiXeia d8v- 
vara i^icrovaOai ovk on rd ev ttj 'Evpamyj, dXX' ouS' ev Aala eOvos ev irpos ev ovk eanv 
(see § 2()9 a, li. 1), 6, n bwarov '2Kv6ais opoyvapowovcn irda-iv dvTurTfjvai [Thuc. 2, 
97). Ovx "'''' crrpanjyos dXX' ovS' 6 tvx^v dvdpwrros {Dem. 23, 155). (4) In the 
sense 7iot only not, we have also ovx ^ttcos : Ovx ('^'^^ f^ Troirjaas, dvff cov ev eirades, 
a^iols rjpds diTOTrt pyl/aadai, dXX' dnoTropevop.evovs rjpds ov8e KaTavXLa6i]vai, oaov 8vva- 
<rai, enirpeneis {Ji^en. An. 7, 7, 8). 

Rem. For particular constructions of the negative particles with adverbs of 
time or of place (e. g. ovirore, ovn(o, oixen, &c.), or with words which serve for 
transition, or to give a certain emphasis to the denial (e. g. ov ydp, ov yap dXXd, 
ov p.r)v, ovpevovv, ovbrjnov, oii t^ra, ovn), see the Lexicon [and Ajjpendix]. (So 
for povov ov, ocrov ov, only not, i.e. nearly, almost.) 

The word olheis (prjBeis) and some verbs and phrases of denial (e. g. aTravSco) ^ 
ai'e sometimes by a less accurate turn of the sentence so put that in a subsequent 215 
adversative member the affirmative notion contained in them (nduTes, eKaaros, ' 

KeX(iia>, &c.) is understood. Aeyovai nves, on ovdels eKuiv diKaios, dXX' vno dvav- ^ A * 
8pias J] yrjpcos rj nvos oXXj/j dadeveias ■^eyei to dbiKelv {PI. Rep. 2, 366).' 

[' But see Schneidewin in I. and on v. 13. Comp. App. 296. — H. B.] 

- Also (with a single noun) : pi] tl ye ('AKpoL rreTTevTal too'ovtol ovk av yevoivro, 
pi] n 87] ^aaiXels ye, PI. Pol. 292). 

' ^ApeXr](ras, hvnep 01 noXXoi (viz. enipeXovvTai), ;(p?;/naTi(7'/LioC Tf Ka\ olKodopias Kal 
crrpaTTjyiwv {PI. Apol. 36). 

CHAP. VIII.] 



202 Ellipsis. Anacoluthia. [§ 214. 

CHAPTER IX. 

Certain particular Irregularities of Construction. 

(appendix to the first and second parts.) 

^ {The Verb understood.) In co-ordinate connected sentences, or in 

214. accessory sentences of the same kind which mutually correspond, the 
verb is often understood, to be suppKed in one sentence from the 
other : Si) ixeu TLfiri<i, rjixel^ he r)crv)(^ui<; iTTcdvfiovfiei'. OvSe Tavra ol 
Trapayevo/xevot TrdvTa, ttXtjv to kuO" eavrov eKacno'^ olhev {Thiic. 7, 44). 
Ikuvov tovto fj.01 reK/bLTjpiov, ore &)? aXr]6(t)'i fioi euvovi el, koI imtjv, otl 
ye Oi09 7rapp7]cnd^ea6ai, avro^ re <^^^? Kal 6 X670?, ou oXtyov irporepov 
€Keye<i, ojxokoyd aoi, {PL Gorg. 487). 

Rem. 1. Sometimes merely the infinitive of the preceding verb is understood 
arter a new verb : T^ ovrj] Idea (Kflvd re fi)(ou oi 'Adrjvaioi koI to evOdSe vvv Tret- 
pavrai (Thiic. 6, 76). Oiire TrdavovTes kukov ovdh ovTe aeXKoPTes [Isocr. Panath. 
103). 

Rem. 2. In some constructions, especially where the opposition between the 
other clauses of the sentence makes it plain how the words must be connected, 
the principal verb may be understood from the leading sentence in the accessory 
sentence (even the infinitive or participle, as in §§ 177, 178, may be thus under- 
stood from the verb finite in the principal sentence), rarely vice verso., i. e. from 
the accessory in the principal sentence : 'Apyelot iroKefioiicn jxev, i^ olnep rf/u ttoXiv 
oiKovcTL, TTpos Tovs opopovs, SjsTvep AaKebaipovioi' roaovTOv 8e diacpepovo'iv, ocrov eKelvot 
pfv npos fJTTovi avTuiv, ovtoi de npos Kpeirrovs (Isocr. Phil. 51). 4>tXeti/ o'lecrBe Belv, 
ovsTTfp av Koi 6 ^acrikevs (viz. (piKj], Isocr. jVic. 60). 'Avex'^PV^'^" '^°^^ °' 'Adrji/aioi, 
fTretSi) Koi TOVS AaKebaipoviovs (i8ov (viz. dvax(iipovvTas, Thuc. 3, 16). Et S?j ro) 
ao(pu)Tep6s tov (pULrjv elvai, tovtm av (viz. (To(p. eipai (jjairfv), on ovk. etScjy iKuvas 
nepl Ta>v ev''Ai8ov ovrco Kal o'iopai ovk fldevai {Pi. Apol. 29).^ 

Rem. 3. Sometimes the verb is understood, from the preceding sentence, in a 
sentence which is not grammatically connected with it, as in an appended remark 
in hypothetical form with av (§ 139 c), or in an explanation and statement of the 
reason with yap. Tovvavriov vnopvrjo'co vpds fj ol Tro\epi.oi cr(f)LaLv avTo'is TrapaKfXev- 
ovraf ol pev ydp, on nepl TTarpidos farai, 6 dyav, eya> 8e, on ovk iv Trarpidi (Thuc. 
6, 68). 

Rem. 4. Sometimes in two connected (or opposed) sentences, the verb of the 
first member supplies to the second a verb of kindred meaning capable of being 
comprehended under the same general notion (zeugma) : UXdrcov oSe, S avSpes 

' 2ii vvv p , ubiK^i, pi] ns 'Apyelcov Krdvrj, Eur. Or. 1037 ; KTave from ktuvij. 

[part II. 



§ 215-] Ellipsis. Anacohithia. 203 

Adrjvaioi, Koi KpiVtoi' Koi Kptro'jSovXoJ KeXfvovcri /xe TpiaKovra fiVav TifiTjaacrOai, 
avTol be iyyvaadai. (viz. /SovXoiToi, PI. Apol. 38). 

{Mlipsis of the Verb.) a) The verb eVxiV or etViV (third person in § 
the indicative) is often omitted in short and pithy saying-s, not only 215. 
in the principal sentence, but also in simple and concise accessory 
sentences, e. g. declarative object-sentences, interrogative sentences, 
relative sentences (especially with 00-09). Note in particular the fre- 
quent omission of ecriv with the gerundive (see § 84 a), and with 
adjectives in the neuter, and certain substantives with which it forms 
an impersonal expression to which an infinitive is attached, e. g. 
copa, avd-yKt], ikTr'f^, ov a-^oXi], Ovk da(f)a\ei<; al fieyaXat evTV')(ia.i. 
' Opa, et aoc /3ov\o/u,€V(p a Xeyco {PL Rep, 2, 358. On /SovXofjLevo) croi 
ianv, see § 38 d). "Ewoi tmv irpecr^vTOiv to <yr]pa<; vfivovatv, ocrwv 
KUKcbv a<i>taiv atriov {PI. Pep. 1, 329). 'Atto tcop ypcocov dp^d/xevoi, 
ocrcov \6yoL XeXei/x/jLevoi, f^^XP^ "^^^ ^^^ dvOpuiircov {PI. Rep. 2, 366) . 
' A^iov Kol Tb)v irpoyovcDV r^? dpeTrj^ ixefivrjaOaL. Ov a^oXr) Ku/xveiv 
{-ci. Rep. 2, 4(Jb). {'\covla, UfXoTrovvTjcroi. vrjcrni, ocrai evros niKonovuTjcrov koi 
KpfjTrji, Thiic. 2, 9. ' AXKt^iadjjs fjpatTa, ouov 'Ayddcop, PI. Conv. 212. Omission of 
eoTTi in the sense is in respect of place, is to be found, lies, &c.) (On olbiis osris ov, 
see 105 b, R.) 

Eem. 1. In the first or second person dpi is rarely omitted, viz. in quite simple 
principal sentences : 2oi ovk oKiyoi rmv vfav lik-qcria^ovcn, koi Siicaiais' a^ios yap rd 
T aWa Km yfcopfrpias ev€Ka {PL Thecet. 143,_/or tliou art worf/ii/). (With the 
adjective erotpos it occurs more frequently : AeKviov, eTreiSij km ov eroipos aKoXov- 
edv, PL PoL 277.) 

Rem. 2. The subjunctive third person singular -^ is now and then omitted after 
the relative with av : Ilapa toi/t(ov Kopl^omai, wi' av avrols XP^'^^ {PL PejO. 2, 
370). 

b) Other verbs are omitted only in proverbs and similar expressions, where the 
object or some other accompanying definition points to the verb to be supplied : 
yXavK (Is 'Adfjpas {(iyfiv). "Ava ol iroTapoi. Also a verb denoting to do, or to be 
done, to happen, is omitted in certain frequent forms of interrogation with ri, e. g. 
'AXXa Ti; {$ovX€i iroia), and especiallj' Ti Se, ft — ; as also an impemtive which 
denotes in general an action or speech, with pfj ovtw, pf) pot ouru), and with /xtj /not 
with an accusative (§ 32). (MJ7, irpos ae yovdrau, § 77, 3 d.) 

Rem. 1. Especially note the omission of the notions of doing, or being done, 
with ov8fv oXXo 17 {Ovs (papev pavdaveiv, ov8fv liWo rj dvapipi/fjaKom-ai, PL Phced. 
76), whence this expression is sometimes used quite adverbially in the sense only, 
merely. (Ti aXKo rj — , what else than — / AXXo n rj — aWo ti — , see § 199 b.) 

Rem. 2. Quite distinct from the ellipsis of a single word in definite form, in 
the Greek as in other languages, are the phrases (derived from the language of 
common life) in which originally an entire clause of the thought present to the 
mind is omitted, but intimated bj a single particle referring to it, or by some 

CHAP. IX.] 



204 Ellipsis. Anacohithia. [§ 216. 

[§ otlier word, or by the general form of the speech ; as in Greek by to hi (§ 188, 

215.] R. 7), by the use of aiCka in the beginning of a speech, or in certain construc- 
tions with other particles (oi yap aXAa, &c.), bj' my with the indicative future in 
replies with assurance ('i2s ovri's dfi(f)\ raS" vypav drjaft kovlv, Eur. Phcen. 1664 ; 
think, sai(, do. ic/iaf thou 'milt ; for — ), &c. Of such ellipses the Lexicon must 
supply the explanation. 

§ [jbiacolufhia.) Auacolutlia, or sentences which deviate from the 

216. strict continuation, in regular grammatical connexion, of the form in 
which they set out, are not rare in the Greek authors, though more 
frequent and harsh in certain authors who either (as Plato) imitate 
the freedom of oral discourse, or (as Thucydides) write, on the whole, 
in an embarrassed and perplexed style. They are caused, partly, by 
the circumstance, that instead of the form for which the beginning 
w^as calculated, in the further progress of the sentence, some other 
form is chosen as being more convenient and more impressive, or is 
induced through the use of other expressions; partly, by the inter- 
vention of side-remarks and parentheses, especially when these are 
carried to a greater length than usual, whereby the connexion of the 
discourse is obscured, or its continuation in the same form rendered 
difficult. Where the anacoluthon is caused in this last way, i. e. by 
an interruption through interposed matter, the last part is often 
attached to what goes before by repetition of some words from the 
beginning", or by repetition, in a different grammatical form, of what 
has been already said — often, at the same time, by the particles ovv 
[then; as I was saying), hi] [toell ilien) or Se, sometimes not so. 
'ETrel Se Oopv^ov re fjadero '^evocfiMV km, crrifjiaLvovTcov aXX,r;A.of? rcou 
irepl ^evdrjv, KUTefiaOev, on tovtov eveKa to. irvpa KeKavfieva eir] tw 
^evdj] Ttpb TMV 7rpo(j)v\dK(DV., OTTO)? 01 jjLev (f)u\aK€(; /jlt) opoJvTO, iv t(u 
(TKorei 6vTe<;, 01 Se Trpo'^iovre^ pb7] \av9dvoiev, ciWa Bia to (f)0)<i KaTa(f)a- 
vei'i eiev — , iirel S" rjadero, rrpoTrefiTrei rov kpfirivea kt\. [Xeu. An. 7, 
2,18 sqq. Repetition without change, merely because of the nume- 
rous intei'posed clauses. The 8e of the commencement repeated with 
it.^) Ta 8' av Twv arparL(oro)V oirore ivOvfioifxrjv ort rciiv p-ev dr^aQoav 
iravrwv ovhevo^ r^fxlv pLereir], el pbr) irpiaipLeda. brov 6' covrjaopieOa, fjSeiv 
fcTt 0X1701;? €')^ovTa<;, aXXft)9 8e tto)? Tropi^eadai ra eiriTi^heia i) oivovpie- 
vovi, 6pK0v<; r]8i] /care^oz^Ta? i]p.d<i, — ravT ovv XoYt^o/xei^o? evioie Ta<; 
(T7rovda<i pidWov €(f)o^ovp.rjv i) vvv rov ir6Xep,ov {Xen. An. 3, 1, 20. 
Repetition with change, and ovv). TaOra re ev Xejei';, m %tp,p,ia, Koi 
Ta<; 'rrpdorai; vTTodecret'i, Kol el incrral vp.lv elcriv, Oyuw? eTrtcTKeTrreat 

^ Repetition of a conjunction alone : AeSoiKo, fir], av ana^ fid0a>fiev dpyol ^v Ka\ 
iv d(p6tJvois jBtoTfveiv Ka\ Mrj8o}P 8e Kal Ilfpacou Ka\a2s re Ka\ peynKais yvvai^lv ofiikflv, 
fxtj iosTTfp 01 AwTocfxlyoL iTriXada)[xeda ttjs oiKaSe 68ov {Jlefi. An. 3, 2, 25). 

[part II. 



§ 2 1 6.] Ellipsis. Anacohithia. 205 

ua^kcrrepov [PL Phad. 107. Plato beg-an as if he meant to say eVi- [§ 
cTKeTrreoi/, but then he has been led to say eTna-KeiTTeaL. because of the ^'^-1 
clause el Kal iriarai elcnv). BoL'A.o/Ltef 09 8e Kvpo? KaTtiaKOirov riva 
TrefMyjrai, eVl AuSio.? Kal ixadeZv o,rt TrparTot ' A(Tavpio<i, eBo^ev avTM 
evTiT/jSetof elvai ^Apdaira^ ekdelv iirl tovto {Xe)i. Cijr. 6, 1,31).^ Ka/cwv 
8' atrtov (f)dpat Oeov tlvl '^v^veaOai, dyadov ovra, Sia/jba^ereov ttuvtI 
rpoTTcp [jbij re rwa Xeyeiv ravra ev rf} avrov iroXeb, el fieWeo evvofirjcrecrOcu, 
fir) re rtva aKuveiv [PL Rep. 2, 'SSO ; properly <pdvat oug'ht to have 
been followed merely by ou/c iareou, or a similar expression, but the 
whole is repeated and its sense developed more in detail). \\aTavou)v 
he 6 KO/309, CO? ev fiev avrS el'^ov 01 (TrparcSxrai rrpo^ rb hvvacrdai arpa- 
Ti(iirLicov<i rrovov^ (pepecv, ev 8e ra? '\{rv)(^a<i Trpo? ro Kara<^povelv rwv 
TToXe/u-Lcov, e7nar7]/u,ove<i S" rjcrav ra rrpo^i^KOvra rfj eavrwv GKaaro^ oirXi- 
aec, Kal rrpo'i ro ev TrelOeadac 8e rol'i ap^ovaiv ecopa irdura^ ev irap- 
ecTKevaafievov^., — eK rovrcov ovv erredvfxei ri, -)]Sr] rrpo'i rovi; TroA-efitou? 
Trpdrreiv [Xen. Cy)'. 3, 3, 9 ; after KaravoSyv it oug-ht properly to have 
j^one on in the participle thus : Kal 7rpb<i ro ev ir. he — opoiv, but this 
is detached from the form with which the period commenced^ and is 
put as a new principal sentence, whence the resumption is made by 
the words e'/c rovrcov ovv) . "ETretra 8e — r dva^ivrjaw 'yap v/jid<? Kal rov^ 
roiv rrpo'yQvaiv rwv -tj/j^erepcov kcv8vvov<;, IV elSfjre., cb? dya6oL^ re vfilv 
rrpo^/jKec elvai aco^ovral re aw to?9 6eol<i kul eK rrdw SeivMv ol d'yaOol' 
eXdbvroiv fiev jdp Ilepacov 7ra/Jb7rX/]dec aroXu) C09 d(f)avtovvra>v avOi'i rd<; 
AO/]va(;, iiTToarrivai avrol<i ^ Adrjvalov roXfjbijcravre'i iviKijaav auTOV<i 
[Xe/i. An. 2), 2, 1 i ; the sentence commenced by erretra is quite aban- 
doned, and its ])urport attached by the words fydp [iXdovrcov jdp) 
to the ])arenthetic sentence. Cf. FL Rep. 4, 428 a, where after 
o)<^7rep el the corresponding demonstrative clause does not simply 
follow) . 

Rem. 1. A particular kind of anacolutlion consists in an inaccurate use of the 
co-ordinate connexion by rt — Kal, ovre — ouVe, fxiv — Se (besides the lesser 
deviations assigned in § 185 a, R. 5, § 188, R. 5, and § 208, R. 1). Sometimes, 
namely, there are attached to the first member sucli interposed sentences and 
remarks, that the connexion of the speech is broken, and the second member is 
then given in a different form : OuVe rovs nourjpovs 6pm (jiiXovs dWi'jXois dyuapevovs 
fivai' TTois yap civ i] axapiarroL rj afXfXels rj TrXeoveKTUi i] "ittio-toi ?; d/cparets iwdpunrot 
8vvacvT0 (piXoi yevicrdai ; Oi fiev ovv novrjpoi iravTuis ep-oiye 8oKoii(n,v aAAijXoty f)^6po\ 
fiaXXov fj (jiiXoi 7rf(pvKevai. AXXa p.r]v, wnep o'v Xeyetj, ovb' tiv rois ■)(pr]aTo'ii ol 
TToifTjpoL TTore awapp-ocreiav fts (piXiap' ttcos yap, ktX. {2^en. 3fein. 2, 6, 19 ; after 



^ So, not unfrequently, a sentence begins with a participle in the nominative 
referred to the properly acting subject, though afterwards this comes to stand in a 
different case, especially witli doKel, e8u^(v (e. g. PL Ajpol. 21). 

CHAP. IX.] 



2o6 Ellipsis. Anacoluthia. [§ 216. 

[§ Oure Tovi TTovrjpoiis, ktX., we should expect ovre roif ;^p»;(rrois' roir irovrjpovs or 

2i6. ] some similar form). In this manner it is not uncommon for the co-ordinate con- 
nexion of two members to be broken, which members should belong to a preceding 
principal sentence, and then the second member enters as a principal sentence 
(sometimes with no particular inducement in the connexion of the sentence, but 
with the view of adding something to the second member, or to give it an easier 
form) ; especially in this manner alter a circumstance denoted by a participle the 
second member follows as rerhum finitum : Tevofievris fKKXrja-Las eXex^V'^'^^ roioide 
Xo-yoi ano re aWcov, tuiv fxev TncrrevovTodv to. rrepi r^s (TTpuTtias rrjs xcof ' Adrjvaicov, 
Tmv be TO. ivavTia Xeyovruiv, koI 'Kp poKpaTTjs 6 "iLppcovos napeXSoiv ai/Tols eXeye 
Koi naprjvfi Tnid8e (Thuc. (3, 32 ; we should expect airo re liXXcov — Kai d(f)' ''Epp.O' 
Kparovs Tov Eppavos). 'Ettc* napeaKevd^ero fjdr] Kvpos u>s arncov, Trapfiv 6 Tabdras 
aWa re dwpa TToXXd Kcu navTOia (pepav Ka\ ayatv Ka\ "nvuovs S' rjye ttoXXov?, 
a(pe\dpfvo9 rmv eavrov 'nrneatv (S^en. Cyr. 5, 4. 29). Oi "^OKxiToi earpdreva-av eVt to 
ArjXiov Koi npose^aXov tco Tei)(L(TpaTi, aXXu re Tponoi ire ipdcravres koi prjxo-VTjV 
TTposTjyayov, iJTrep eJXev avTO, roidvSe (Thitc. 4, 100). Ot 'Adrjvciioi vocra enie^ovro 
KttT aptporepa, Trjs re a>pai roii eviavTOv TavTrji ovarjs, ev j) dadevovcriv avQpatiroi, 
fiakiaTa, Kal to ;^ci>ptoi/ apa, ev co earpaTOTvebevovTO, ekcobes km ;(aXe7r6j' rjv [Thuc. 7, 
47 ^ Km TOV )(^u)piov — ekabovs ovtos). (Often in poets, e. g. SuyxXati/t'a r' apop- 
<f)os oppdrcov T arro (povov crraXay/iot crrjv KaTeaTa^ou yevvv, Eur. Hec. 240, and in 
Herodotus.) {Eii(ppoviov mos o8e ecrTiv, dvbp6s, olov /cat <tv tovtov Stijyet, /cat 
aXXwf evboKipov Ka\ pevToi Koi ovcriav paka ttoXKtjv KaTeXinev. PL Tkecet. 144 = 
KaTaXiTTovTos. Transition from an adjective to an independent sentence.) ^ Some- 
times, where a leading term common to both members precedes them both, the 
connexion is disturbed by the insertion of a new leading term instead of this in the 
second member: Ot AaKebaipovioi es rrjv 'Pobov ttjv yvuiprjv el^ov TrXeti', c'Xtti- 
^ovTes vi](t6v re ovk dbvvarov koi vav^arStv ifKi]6ei kol Tre^w Trposd^ecrdai, /cat apa 
Tjyovpevoi avrol 8vvaTo\ ecreaOai, Tiacracpe'pirriv pi] atTovmes x.phl^'^''''^^ Tpetpeiv rds 
vavs (T//WC. 8, 44 ; Avhere it might have been simply said: eXni^ovTes vfja-ov Te 
TTposd^eadai Kai avTol bvvaTol eaea-dai. So frequently in Thucydides. Often the 
new leading term is necessary, so that the partition by re — /cat or pev — 8e ought 
properly to have been applied to the two leading terms, not to the accessory 
definitions, e. g. here eXniCovTes re — /cat apa rjyovpevoi. Hence re seems to be 
transposed.) 'Ei/ Tfi vaTepaia e'/cKXr/o-ta pereyvaxTav 'Adrjvaloi {the Athenians changed 
their mind and determined ; § 210, R. 1), KepKvpaioLs ^yppa^'iav pev pr] ttoit}- 
a-aaOai {to make indeed no jmldic offensive and defensive alliance with the C), 
oiSTe Tovi avTovs ex^poiis Kal (piKovs vopi^eiv {el yap eVt Kopivdov eKeXevov a'Cpicnv ol 
KepKvpaloi ^vpTrkelv, eXvovT av avrois al Trpos IleXonovinja' iovs (nrovbai') em- 
pa ^i a v be eTroifjaavTO, Tjj aXXijXcai' jBorjOelv {Thuc. 1, 44). 

Rem. 2. Sometimes an anacoluthon is caused by the circumstance that the 
writer, as he proceeds, has in his thoughts an expression, the sense of which is 
contained in what goes before, though the expression itself is not there used, and 
continues the passage conformably with this (the construction npos to oTjpaivopevov, 
according to the thing signified, not according to the words, especially in poets and 
in complicated prose) : Kat Trept HvKnv vtt dpipoTe'pwv /cara Kpdros eVoXe/ietro. 
AB-qvaloi pev bvoiv veolv evavTiaiv del rijv vrjaov irepnrXeovTes ttjs fjpepas ijrjS be 

^ Ot ^vppaxoi 'Opxopevov enoXiopKovv, ^ovXopevoi aXXas re TrposyeveaSai ct^'kti /cat 
oprjpoi eK T7js 'ApKubiai rjaav avroOi virb AaKebaipovlav Keip-evoi {Thuc. 5, 61, = ftai 
oTi -qaav). 

[part II. 



§ 2 1 6.] Ellipsis. Anacoliithia. 207 

WKTos oTTaaai rrfpioapnovv)' UfXoTTovvqa-ioi S" iv rfj rjTrdpco a-TparoTrfBevofxfvoi [§ 
Ka'i irpos^oXas iroiovnevoi rc5 Tf t';^f t [Thnc. 4, 23 ; as if dp-fPorepoL (nokepiovv preceded). 2 1 6. ] 
Kai rois IvpaKovcrioLi KaTanXTj^is ovk okiyrj tyevtro, tl irepas prjdev (cnai (t(})i<ti tov 
Ki.v8vvov' opwvTfs ovT€ dici TTjv A€Kf\eiav T(i')(i(,opivqv ov8ev rjO'O'ov OTparov 'urov T« 
irpoTtpco (nfXrjXvdoTa ttjv re tcop ' Adrjvaiuv bvvapiv iravra^oae ttoXXtjv (pnivopevrjv 
{Thuc. 7, 42). 'H olp.CLiyT] tK tov IlfLpaicos Sin tcov paKpcov Tei)(^u)V eV aarv birjKfv, 6 
trepos TO) fT(p<o napayytWcov cost fKeiurfs rrfS wktos ou'Sfi? €K0ip7]6ri, ov 
fiovov Toi/s (iTToXcoXoTay rrevdoivres aXXa noXv eTi paKXov iavTovs ra (crxaTa 
TTfiaeo'dai vofxi^oirres (^Len. Sell. 2, 2, 3 = navTes dirjypvTrvovv). Oreo yap a)<f)6T]v 
fvTV)(nicr\ al8u>s /x' e'xfi, iv r^be irorpa rvyxavovcr , Iv dpi vvv {Eur. Hec. 970 r= 
albovpai). Ov Xenrreov ttjv rd^iv dXXd /cat eV noXepa Koi navTaxoii 7roir]T€ov a tiv 
KfXfvj) f] TToXis KOL T] TTarpis, t) weideiv avTrji/ fj to h'lKaiov Tre<pvKe {PI. Crito, 51, as 
ii' TToielv SfT, not noirjTeov, had preceded). 'EvvfTTw <Tf dcf)' rjnepa? ttjs viiv Trposnvtdv 
fiTjTe Tovsde p.TjT fpe, as ovTi yrjs TTjiS" dvoaico pidaTopi {Soph. QLd. H. 350, as if it 
had first been said eweVw <rot, I command thee, not o-e, I command that thou). 

Rem. 3. Now and tlien an interchange takes place between a remark to a 
leading sentence inserted with as, and a principal sentence with object- sentence 
annexed : 'Sis eyw, otto tov avTopoTov x^^^ ^Kom-os ttXoi'ov, rJKovad tivos, oti 
KkeavSpos 6 fK Bv^avTiov dpp.o<rrr]s peXXei ij^eiv nXola e'xav kol Tpirjpeis {2^en. An. 
6, 2, 18 ^ either 'Q,s — rJKovQa twos, EXtavdpos peWfi — , or "HKovad tivos, oti — 
without iis). 



CHAP. IX. 



PART III. 

THE ORDER AND POSITION OF WORDS AND SENTENCES. 



§ a) The position of words in Greek, as in Latin, is, in detail, less 

217. tied down to fixed and definite rules than in English and other 

(431, modern languages, and rests, in great measure, on the emphasis 

sqq) which is meant to be laid on the several words according to the 

sense of the passage, and at the same time on the consideration of 

euphony. The simplest order is, that the subject, with all that 

belongs to it, stands first, and then the predicate, viz. either the verb 

last, with all remaining definitions (object, &c.) between, or the^verb 

first, and then the other definitions : TL(raa^epvr]<i 8ta/3aX\et Kvpov 

TTpo? Tov aS€\(f)6v. These definitions are arranged among themselves 

according to their importance and their connexion with the verb. 

Interrogative sentences begin with the interrogative pronominal word 

or particle^ accessory sentences with the conjunction or the relative 

word. 

d) For the sake of emphasis, a deviation from the simple order of 
the words takes place, such that the word which expresses the most 
important notion is advanced to the beginning, or sometimes kept 
back to the end of the sentence : 'ETnryd'yovTO Se TOv<i %r]l3aiov<i Kal 
avew^av rm 7rv\a<i HXaraiewv ai^Spe?, Nay/cXet'ST/? re Kal ol fxer avTOU 
{Thuc. 2, 2). Yiao&aKevaXpvTo 8e Kal ol AaKeSaifxovLot {Time. 2, 7). 
Kindred or opposed terms are made to stand out prominently by 
juxta-position. 

Eem. 1. One or more words conveying a notion on wliicli there is a special 
emphasis may also stand before the interrogative word, as also before a relative 
which refers to a demonstrative following, and before a conjunction if the subordi- 
nate sentence begins the period : Ilept hk rod rroXepiov t'l vp.11/ SoKet; Ilepi Se rov 
TToXe'nov a eXeyiS, ofxoXoyco aXj]6fi elvai. Ol 8e rchv 'Apyeiav civtpes, aKovcravres, 
€Trei8rj dvr)vfyKav tovs \6yovs es re ras dpxit^s Koi rov S^/xoi/, eyj/rjCpicravTO Apyelot Kai 
av8pas flXovTo 6a)8e/ca [Thuc. 5, 28). But in prose the verb may never stand 
before the relative or conjunction. 

[i>ART III. 



§ 217 — 219-] Order and Position of Words and Sentences. 209 

Rem. 2. Between two connected words, sometimes a third is inserted which is [§ 
less prominent, or wliieh belongs at the same tima to both: Aia tj]v Aapei'ou 217.) 

a) A genitive or an adjective to a substantive without article '^ 
stands first with some emphasis, and because of the opposition: 2i<S. 
€v^Q)vo^ (ii'i'jp, rPji; Trarpt'So? (T(iiT7]p, otherwise usually afterwards : 
dvrjp aya66<;. For the order of the adjectives, of the genitive, and 
other additions to substantives with the article, see the doctrine of 

the ai'ticle (Part I. Chap. II.). Sometimes the definitions belonging 
to a substantive are detached from it by the circumstance, that the 
substantive itself, or its definitions, are drawn off, with emphasis, to 
the beginning or end of the sentence, provided no obscurity or 
ambiguity is thereby occasioned, especially with the verb in the 
middle place : 'Epw, a irapa a-ocpcordrcov r]Kovad Trore dvhpoiv Kal e/jUTrei- 
poraTwv, TovTOJv rcov dvhpwv ouSe ra ovofiara oiSa. (Twj/ ^apjidpav 
Tivfs 'iTTTTfoiv. JTew. A?i. 2, 5, 32. Twv dcpi" 'HpaKkeovs tivl 7re0UKoVa)i'. Isocr. Phil. 76. 
Other peculiarities of position in the partitive genitive may be seen in § 50 a, R.) 

b) Adverbs belonging to the verb stand either next to it (before it, if it closes the 
sentence), or, in case of special emphasis, in the beginning or at the end of the sen- 
tence ; sometimes they are inserted without emphasis ^jetween other accessory 
definitions which are made prominent. Adverbs belonging to adjectives usually 
stand before them ; adverbs of degree, and ovra, rarely stand after them (n-e^u/ccbf 
oiItoo?, pi.. ^(Xticov 9roKv. vxTrepov ov noXKa, yevvaios irdw, Ka\6s Xiav. PL). {MdXa 
■ye Tives oX/yoi, PL Rep. 7, 531. MaXa Ka\ avhpfs ciXKifioi, Xen. Hell. 6, 2, 37.) 

c) On the placing of pi-epositions, see § 80. 

a) The indefinite pronoun ti? and the indefinite correlative adjec- ^ 
tives (ttoio?, TTocro?) and adverbs (ttoJ?, &c.) can never begin a sentence. 219. 

J)) The particles apa, av. Be, Sr;, <ydp. p.ev, /nt'jv, vvv, ovv, re, rot, 
roivvv, which in various ways connect sentences, form transitions, or 
give prominence to particular notions, never stand at the beginning 
of a sentence, but always after one or more words, to which, in part, 
they closely adhere ; so av. See the Lexicon [and Appendix] , and 
on Se, Te, /xev, § 185, R. 4, and § 188, R. 1 ; on the position of av, 
§ 139. So ye always after the word to which it gives prominence 
(limiting and restrictive), or after the first of several, when it thus 
belongs to a set of words taken together (Kara ye rov crov Xoyov, PL 
Gorg. 471 : eiTrep ye, w (plXe, dBiKo^, PI. ibid.). 

Rem. But in the parenthetic insertion of (^r^^t (see c) the words mentioned 
under a and b are sometimes put first, the interposed matter coalescing, so tn say, 
with the rest of the sentence: Tt ovv. tiv (palri 6 Xoyos, (ti timaTfls ; {PL Phad. 
87.) "ESo^e, tiov (pT](ri, rij /3ovX// rj tu> SV^ (P^- PIxcd. 258). 

PART III.] P 



2IO Ordc7- and Position of Words and Sentences. [§ 220. 

§ <:) The verb <^riixl is put, when a person's own words are reported, 

~'^ by preference after one or more words of the speech reported : Kal 6 
S(w«:pttTr;?, "Ii^a roivvv, 6(f)r}, /jlt) a/j.(f)L/3o\ov f/, oplcrare fioi, iJ^e)(^pi iroawv 
■ iroiv Sec vofML^eiv veou^i elvat rov<i dvdpMirov^ {Xen. Mem. 1, 2, 35. 
More rarely : Kai, '^o)Kpdjri<; ecpr]- "\va — , for elirev "Iva — ) . When 
to the (j)rifj.i thus used its subject is g-iven, this stands by preference 
after it : Tt ovu, ecj)7) l^coKpuTiri, iroirjTeov crot, SoKel ; more rarely 
^wKpuTr)'^ ^(j^V' (Separated : Ei 8e /jlt] ravrrj ye, ecfiT]^ TreiOrj, & 
St/i/i/a, 6 XcoKpuTi]'^, aKe\lrai, idv TfjSe iry aoi aKOTTovjJievw avvho^rj. PL 
Phced. 73.) 

Rem. The position of the Avords in poetry has various freedoms for whicli no 
rules can be given in this place. 

§ In Greek, as in Latin, accessory sentences of every kind may be 

220. inserted into every principal sentence, by which means, as also by 

(444, the position of the relative clauses before the demonstrative, a mani- 

'^'^^' fold and diversified variety is obtained in the structure of the period : 

in which the main thing to be considered is, that every accessory 

sentence, should be inserted in its proper place, i. e. precisely where 

the thought or statement contained in it natural!}^ presents itself to 

one's mind, and, especially in the historical style, that the succession 

of time and the causal connexion of the several parts of the action 

and of the circumstances, should be carefully observed. 

Rem. When a dependent sentence, especially interro2^ative, is drawn to the 
beginning, either by a pronoun referring to what goes before, or by the emphasis 
and an antithesis, either the whole leading sentence, if it be short, or some words 
of it, may be inserted before the interrogative word or the conjunction : Ta rav 
TTdiXfiJ.icoi', crn(pa)i, Cncos €;^ft, epa. 



[part III. 



APPENDIX. 

ON THE USE AND MEANING OF THE PARTICLES. 



The office of the particles is either (1) adverbial, i.e. as they are used to denote 
certain modifications,' qualifications, or affections of the assertion, or of one or more 
of its terms (viz. iiifirination and denial; absoluteness and conditionality ; concession 
and opposition; confirmation and limitation; parity and disparity, &c.), or (2) 
conjunctional, as they serve for connexion of sentences or terms of sentences. The 
two uses at so many points run over into each other, that it will be more convenient; 
for the purpose of this Appendix, to comprise the subject under one pjeneral view. 
As the principal uses of conjunctions have been already described in Chapter VII., 
the adverbial, which is also the original, use will here principally come under con- 
sideration. 

Kal, connected by its origin with the form ko- of the relative and interrog. pro- 
noun, is therefore cognate with que and re, which are forms of the same pronoun, 
but as indefinite. Hence the primary force of the combination re — Kai is a7i7/- 
where [some-where], any-hov}, &c. — where, hotv (so), &c. : of /cat — /cat, where, hoiv, 
&c. — where (there), how (so). Of Kal, as conjunction, see § 185. As adverb, 
etiam, also, too, it denotes increase by accession. 

The adverbial Kai corres])onds to another Kal sometimes expressed, but as often 
left to be understood. Kol o ^coKpdrrjs ravra i'\f^fu, Socrates, too, said this, i. e. Kal 
OL aXXoi (or the like) Ka\ 6 2., originally where the others, there S. So in ov fiovov 
dWa Ka\ — , the full construction is ov [ivvov, aXXa [^at — ,] Kal — , not only — , hui 
[where — ,] there ■■ — . 

In coairep (or other relatives) kuI — , Kal — : etn-ep Kal — Kal — : the original 
parataxis Kal — Kal is taken into the syntactic form, i. e. Kal 6 2. Kal ol aWoi, 
united with mcmfp oi tiWoi, ovtuis 6 2., gives the form Kal 6 2. ravra eXe^tv, wo-Trep 
Kal ol oXXoi, S. also said this, as did also the others. 

Where both clauses are expressed, the koI is often omitted in one or other : the 
first, when in conceiving the first clause the speaker has not the second clause 
or its Kal distinctly present to his thoughts ; thus, 6 2. ravr eXe^fp, Saa-ntp Kal \<\ 
aAXoi : the second, when he means to make the first more weighty than the other, 
Kal 6 2. ravT eXe^fi/, coa-mp ol uXAoi. Often, also, the Kal seems to be drawn over by 
a kind of attraction from the clause in which the thought would rather seem to 
demand its presence, to the other : thus, arpuTevovTai ped' aurrfp Kal oiKovai, for 
with those they live with, they also take the field ; 6 ^oiKparrji, eiVep ris kuI «XXor, 
where we should saj', Kal 6 2., tlnep rtr «XXos.— In like manner it is often with- 

APPENDIX.] " P 2 



212 Appendix on tJie Particles. [§224. 

[§ draAvn from the (preceding) temporal or conditional secondary sentence to the (fol- 
-23-] lowing) primarv, to denote immediate sequence: it may then be rendered imme- 
diately, forthwith : Avrap 67761 8ei7rvT](T€ — , (cat ol TfKrjaaixfvoi fico/ce aKv(f)ov, Od. 
14, 112, after he had supped — , he al^<o (forthwith) filled, the cup and presented 
■ it to him. So in Hom. et — kui, and ore — koX Tore. 'i2s be e8o^ev airols, Koi 
fX<^povv fvdvs, Thvc. 2, 93, for ws (cat, simulatque : simtilar decretum est ab iis 
contimto discesserunt. (In these instances the original relative and demonstrative 
force of (cat is distinctly perceptible.) 

As the relative clause is often omitted, e. g. (cat 6 2. eXe^ev (viz. drrfp 01 oAXoi), so 
is often, the demonstrative clause : Uais ovv. e(f)ri, tw appv6p.a (Tampan appuTTovra 
Tov QoipaKa evpvOpov TToiels ; SlfTirep (cat appoTTopra, e(pTj (sc. ovto) kcu evpvOpiJv). Xen. 
alfe;». 3, 10, 11. 

^ In the single clause, it depends upon the nature of the unexpressed clau>;e whether 

, ^" the (cat heightens (aggravates) or lowers (extenuates): even =. alter all, in addition 

■""^* to all the rest, or even = but (so much as) independently of all the rest. In 

rendering this particle it is sometimes necessary to add to, or even substitute for, 

the literal rendering of the Kai, some other particle or adverb. Thus : 

a) really, indeed : "Hvwep (cat (fypovav (paipjj, oamrep \eyets npos rjpas, if you make 
if r/ood that [besides professing] you also (really) entertain the sentiments you pro- 
fess (or, that you do' entertain). 

b) even him- (her-, it-) self: aye — : and that — .- Kat av Att iraTpX fxaxoiro. 
So (cat At'?;!/, (cat Kcipra, (cat Trdvv, (tat ttoXvs, (cat tto?. 

c) still, yet, with comparatives and in some other cases • kuI paXXov, yet more, ku\ 
apelvova^ 'ittttovs, still better horses, noXXov ye /cat Sew, Z still leant much of ■=. far 
from it : (cat aXkote. Ka\ TrdXiv, (cat rpis, &c., en (cat vvv, (cai o'\|/'e' {late though it be, 
yet still), /cat eneira, (cat drj : koi as, (cat ovTa>s, still even so, for all this. 

d) even already (without going further) : 'AXX' apKeaei (cat Tavra, this already (of 
its-elf) icill suffice. kuI avrcos (Hom.) even (already) as it is. To this head may also 
be reduced : koi irpiv, Ka\ x^^^' ''^' TrciXat, (cat Trporepov, koi avriKa, (cat apri, (cat ^8rj, 

KOI 8t]. 

(?) only, but (so much as) : Et ttcottot' eK\e-\l/a twv aonv I'l^iov ti (cai rpi;^o's, worth but 
a hair. ^OkvS) (cat Xeyeiv, I fear but (even) to say it. 

f) Often it is best rendered by the emphatic present or past {do, did), or emphatic 
auxiliary : el Se tis (cat otfrat, but if a man does' think. Tiydp liv ris (cat Trotot oXXo; 
■ichy, what else should' ojie do ? Especially the koi following an interrogative : Hats 
(cat StcoXer', elive, how did' he perish? "Tt xph Xtyeiv asks, IVhat is one to say? not. 
Whether there is any thing to say : but ri xp^ i^^n Xeyeiv not onl}' asks what, but 
doubtswhether anything at all is to be said (fully : quid dicendum est, si omninoaliquid 
dicendum est ?)" ' Or, more strongly, at all, on earth : Tt XPV '^"'' npoa8oKai>, what on 
earth is one, or, ivhat is one at all, to expect ? "Hariv upa hiKuiov av6pd>Trov ^Xdirreiu 
(cat ovTLvovv dvOpbHTTov ; Plat. Hep 1, 335, B, any human beinq at all, be who it may ? 
"iva (cat 'ibjjs: oaa Ka\ e'ibr] e'xei tj KUKia, ib. 4, 445, C, how' many forms (after all). In 

' Hermann ad Vig. p. 837, 320. But Kriiger says, that the Kai emphasizes the 
term to which it is prefixed, as being the particular point about which one requires 
to have full information Similarly Klotz : " si dico rt ^P') (cai Xe'yeif ; proprie hoc 
quiero, quid sit dicendum etiani si solum de dicendo cvgitemus." 

[appendix. 



^ 225 — 228.] Kai. re. 213 

like manner, the frequent combination iw Ka'i, especially with eiSw, iS^f, &c., may be [§ 
explained, that if there is anything (or, as there is something) to know, I may 224. [ 
know it. 

In Ka\ yap, nam etiam, the ku'l belongs to tlie next following word, from which it is ' ^ 
separated by the necessity of placing yap second in the sentence: Ka\ yhp npos 325. 
TovTovs nvT^ ineTvolrjro (Tvppa)(tr], Hdt. 1, 77, for xoith these also. Kai yap vvv 
6/x()\oyco, i. e' Kal viv, PJat. Gurg. Vol, B. Sometimes it is namque, and then the Kat 
is not idle, but denotes the recipro(!al correspondency of the clauses : uKoixraTe, ec})!], 
Ka\ yap a^iov,for, let me also tell you, it is loorth hearing. 

In el Kai, the Kai is even, and refers not merely to the^ el, but to the Avhole con- ^ 
cessive sentence :=e('A'?', quamquam: Ei (cat pi]Tp'L 8ia(f)opav e'xei, if it even be that he has^ 226. 
a quarrel with their mother, if it be ever so much tlie case that — : in Ka\ el, the Kai 
refers only to the condition, = etiamsi. Kei /X17 TretroiBa, even if {for all that) I have 
no confidence. Et ti koI aypoiKorepov elpijadai, PI. Gorg. 486, C, if it he even some- 
ivhat 7'ude (as it is), i.e. though I own it is somewhat rude : but Ka\ el aypoiKorepC'v 
Ti elwelv eariv, ih. 509, A, even if it he somewhat rude (which I do not allow). — 
Both forms are abbreviated into the participial construction : thus, ja avra av 
ewpa^e Ka\ npuTT] Xaxovaa, PL Re}). 10, (320 = el Ka\ or Koi el Trpoirr] eXaxev. See 
§ 175, e. 

re, also, so, denoting parity of the term appended. See § 222, and for the use as 
conjunction, § 185. 

The adverbial use of this particle is almost entirely confined to the ancient epic ^ 
style, having disajjpeared, except a few traces, from the later language. Its ineaning ^^ 
is so faint that, for the most part, it does not admit of being rendered otherwise than '' 

by an exaggerated analogy : it does little more than intimate the correspondency of the 
clauses which it accompanies. In its origin, re is cognate with enclitic n? : in its 
use, it almost exclusively accompanies other particles which connect protasis and 
apodosis or other parallel members, and sometimes appears in both, oftener only in 
o,ie, Xe — re, ««y-where, -how, -way, -time, &c. . . . some-wUere, -how, &c. : 
hence it is the slightest possible intimation of as — so, alike — alike.- Kpainvorepos pev 
yap revoos, Xenrt] 8e re prJTis, II. 28, 591, as on the one hand the mind is more rapid, 
so also on the other is the counsel slight. E'lnep re vorjcrrj, dX\d re ol^pdacravTe v6os 
Xeirrr] 8e re prjris, II. 10, 224, although in-any-wise he has the wit, _//et likewise slower 
alike {on the one hand.pev om.) the wit. scanty alike on the other hand the counsel. 
Ov pT]v 01 Tvye koWlov ov8e r apeivov, yet is this not for his honour, and (as not for his 
honour) so not for his good either. "O? Ke deols eViTret^^rai, pdXa r eKkvov avrov, 
whoso obeys the gods (as he obeys them) so do they hear him. In sentences correlated 
by demon'str. and relative, re is used only when the dem. and vel. do not come close 
too-ether, or when the dem. is not expressed : in other combinations it ^is frequent : 
thus we have, e'inep re — dXXu re, or simply re : iinep — re : and etjrep re with 
second clause omitted. Mev re — he re or aXXd re (sometimes the pev re, some- 
times the second re, omitted), also {pev omitted) re — be re: he — re: re — oe : 
Tf — avrdp. Again, rj re, so surely: Kal re {as — ) so also: yap re, for {as — ), 
so : and sometimes rjre, or fjre — ijre. 

Hence the usage of re attached to relative words in dependent sentences to give ^ 
force and clearness to the correlation : thus, osre, he, or. that, who (Hom.,lyr. poets, ^28. 
and lyrical parts of Tragedy, sometimes Herodot.), also osrts re, oios re, oa-os re 
{ just such, or so great, as), ware, so as. so that, ws-ei re, are. ottco? re. rjiire. ore re {then 
when), oOi re, "iva re {there where). Of these the Attic prose has retained oios re 

APPENDIX.] 



214 Appendix on the Paiticlcs. [§229. 

( § 6t;/t, I am ill sttc/i sort as to — , in a condition to — .- Sore, LxTfi re, eWe {is ore) quoad, 
2S.] are, qnippe, icji are, on condition that (Herod, also fTreLTf,2]ostquam). Corresponding 

foi-ms in Lat. (re =z q?(e, — pe) ai-e namque {yap re, comp. koi yap, etenim), atque 
■ {z=i ad-qne Kai re), qnippe (are), also qiiisque with its adverbial forms, as ubiqiie, &c., 

uterque, usque, and the suffix — ciimque. 

S hi, on the othen hand (comp. fitv, on the one hand, § 232). 

2y. Opposition is denoted hj the particles which originally denote on the other hand, 
viz. av or aire, and avrap {= avT upa), which, shortened, is drap. Synonymous 
with these is 8e, which, both as adverb or mei'e particle, and as conjunction, in -virtue 
of its origin (cognate with the second numeral 8vo, the Set? in ovdels. and the pro- 
noun of the second person), means in the second place. For the conjunctional use, 
see §§ 188, 189. The adverbial use appears in 

n) Ka\ Se', and o)i the other hand, and also {moreover). Jn Homer the particles 
usually stand together ; in Attic, the word that has the emphasis comes between. 
Kai 8' aXXci) vefxeoarov, and of another also i/e tahe it amiss. Kal <jv S" nii6dSr]s e(j}vs, 
£ur. El. 1122, and thou too art self-willed (not .iEgisthus only). Koi ol re iiXXoi 
.... viTr)piTovv, .... Ka\ 1] Tu>v Qrijiaioiv Se TroAi? . . . ^vvirrepTtf, S^en. Hell. 5, 2, 37^ 
and Thebes also — . 

Eem. Kal being both and and also, the Greek was obliged to have recourse to 
he to express and also. 

b) in thedemonstrativesentenceortheapodosisofa condition: OIt] Trep^vWavyever]. 
ToiTj he Ka\ difhpaiv, as is the nature of the leaves, so is, on the other hand (also) that 
of man. Ol 8' apa MT^Ooavrjy . . evepovro, . . . Tav he ^i\oKTi]T7]s ^pX^v, II. 2, 716. 
(comp. oJ 8' " Apyi(T(Tav e'xov .... toiv av6' rjyepeveve . . . Ho'KvTriuTrjs, lb. 7;^8). 'Ey&> 
fiev otis av twv Xuyco!/ akyib Kkveiv, ^aepriov Trot, tovs he Ka\ Trpdo-aeiv (rrvym, Sopk. 
Phil. 86, J also, on the other hand, hate to do. — At he Ke Xi(ra7]ai erupcvs . . . , ol he 
ae . . . Seo'i/rcov, Od. 12, 51, let them, on the other hand (or, however), bind thee, 
'AXX' el ovye Jlaviraviav alvels, e'-yo) h' 'Apiarelhav eVaiWco, I, on the contrary, praise 
A. 'AXX' ei pTjhe TovTo (dovXei diroKpivaaBai, av hi TovvrevOev Xe'ye, do (J/zoM, however, 
saif. So, especially in Attic, he after an abbreviated protasis in the form of a par- 
ticiple : Qavpa^w arov, el eKelvovs puhlws x^'PO'^M**'"^' tovtois he prjheva Tpisirov o'iei 
hvinjaeadm trpoaevexdrimi, Xen. Mem. 3, 7, 'Si,that although — ,yet — . Cf. § 188, E. 6. 

When in an alternative, two protases, each with its apodosis, are opposed to each 
other, the form may be fiev — p.ev (prot. and ap.), he — Se' (prot. and ap.), or also 
pev — 86, he — he : thus, os p.ep r alhea-erai Kovpas /!:ii6s . . . . , tov he p.ey oovrja-av . . . . , 
OS Se' K dvi']vr]Tai . . ' \l(T(rovTai 8' apa rai'ye Ala, II. 9, 509, tvhoso reverences the 
virgins, him they benefit (might also be tov pev . .) — ; but whoso repulses them, then 
they pray, &c. For Attic instances, see § 188, Rem. 4. 

c) in the combination ovhe, prjhe, also not, not even. Here the particle Se' stands for 
itself and also ibr koi, as koI cannot follow ov and prj in this sens-e. Its usage, there- 
fore, exactly agrees with that of Kai ; so that ovS" ws, not so too, not so either, stands 
on the same tooting with Ka\ tos, ovhe yap, neque enim, with Ka\ yap, etenim, ovhe pev 
oihe, neque vero etiam, with kol fxrjv Kai, et vero etiam, ovhe yap ovhe, for also not, or for 
not even, with Ka\ yap koI. The particle sometimes puts the things on a par {also 
not], sometimes exalts the latter {>iot even), eire\ ovhe eoiKe, f)ecause it is also not seemly 
{therefore must it also not be). Ta yap neTipuipiv ouS' vnepjiiair]v nor av, Eur. Ion, 
1388, that tohich is fated for me can 1 also not escape. Ovhe vv rovirep (peloaTo, II. 24, 
235, not even him did he spare ; ov8' 6Vap, not even in a dream. Ovhe yap ovhe ns 

[appendix. 



§ 230 — 232.] Be. jxev. iirjV. 215 

(iWos, Oil. 8, 32, etenim ne alius quidem. Olbe fiei' ov8e Tpcoas dyrjvopas tiaa''EKT(op [? 
(vdfiv, II. 10, 2!t9. Not, however, the T. either (any more than the others) — . 229.] 
Not the Trojans moreover (either) did II. suffer to sleep. 

fifp, on the one hand, indeed. ^ 

This particle, hearing the same relation to the first numeral (peli) pia, that fie 23O. 
bears to the second and to the heis in ov8eis (not oid' ds) means therefore in the first 
jylace, and a /u,«V is usually followed by a corresponding be. But as the be has not 
always a preceding fiiv, so /xeV not always a following 8e. This, however, is always 
implied in the thought. ^iKoTifita p.ev 6Ve;(€rat, Seii/w kokw, Uur. Iph. A. 527, ambi- 
tion indeed (in the first place, as fur as that goes) he is' liable to (the suppressed 
opposition beinj;, but what of the rest, but what then /) Kai OTrc'^ei/ -tvoTf TavTrju rrjv 
fTToyvvpiav eXafies to pavLKos KaXeiaOaL, ovk otSa eywye' eV peu yap rois Aoyois an 
Totouroy el, for in your discourse (to begin with that. = it must be owned, at any 
rate), <fec. (PI.) Xeyerai Se /cat oSe 6 Xoyo?. epo\ aev ov TviOavijs, Ildt. 3, 3, to me for 
m^"^ part (but what others ma}' think I know not). OuVot 817 a^'iKrai, aWa boKel 
pev pot rj^eiv rj]pepov, PI. Crifo, 43 I), it seems to me, for my part. So oipai fxtv, 
ijyotipai pev, 8okq) pev, ovK oiSa pev. Hapeyevov pev r^ P^XJI^ -^^' (^karin. 153 C, 
you were present surely (or, I suppose) — ? (suppressed: but if not, I have no 
more to say.) 

Rem. In Homer and Ionic, pev is frequently used in the same sense as the 
cognate form pr)v. puv, § 231: in the later dialects, onlj' so in the combinations 
pevToi, pev oiiv, pev brj. 

prjv Dor., and Ep. pdv. t 

This particle, cognate with pev, involves the same primary notion " first and fore- 231. 
most," "to begin with," but more strongly expressed, as here the whole statement 
stops at the pev, as if the one thing wei-e all : it insists upon one thing (the first) to 
the exclusion of the rest. Hence it is confirmative and concessive, and also oppo- 
sitive and adversative (as Lat. vero). Accordinglj-, it stands in hortatory addresses 
and exclamations: el 8' aye ^1171', neip7]a-ai, but come now, do' try (in the first place, 
now, for once) ; enov pi]v, do' follow : in questions, rivos pi]v eveKa pavBdvere ro^eveiv ; 
to what end (let me ask you one thing) do you learn — .'' especially t'i pijv ; tlius, 
01 to irapdnav ijbovds ov (pacrtv eivat. " tl pr]v ;" i.e. ri prjv aXKo cf)aa-\v avrds eivai ; 
■what else, I pray (for one thing), do they affirm them, to be ? 'Opds ovv eKe'ivrjv ttjv 
v-^i]KoTdTr]v Tv'XuTavov ; " ri prjv ;" PL Phil. 44, what else, I pray, do I but^sec it ! •=. 
to be sure I do: in argumentative assertions with latent interrogation, awcPpoiv pi]v 
(I suppose I may assert this one thing) o ye toiovtos Ka\ ovbapfi (piXoxprjpaTos, PI. 
Pep. 485, and adversatively, tuvt eVtftKw? pev e'crriv vrro ti iiTona. 87X01 prjv — , 
t/iis is indeed somewhat strange ; it shows, however — . 01' pi]v e pels ye. but then 
surely you don't meaji to say — : in asseverations. wSe yn/j e^epeco, Ka\ prjv TereXea- 
pevov ecTTai, and be sure if one thine/ = assuredly; so i] pip, the usual formula of 
swearing, e'nopvvco troi, rj pi]v e'yw ^oiiXeaBai, verily and truly (for one thing, come 
what will) : in announcing the coming of a new person : o8f pi]v Aipa>v, here, however, 
comes H. ! (Tiie notion however, which often renders pr]v, is given by the suppressed 
opposition, " for one thing, however it may be with the rest," or the like.) 

(cat prjv, Koi prjv ye, the Kai adverbial. Kai prjv X''P'-'' y' *"' d^iav Xd^ois ipov (well, c 
he sure of one thinq — ) : " koI prjv pdXiara tout' dcpiKuprjv. ottcos — " (well, sure > 
enough — ), Soph. GUd. T. l()(Xi, 5. Adversatively: aXV eKbiMaKenvdvff 6 yrjpdaKwv 232. 
Xpovos. " fca) prjv <tv y ounco aarcppovelv enaTTaaai," yet, sure enough. — /cat prjv 

APPENDIX.] 



2i6 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 22,^, 234. 

Tvdpdcriv otSe, Soj}/i. EL 1412. koi firjv opco roKaivav Evpv^iKrji/, Ant. 1165 (announc- 
ing the arrival of a new person). koL fxr)v TduraXov dseldov, then or moreover (for 
one thing) — , Od. 11, 582 (comp. Attic koi p-eudt], § 236 c.) — Ka\ ftijv Kai, and (fur 
one thing) moreover^ 

aWa fjLTjv : aXka firjv KfKpa^ofxeada y ottoctov tj cjjdpvy^ av T]p.av ^(avhdvri, well 
then, we will cry (if that be all), expressive of readiness to do something which 
one is challenged to do : ahX eVrt fxrjv oLKrjTOi, Arifst. It. 258, well, it is inhabited 
(I see that for one thing, sure enough) : el elal [ScDpoi, eiVl koi Beoi- dXXa fxrjv {atqui) 
elcrl j3u>iJLoi' eiaiv apa 6eoi, but there are' altars. akX ov pi)}/, — but not — , be assured 
of that, especially in hasty rejoinders : r^j S' eKovaa ttulSos ov pi6r](Top.ai. " aAX' otiS' 
e-yo) pr]v ri]vb iirrfLp. aiirod Xnrmv," no, nor will I; he assured of that — . (For ciXXa 
pi]v hi], which often occurs in some copies of Plato, the critical edd. restore dWa 

piV hi].) 

yf prjv, quidem eerie, see under ye, § 250. 

Rem. In Homer, pev is often used in precisely the sense of pijv : thus ^ p.ev : 
oil [fu]) pev : ov8i p.ev = aXX' ov pip' : Ka\ peu. 

This particle, related to Se as prjv is to pev, insists upon the de to the exclusion of 
the ptv : its general force therefore = " leave all that is before (or intermediate) 
and come to that," "come to that at once, and stop there." Hence its very frequent 
use in emphatic statements of place, time, degree : in peremptory determinations and 
conclusions, urgent demands, impatient questions, in putting something as generally 
acknowledged (= " everybody has come to that conclusion "), and in the expres- 
sion of irony and derision. Except in the epic style, Si) rure, 5f) ydp, it never begins 
a sentence, ami it is usually attached almost liive a sutiix to the word which it 
qualifies : comp. roaos drj with roaosSf, avroi Stj with i(s)deni, Trp\v 6r) with prirfe?H, 
aye di] with ag^.'dum. 

1) With numerals, demonstratives, local and temporal adverbs, words of dimension, 
superlatives, rpels 6i;, three' (not shoit of, and not be3'ond) : eKTov 8i] ro8' rjpap, this 
is now the sixth da// (it has come to that).7rdi'rcDy andTrdi-v 8r]. ttoXXoI and TroXXaKtj 
8i]. — eKel.vns, ovros. ovra, ivravda, uihe Si; : rd avrci 8f) ravTa : so the personal pro- 
nouns, ere 8r], thee there — ■ ; viJv Srj, rore hrj (Hom. brj Tore. S77 pa tot) : en. ovKtri, TrdXai, 
TTplv, del, TtXos, oyl/e hrj bapov re 8f] xp'^'^ov. — eu jy/ja;^fi 81]. — TrXf Icrra, KpdriOToi 8r]. 

2) With relative, interrogative, indefinite pronouns. 69,01098;}. t'ls hi],toho'ever ? 
(^ when are we ever to get at him ? who ou earth ?) noss, ia-os Sj; ; — aXkos S^, 
alius nescio quis. 8rj tls, quidam, nescio quis. 8r] ttov, sometchere or other. oiTLs 
8ri and SrjTrore. 8^ ttov, sureli/ (=:^ that somehow), and ov 817 nov, surely not, see 
under ttov. — wy and Iva (final) 8r]. preciselij in order that, cos (as) 8r) with ironj- 
as if forsooth (so very certain is that !), are, ola 8ri. 

3) With particles of asseveration and negation, rj 8rj. verity (= that, whatever 
comes before it), comp. ^ pr]v (:== this, whatevej- comes alter it), ol 8ij, not {that J), 
p.i] 8^ (do not think of that J), pr] tl 8r] (cf. nudum), and p.!] ri ye 8tJ, to say nothing 
of — , much less — (= onl}' not that !). 

4) With nouns : rare 8rj a Kvpos \eyei' ^D. Kva^dpri, apa 8/7 e^anavTav, iLen. 
eneidr] 8oKel Xrjdi] tis eluat KavdnavXa 8ij, Soph. I'hll. 866, a cessation at last (it has 
come to that). Often with irony, tqvs ^Adrjvalovs c{)iXovs 8rj wras, Thur. 6, 80. 
friends forsooth (so likely that !). elaj'jyaye rds eraipida^' drj, the pretended rc.n'ubines 

[appendix. 



§ 235 — 237-] ^'i- ^vra. 217 

(that, to be sure, was what everybody would acknowledge tbem to be!). Coinp. [j 
8fi0ev. 234-] 

5) With verbs : aye Brj. 6a}fie6a 8f] (f)6pTiov. eVei irpoBviifi, XPl Xeyft"- aVovf S77, 
u-ell then, hear. oUrda 5;) to nav, (here thou knoice.sl the whole, a-v/xirffi'^'ov tolvvv 
fini riva., " Xa/3wi/ 617 WL.((prj, ovTivn e6i\(Ls," take then (without more ado: as matter 
of course: come to that at once). With irony, bfdicos nep\ avrov, jxri 8ia(})6ap[] 
8^ xmo 'AXKijSmSov, PI. Prot. 320. 

With the whole sentence : vvv S' av puva S17 vui\f\eipptva, since it has come to this, ^ 
that we are left alune.^ 6 fiev xp>^'^"s ^') ^'« xP'-'^°^ irpoviiaive p.01, Soph. Ant. 58, 235. 
denoting the slowness of the passage of time. 

"^ In conclusions : e'/c bf] tovtcov — ,from this then it follows (comp. pr]v of the steps 
of d,n argument). In resumption after interi-uption : eV rovra 8i] av tls yevopevoi, PI. 
Men. 240, well then (to come back at hist to that point) fone be in —.^ Both uses 
are exemplified in Sei Sr; {of course then it is necessary/) irpavTfpov ttws djroKpivea-dai. 
8r]poKpaTia 8i] (Well then — ). In enumerations, denoting the accession of some 
weightier consideration, vyi'eta kuI la-x^s kcu kuXXos Ka\ ttXovtos 8r] [dcnique), PL Men. 
87 : so /cat to S17 ptyiaTov : or something special, I'iWos re kuI Stj kui — . 

Acat 877, in replies: ^\i\j/-ov kAtco. " koI Si) ^XeVo)." ivell, I am' looking (that § 
alrcjid}-) : TavTa 8j], there, 'tis clone! in the supposition of a fictitious case, kuI 8i] 236. 
Tfdvdai, icell, they are dead (suppose it). 

pr]v and S77 exclude each other, therefore this combination never occurs in good 
authors: but pev 81] is frequent, especially in dismissing a consideration: deV 
Tu peu 8) t6^' e'xeis, the how thou hast (enough of that). Toiayra pkv Sf) Tavra, hcec 
hactenus. aXX' ^X^e pev 8i] tovto Tovvei8os Tax "" °Py^ l^iaadev, but in fact — or, it 
may b- enough to say that (one consideration, ptv, and there an end, Si;). Hence /lei/ 
81] ai)]. roaches nearly to pr]v, and Plato renders Homer's Ka\ pr]v TcivtoKov ehel8ou 
by Kui pev 8i] Ka\ TdvTaXov ye elselSov, Prot. 315. and moreover (the enumeration 
begiui with pev cut short by S»}). So ov pev 8i] X/;|co, Soph. El. 103 = ov pi]v \i]^a>. 
iia(n\i<o\ pev av8pes. ov pev 817 eTTi(TTi]povei ye (where Stallb. would read pevToi for 
pev 8,']), PL Phced. 266. Ka\ pev 8i] xaXfTroi/ eirix^ipo'vpev, PL PoL2S7 [porro etiam). 
dv pev 81] Ka\ vnoTTLTi, PL Lys. 8d,jani si adeo. /^aXtara pev 8r] {in fact, or, and that 
one consideration enough) — eneira pevToi {but then). Soph. Phil. 350. 

6~vra. § 

This more emphatic form of S17 (comp. eizeiTa from eVfi, TqviKavTa from TtjviKa), not 237. 

found in Hoiu. and Dor., rare in Herodot., is frequent in Attic, where it accompanies 

all the parts of speech. 

In replies : ^vp[iv\aia 8e Xe-yetf Koivwvi]paTa, rj tl aXXo ; " KOLvuiVTjpaTa brjTa" (just 

so. that is the verv thing I), PL Pep. 1, 333. In earnest iterations : u'lKTeipe 8' i]pds . . . 

" oLKTeipe 8^Ta," yes, do pity, Eur. PL 678. la. " ico 8r]Ta," (it is') alas ! indeed. 

Soph. CEd. 541. ws jLi' aTTcoXeo-as davoiv. diroiXeaas S^r, how hast thou undone me! 



' The particle belongs to the whole sentence, but attaches itself to pova. So in 
vE.^ch. Eum. 3. (First Ga;a, and alter her, Themis) ^ S77 {ut satis constat) to 
prjTpos 8evTepa rJS' e^eTo pavrelov, it belongs to the sentence as a whole, but more closely 
to TO pr]Tp6s. Fully expressed, the meaning is : " who succeeded to the oracle which 
— everybody knows that — was her motirer's before her, and to whicli therefore — 
as everybody must see — ^he had the fullest right." Midler on the Eum. § 91, n. 

APPENDIX.] 



2l8 Appendix. SaL SijOev. h'jiTovOev. 6i]v. [§ 238 — 242. 

[§ yes, undone indeed ! Soph. El. 1155. a-Konei hrjra, onli/ look! In wishes: dnoXoio 
237-] SrjTa, all that thou mightest hut perish ! In questions : rt S^r', enaSav — ; quid turn 
demum dicetis, qunm — 1 tI Srjra KXaUis ; what are' j/oii wcepi)ig for ! tis lipa pva-erai, 
TLS ctp' €TrapK(crfi decov t] 6eav ; norepa 5J}r eyw TroriTrfVw ['iptTT] 8aip.6va)i> ; am I then 
(and- what avails that) ? ^sch. Sept. 93. oiada fifjra ■ye ,• ihow dost', surely, know? 
fj^rjarda yap drjT, I suppose you kiieio (ironically). ^ 6^ra, yes, verily, ov d^ra, 
minime vera. p.Ti ^rjra Spdajjs ravra, only not this ! ore ()rJTa,just when, kol Sf/r' 
fToXijLas, and, forsooth, you had the audacity. Soph. Ant. 445. 

^ ha'i (Attic). 

23^'. This particle occurs only in the combination ti ha'i ; iras 8ai ; and is used in forcible 
transitions, with indignation, wonder, or other emotions: what then? how so? ri 
8al ToXXa ; what then say you to the rest ? It occurs only in the familiar Attic st^'le. 

§ —Be, —Oev. 

239- The tirst only as a suffix in eWe, " would that," "if but" = in this (or, in that) 
case. The second as a suffix of case, ovpavoOev, from heave)i, evrevOeu, thence, Sic: 
hence, in composition with S17, 

This particle (not used by Horn.), originally ■=.from that (as the terininus a quo) 
is almost always ironical (= something which all the world acknowledges, to set out 
with !), yb/'.voo^/^ in pretence, of course (derisively), tovto to ayos ol AuKe8aLp6vioi 
iXavveiv fxeAeuoi/, S^^ei/ rois deals Tvpoorov Tipoypovvres, Thuc. 1, 127. w? fKTve(p€vya)S 
Tovs ex^dpovs, ol fxiv . . . TjdeXrja-av dnoXea-ai Srjdev (as he pretended), Hdt. 1, 11. ttjS 
eKclvos ov^apa jSXdcrTas €(f)o)vei, Srjdev oioev laTopav, Soph. Tr. 381. 

^ brjTvovBiv. 

240. See above, Siy tis. and Sj/ttov, under nov : hence this (Attic) particle originally = 
from that in anywise, or, surely ; therefore, I should hope, or, surely, eyci) Se, rjv 
llTTreveiv pddco, oTav pev eiri tov Ittttov ytvapai, to. tov livTVOKevTavpov SrjTTOvdfv 8iaT7pn- 
^opai, IKen. Cyr. 4, 3, 20. eaTavai yap e^ecrrat 8fjrrovdev avrci, Dem. oiire yap 
fiaye/po) p.axaipas ovSev 'ioT 6(pe\os drirrovdeu, tJtls pr] re'invf t, PI. 

§ 0r',v. 

.241. This stronger form of dev (§ 239) is Homeric and Doric (Sicilian). In Horn. 
always ironical, = S^ttou, especially with ^ ov, nv p.ev 6>]v — yf-yef surely, yet surely 
at least not. In Theocritus iyco 6rjv, I for my part, tv drjv, thou for thy part, and 
= denique. Tteipa drjv irdvTa reXelrui, Adoniaz. (J3. 

2/12. ^^ ^h to Se, so is rjbr] to 7;Se (which answers to r]pev, as on the one hand, so on the 
other hand^.^ It denotes, therefore, the absence of an interval, chiefly with refer- 
ence to time, this (that) instant, immediately. 

{a) As temporal particle, it answers to h&i. jam. now, in the senaefi, forth toil h, 
/henceforth, already, at last, still, the noic being either that of the speaker, or of the 
person, &c. spoken of, not, as vvv, simply " at this present time." Thus ^'877 ayr^X^ei', 
he icent away just now; rjbr] dTV(\i]\v6ev, is just gone; rj^rj d-af\ev<T€Tai.,will go directly. 

^ The rj = as, so, not rj, verily, but the original of 7, or, than, whence also rjpos 
and r^vTe, Lichen, 

[appendix. 



243 — 246.] i'jSr}. vvv. vi], vat, j^d. y. 2ig 



vvv T)dr], Tj^rj vvv, noio this instant. Trou'/o-ay Se roOro, to. aWa rjhT] rj'pxeTO 8i.niKe7v, [§ 
anon, toithoni more ado, Xen. Hell. 7, 1, 12. ^'§7 ovk ('ixofMev, we were not yet (ere- 242.] 
while) able ; rj8rj ovx e^ofiev, ice shall henceforth not (or. no more) he able. Aoyoi 
eacptjXav rjdr] [ere oioiu = full oft) Ka\ Karuiiidoxrav fiiporovs, Soph. El. 408. rjhr] nor 
fldov {in my time), ^81] ttoXm {this lone/ while). 

{h) In the other instances, the temporal signification, though less strongly 
marked, is still discernible : utto ravrrji rjdT] AtyvTrros, at this j^oint immediately 
Egypt begins. drjXov 8q tovto ye rjbrj kol iraibi {even to a child) : so ovtos — , tot — , 
evTavd' — , ovrws fj^T]. tu 8e Travvvxi^av rj8i] —, and then the vigils ; vigilias demtim si 
commcmorcm. Soph. El. 92. 

Rem. 8i]v,jam diii, evidently connected with S//, ijh-q, deniqiie, dudum, donee. 

vvv. 9 

This is the Latin nunc, at this present time (the now of the speaker). Hence it 243. 
usuallj' occurs in connexion witli the present, or present-perfect, or future, the 
latter in the sense, as the case is noto, he, Si'c. ivill — , or, he is now going to — . With 
the proper past (imperf. or aorist indie.) either the sense is present, as vvv S' fls 
TO Keivov KpciT ivrjXaff rj Tvxn, but as it is now, destiny has — ; or the immediate past is 
denoted, iv m-rrep vvv iKdfxvop.ev, Eur. Hec. 1144. vvv efieWop.€v, we were noiv about 
to — . vvv hi] eXeyov.Just now: vvv 817 X€'yco oi''ke^a>,nunc cum maxivie,at this very time. 

vvv, igitur, jam vero, further serves to denote transition or argument : pi] vvv 
aTipa deovs, then do not — , Soph. AJ. 1108. el vvv eVicrTio, if then thou knoivest, 
Soph. Fhil. 1224. In the formula of adjuration : ivpos vvv ae yovuToiv, rrpos vvv Beav, 
now hy — . 

This vvv is reduced to an enclitic (our unemphatic " now ") ; but, as a single § 
word, only in the poets ; in Ionic prose p.evvvv, in Attic tolwv. Homer has it, 244. 
e. g. 8evp6 vvv, hithar then, II. 23, 485.^ 

Connected, if not identical, with cnclit. vvv is the enclit. vv of Homer, used in 
asseveration with somewhat of irony : ovvvt aoiSot a'lTioi, nempe, scilicet, Od. 1, 348. 
6vr]T6s 8e vv Knl av TeTv^ai, but I suppose, II. 10, 622. So eVft vv, rj pa vv, pr) vv 
TOL, oij vv ri. Also Ktti vv Kev in apodosis with prset. indie, to an hypothesis also 
with prset. indie, and doubtless — . In questions : tI vv 01 t6(tov aSixrao, Zev, Od. 
1, 62, why art thou — .^ ti vv a eTpe(pov, II. 1, 414, ichy did' I — ? 

vt], VOL, pa. 5i 

vr] (cf. no?) asseverates, but only in affirmative sentences : vrj tov Ala. . 245. 

This lengthened becomes vai, yea, verily (cf. 6:7, Sai) : often followed by jtiti, as 
va\ pa TOV Ala, a stronger form of vr] tov Ala., The p,d in itself is neither negative 
nor affirmative, but simply ~ " by ;" but unless the vai is expressed, pa. must always 
have a negative expressed or implied, either preceding or following : ov pa tov A., 
or pa TOV A., ov — . pa tjjv TeXeiov Trjs eprjs iraidus Siktjv, "Attjv, 'E.pivvv 6 — ■, 01! 
piOL (pojBov peXadpov eXirls epnaTelv, JEsch. Ai. 1354. 

This particle (always adverbial) expresses assurance: ?; = aXr]6Sis, ovras, Hesych., 246. 
indeed, surely, rj p.j]v, § 231, a strong asseveration, assuredly (come what will, &c.). 

1 Kriiger says, that in Aristoph. the v is long (but still to be written vvv eacl., 
not vvv), in the Tragic poets long or short. 
APPENDIX.] 



220 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 247, 248. 

[§ T] TTou, assurance with a mixture of doubt, real or pretended (hence ironically of 
246.] self-evident conclusions), or confident conjecture, sane opinor, surely. dXX' 7 (often 
falsely written aXX' rj), at prefect o. ^ pa, fJToi. See under pa, toi. 

The same particle used interrogatively, asks a question with confidence or conjec- 
ture. In Horn, without other particles, when the speaker answers his own question 
by another : Tinre Toaov — ■ e^orjcras — ; ^ prjris aev prjXa — eXavvei, ; rj firjTis cravrov 
KTfiveLv; Od. 9, 405. Frequent in Attic, especially' in Tragedy : ^ To\p.r](TUTe ; aye, 
did ye dare ? rj Kelvos &p.oaev ; then did he sioear ? With other particles : ^ 617 ; 
ergo revera? rj rav-ra drjT di^eKra ; then is' this to be horyie? rj ttov^, nunifurte? 
expects an answer in the negative, ^ ttou TeToXurjn' epyov u'laxia-rov roSf ; do you mean 
to say that — ? Eur. Med. 695. *H pa Att. apa; rj yap ; See under pa, yap. 

§ TTfp. 

-47- Etymologically connected with Trept, " through and out at the other end," Trepai/, 
etc., comp. nepL, Lat. per, this enclitic particle has for its fundamental meaning the 
notion, throughly, thoroughly, throughout. Hence 

a) (In Homer) its meaning sometimes seems to be confined to the word which 
it accompanies {vL pergratus perquejucu7idus) : pivvvdu Trep oiiri pdka drjv, II. 13, 573, 
a very little while, ^ just a little while : wpoirov Tvep, va-raruv Trep, quite or just first, 
last : yiwopivov T:€p,just ^precisely at the birth, II. 23, 79. akXa Ka\ avToi nep 
TTov€a>p€$a, ourselves precisely (and not others), II. lU, 70. o'Ua^f nep avv vr}va-l 
veo)peda, home just that (and nothing else), //. 2, 236. roSe rrep pot eniKprjrjvov 
ie\b(op,just this (and only i\\\s) ])rayer, II. 8, 242. 6 fie TreiVerat et? ayaQov inp, to 
what is good if to nothing else = at any rate, //. 11, 789. 

h) (also in Horn.) for all that : aXk' ovS" cos erapovs ippva-aro Upevos nep, though 
quite desiring, all eager as he toas, Od. 1,6. ayados jrep ewv, all bra re as thou art. ov8e 
6fOL Trep — dvvavTai, not the gods either for all that (they be gods), Od. 3, 236. 
prjrep, eTret p" ere/ceV ye pivvv6d8i6v nep fovra, Tipijv rrep poi o^eXXei/ 'OXvpTTios 
eyyvdXi^ai, all short-lived as I am, (jet) honour, if nothing else — , II. 1, 353. 

c) With relatives and conjunctions {this usage is Attic as well as epic) : oWep, 
just what, p)reciscly who, the same that ; oaosnep.just so great as; olosTrep,just of 

the same kind as ; also with w?, ov, ol. o6ev, rj. uttov, ore, ev6a, ecos, eijei, eVetS^, &c. 
enrep, if the case be just so, if really (etTrep ftpyaarai ToSe, ia-pfv yap ovdev rpavts. 
Soph. Aj. 22) : sometimes, if ever so much ; eauirep, if indeed aud provided only thai : 
etnep, iavinp Kal, albeit that even ; oravnep, ivhen (provided only it be so). 

d) The -Attic poets sometimes allow tliemselves the use of Titp as in Homer : 
yewajos Trep cov, all noble as thou art ; but in this sense Kainep with the participle is 
usual (rarely with indie), § 175, e. (Sometimes Kal — Trep with the emphatic word 
between, pav Ka\ 6e6s Trep ipepa nfTTXrjypevos ; ^sch. Aj. 1125.) 

§ ye (Dor. ya). 

-40' This is also enclitic, and connected in its origin with qui in quidem, and our yea. 
Its (original) meaning may often be conveyed by yea, with repetition of the word 
to which it is attached : thus, cos S' or avrjp xa^Kfvs neXeKW iv vSari. f:idTrTr] . . . to 
yap avTf aiStjpov ye Kpdros eVri'i/, for that in the case of steel' (yea, of steel) is 
strengthening, i. e. of steel indeed (for in the case of other things it may be weak- 

' Elmsley, Heracl. 55, Med. 678, 1275, and Stallbaum, PI. Lys. 207 D, deny the 
interrogative use of ^ ttov, which Hermann, Opusc. iii. lol, has vindicated. 

[appendix. 



§ 249-] "^^P- 7^- ^^^ 

ening). ttcos ovxl Li^av iviirpr^trtv, ciXXa rhv avrov yt veav (iaWei ; his oum temple [§ 
(that, of all things !). el 8e /x/) fKCvTes ye, dXX uKovres, if not ivilling (yes, if not 248-] 
that), yet — . eytoye ravra 7rot/)(rco, I' (yes, I : if none other). 

{a) When the force of the particle is confined to the one word which it accom- 
panies, this force can often he rendered in English by added emphasis, sometimes 
by indeed, at least. In general, any word admitting of emphasis may be followed by 
ye. Especially pronouns, personal and demonstrative : eywyf (the accent retracted), 
a-vye, ovtos ye\ (Kewos ye, 68e ye, avros ye : relatives and correlatives, os ye, oaos ye, 
Toaos ye, toctovtos ye (oto? ye rare in Attic) : pronominal adverbs, wSe ye, as ye, ware ye, 
ioanep y : vvv ye: interrogatives, rare in Attic, but not unknown, tlvos y iin aWov : 
hy whom' else f Eur. Hec. 774-. rivay . . einas ; 2Voa^. 241. ttco? y au yj/tyois ; 
how indeed ? Soph. QSd. C. 981 ^ ; negative particles, ov — ye, ov drj nov -^ yf ■ M 
TTCo ye : conditionals, ft ye (in Trag. most usually el — yf), certe si, at least if, if indeed, 
if [that is). &c.: e'lnep ye, if reallj/, if really . — With nouns of every kind, if with 
article, the ye often attached to it: thus, rci y' clkov Trpaypa, the involuntary deed (as 




living or even dead, ap' oia-ddye; thou knotuest,aye? 7 p-alveTalye; is he mad even? 

But in all these cases, it should be considered in each particular instance whether 
the ye is limited to one word, or whether its use comes under the following head : 

{b) It approaches to the nature of a conjunction, where, attached to one of two 
sentences or members of a sentence, it virtually belongs to both. 

In a reply, containing something additional to the preceding expression, the ye 
is placed as near as may be to the beginning, with the emphatic word first : f tTroj rt 
hrira kciXXo ; " "Oo-oi; ye xPvC^'-^" V^^' ('"''^) ^^'^ much as you wish, CEd. T. 364. rl 
p.eXXeLs KopiCeiv — ; " padovad y — ," why delayest thou to^ carry — ? "yes, (I will 
carry) when I have learnt — ," CEd. T. 680. Tpoiav a eXelv 8el. " oiSeVore' y" 
(take Troy !) Never ! Phil. 987. cn-elxe — • " M^^^ y^ ^rpii/ av — " (yes, go :) not 
yet, at least (however, though) until — , Phil. 14U9. 

Frequent in replies with secondary predicate (participle) ; e. g. koXus y e'yw ivoiuyv, 
" aye, and well too for me to do so," PI. Rep. 5, 474. opBm^ ye av Xeyov, Lach. 192. 
TavTqv y I'Swi/ Qdirrovaav, yes (I did it) because I saw. Soph. Ant. 400. In 
explanatory additions : KXvdi — ei ereov ye aos^ elpi,^ if, namely (or, that is) I am — . 
In enumerations : yevva7oi tj ao({>ol fj ripioi rj yipovres ye rj vioL,yes,or old, PI. Mipp. 
Maj. 301. TTpoKTeov Koi yvpvadTtov Kai eSeareov ye /cai TToreov, Crito, 47. 

Kai ye (only Attic), et quidem : dXKa rrapTjadv rives, Ka\ tvoXXol ye, PI. Phcsd, 58. ^ 
Ka\ raird y aXXa, Soph. Phil. 38. Kpelacrov Kape y\ w irdrep, Bave'iv, even me too, 240. 
Trach. 1226. koi — ye Tvp6s,yes and — to hoot. Ka\ KaraKTepco ye -npos, Eur. Phoen. 
619. vr) Tov Ai" es KopaKus ye, Ka\ aavTov ye irpos, Arist. Pac. 19. tov dSiKwr yf 
dnoKTeivavra (sc. I'SXidv ({>r]pi), Kai eXeeivov ye npos, PI. Gorg. 469. 

fie' ye : el rjpepa earlv 0&)j eariV rjpepa St ye ea-riv, but' it is day. e'yo) 8e' y avSp' 
on-<07ra. Soph.Aj. 1150 (in rejoinder to 1140, 7787; ttot elSov avbp eya, aye, hut I too). 
ouSe y e's dvpov (pepco, no, not even. 



• " The particle does not increase the force of the interrogation, but the natural 
force of the interrogative word." Klotz. 
APPENDIX.] 



222 Appendix on tJic F articles. [§250 — 252. 

[§ In ei ye, siquidem, the ye influences the whole clause ; in et — ye it distinp:uishes 

249'] the interposed word. TtVi «XXa) tls av e'lrj (To(f)6s, e'l ye ni] fTTKTTTjixrj ; PL nparr) 6a- 

vois: liv, et b'lKrjg ye Tvyx^avoi^, Supk. The same remark applies to eVet ye, quandoquidem. 

R ye ^Jl.rjv■. opa ye pi^v, look to it, /loiverer, Soph. OEd. C. 587. Xoyw ye ^r]v evKXeiav, 

orr^ '"'i word at least, kowever. Soph. El. 973. ro^iKrjv ye prjp, archery, at least, for one 

"■^ ' thing. PI. Qmv. 197. Ei's ye pj]v 8iKai.oa-vvr]v, In respect, hoivever, of justice, Xen. 

An. 1, 9, 16 : where ye firjv expresses an opposition more strono-ly tliau 8e', but with 

transition to something new : ih. § 20, (piXovs ye fir^v oaovs TTocija-MTo : 7, 6, 15,'E7rei 

ye [XT]V \j/ev8eadai, ffp^aro 'Eeudrjs. 

ye Srj, qiii-dem, eire'i ye 8rj — eKTrjcrdp-r^v, since it has come to t/iis that — . uxnrep 
yap — , TavTT) ye Stj — , in this loay, sure enough, PI. Pep. 330. 

ye (xev 8r], preceded bv eVet, Sojjh. Track. 481 (eVet ye. quandoquidem), opa ye p.ev 
S/;,' PI. 1242 (cf. ye pij'v). 

K ye Toi (see under rot), at least though (thus much at least is certain, that — ). 

,^ r X TavTr]s 8e (sc. Tr]s) anop'ias Ka\ crv poi 8oKeis KeKOLvcovrjKevaf pera^aXKijpepos ye toi avco 
"•^ ' Kal Kuro) ovS" otiovv Travel, PI. Ale. 2, 17. Therefore often preceded hy do Kei, and the 
like : Tov civhp' eaiKev virvos . . . e^eiv' Kupa yap vrrTid^erai rJSe. ISpais ye to'l viv rrav 
KaTaaTii^ei. 8(pas. at any rate a sweat — , Sojjh. Phil. 823. apd ye npos tov 6ei>v 
TTpoaev^opevos Ttopevet ; " Ilacii pev ovv. ' (paivei ye tol ea^KvOpunraKevai =r I guessed 
as much : for sure enough you seem, PI. Ale. 2 init. ^'EniBvpei ^coKpaTrjs aKovcrai 
Topyiov ; 'Ett' aiiTo ye tol tovto ndpe(jp,ev ^ (Like enough,) for to be sure — . 
— ^opas ye toi (jidovrjais ov yevrjaeTai, the carrying indeed, as far as that goes, Soph. 
Track. 1212. 'AXXa — ye tol, after a condition : e'yoj 8e (tos, ksI pfj aoi, aXXo — tro's 
ye rot KoXovpevos. certe tamen. Et 5 ev TracrL tovtoh TjTTCopeBa, aXXa ro ye rot nvp 
TOV Kapnou KpelTTov eVrti/, .Ken. An. 2, 5, 19. — Often with dr/ added : thus (in 
answer to a question), (pacri ye toi 8r] ol tovtcov tcvpioi, yes, at least this is quite cer- 
tain that — , PI. Crito, 44. Kelvov ye tol 8r] ttoT? eW/j^cTO, Sopk. (Ed. T. 1171. 

ye p'evTOL, yet — at least, tovs ye pevToi dyaffovs, yet the brace' icitkal, 21en. An. 
1, 9, 14. 

rot. 

^ This enclitic, derived from ro — (connected with tamen and though), is originally 

2r^ demonstrative, and bj individualizing restricts and excludes. 

The original demonstrative force appears especiallj' in rousing exclamations : ae 
TOL, ae Kpivo). va'i ae, thee there (thee only), Sop)k. El. 1445, so Aj. 1228: and other 
pointed allocutions, av tol, av tol KaTrj^Lcoaas, thou, thou alone — , Phil. 1095 : and 
with emphatic pronouns, e'yw rot, eycoye tol, I, for my part, e'yco rot ovk dpcpia^rjTo), 
I', be sure of that — , PL Hipp. Maj. 369. TavTd tol, this and this only. TavTd tol 
a' exdei ttoXls, therefore, and i-eason enough that, — Eur. Androm. 212. It is fre- 
quent in replies, in the sense be sure of that I never fear ! 'AXXa — toxv tol dnoKpi- 
vovpaL, Xen. An. 6, 4 (al. 6), 34. elprja-eTai tol, it shall be spoken (rely upon that .'), 
Eur. Ion, 760. opa kut op(jivr}v pij (j)v\a^iv evrvxu^- " ^vXu^ofxai tol," Eur. Sij'p. 
567. — t'o-^t rot TLfTOva-d y d^iav Slktjv, be sure though. Soph. El. 290. 

This particle is especially frequent in gnomes, maxims, and general reflexions, 
in the sense, sure enough that ! Mijrt tol dpvTopos pey dpeLvu>v, i)e }iir](j)Li>, II. 23, 315. 

' Ellendt adopts Blomfield's opa ye pevToi on the ground that peu 8r] de rebus adhue 
faciendis non dicatur : which is not true. 

[appendix. 



§ 253. 254-] 7^ M^, ^<^' -^oc. 223 

rots rot SiKaiois x'^ (^pf'X^^ ''"^? jj-tynv. Soph. G*ld. C. 884. Kapra tol cfiikoiKTiaTov [§ 
yvvrj, Aj. 577. J)f5u Toi avhpilov tl koi koXov vvv elnovra kol ■7Toii](TavTa jxvi}pr]v — 252.] 
TTapfXfi-f eavTov, Jloi. An. 6, 3 (al. 5), 24. ij rot t^j 8iapo[us o\lns (ipxtTai o|v (B\€- 
ireiv, orau rj tqjv 6jXfxaT<j)v rrjs aKiirjs Xriyeiu ini-x^ipfi, PI. Cunv. 219. 

Kai Toi, properly "and that" (an accession qualified by though, or "also this" vizu ^ 
" to be considered"): hence especially frequent in the corrective sense, Camera certe, 2^X, 
or attamen, and quamquam. ak\a Kafxe roi (me also, though) ravTov rdS' o'v//'et bpwvra 
Kov niXKovra en. kuItoi a eda-co.^i/ef, or, however, J will let thee go, Soph. Phil. 1255. 
Kairoi TL (^i-qfjn ; quamquam quid loquor, what am I saifing though ? u> Qdvare, Qdvare, 
vvv fx" (7rt(TKe\l/ai poXuiV Kairoi ae fxev KOKel. Trpoaavbfjcro) ^vvcav' ae 8 — , Ai . 8o4. 
'AXAn lovTQiv {Well, let thetn go) — , kuitoi e'xo) ye avTwv (cat reKva — , and yet (=: 
take this also into the account). With secondary predicates : ovhk p.01 efifieXews to 
UiTTciKeiov viperai. Kairoi cro(pov irapci 0a)ro? elprj/jLevov, quamvis a viro sapiente dictum, 
PI. Prot. 339. The force is explained by i-esolving /cat roi into koi — elprjfxevov, /cat 
(oiiK) cos {= ras, ovrus). A stronger expression of this sense is /cat ravra: roiaiJra 
— viipitTiv. /cat raiira ttjXlkovtos, and that too — .' Soph. El. 614 : even with the finite 
verb, though rarelj', /cat tavra Kov(j}U)S e'/c fjieaaiv dpKvararcov wpovaev, JEsch. Eum. 
112. Placed at the end of the sentence: Nuc yovv ewexet-prjcras, ovSev wv koi 
raira, being nothing worth (yet), even so (for all that!), PL Rep. 341. 

In Kairoi ye. the ye belongs to the whole sentence : Kairoi ye 6cj)eik6p.ev6v ttov eari 
rovTo o TtapuKareBero. and yet to be sure (it is true that — ), PI. Rep. 331 fin. In 
Kairoi — ye, the ye belongs to the interposed word : Kairoi rocyovruv y ol8a, though 
indeed thus much at least I know, Soph. (Ed. T. 1455. 

Often followed by dW Spas, which, again, illustrates the original force of Kairoi 
= /cat ws [rcos) : Kairoi ov8ev o ri ou/c a\ij6es e'iprjKa hv Trpoe'nrov' aX\' opcos — , := yet 
Jar all that: the thing is even so (/cat rws). yet even so (o/^tms), PL Euthyph. 3. 
Kairoi <})a(T\v 'icjyiKpdrrjv — e'X^eii/ els e'xdpav' dXX' opois — , Dem. Mid. 41, Buttm. 

pevroi =^for one thing, this' . In rousing exclamations, like rot : oiiros, &e Xe-yo) A 
fiiVToi, ae Tov redvrjKora. — Usually it may be rendered however, to be sure, with an 2^"^ 
opposition to something preceding : eireira pevroi, anon however {though). pdXia-ra 
ptv 81) — ■■ erreira pevroi, Soph. Phil. 350. to pev rrpmrov wKvei — , eireira pevroi 
elnev, PL Charm. 159.^ In affirmative answers (§ 199 c, R. 2): (j)ap.ev ri eivai 
8iKaiuv avro fj ov8ev ; " (jjapev pevroi, vrj Aia," tee affirm it, to be sure (true enough 
that), PL Pha^d. 65. ov ttoXKt] civ dXoyia e'ir] ; '^ ttoXXt] pevroi vrj Aia," ib. 68. — Ei 
yap peoi to aa>pa /cat dnoXXvoiro — , dvayKcuov pevr dv e'u] ■ — , to be sure, it would be 
necessary, it). 87. "Zos pevroi 'Sipcovibrfs noXirrjs' St'/catoj eijSorjde'iu rco dv8pi, to be sure, 
S. is your countrymcin, you are bound to stand up for him, PL Prot.'3'39 fin. ArjXov oVt 
^evdrjs — ciTTairrjCTei p,e, /cat dTrairrjcrei pevroi Si/caicor, and/or the matter of that — , JSTert. 
An. 7, 6, 17. So An. 4, 6, 15, 16, eniSei^aa-dai rrjv 7rai8eiav /cat (pvXd^acrdui pevroi 
{tcithal) pi] Xrjcpdcijpev KXenrovres . . . 'AXXo pevroi {well, for the matter of that, i. e. 
talking of stealing) /cat eyu vpds aKovco rovs 'Ad. 8eivovs eivai KXenreiv rd 8r]p6cria — 
/cat Tovs Kpnriarovs pevroi (and your best men withal). — In questions with ov, nonne ? 
having the force of an affirmation : 01 dvrihiKoi ri 8p(i>aiv ; ovk dvriXeyovcri pevroi ; they 
oppose each other, to be sure, don't they 1 PL Phcsd. 261. ov roiv koXwv p.evroi 7) 
a-cjocppoa-vvT] ea-ri ; PL Charm. 159. 

^ Stallb. PI. Phajd. 266, says, that a preceding pev requires p.ivroi to follow, not 
pev 81]. 

APPENDIX.] 



224 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 255 — 257, 

L^ KM fifVToi ■:= Kol ^Tjv togctlier with Kalroi (corrective): PL Ale. 1, 113, e'fie te 

^^'^ aiTiq fxaTrjv. kcu fiivroi koL ev Xe-yet?,' and yet, to he sure, you do say well. Similarly, 
aWa fXiVToi, oil ^ivToi {ov not interrogative), ov fj-evToi ovbe — . Comp. ol fxf]v aXKa 
— with oil fxfVTOL aWa {Kai),yet no ! but — = uttamen,verumtamen. BovXfiovu — 
tTnx^iprjcrcoiJLev — ; " Udw fiev ovv. oii fievToi dAX' eyco-ye iKelvo av ^^icrra — aKov- 
(Tut/xi," 7iof so, though ; hut — , PI. Meno, § 22 init. 

ye fievTOL is a frequent combination, where both particles severally claim the second 
place in the sentence : thus, rovs ye /xeVrm dyadovs eU iroKeiiov coixoXoyqro 8ia(f)ep6vTa>s 
Tifiav, 2^en. An. 1, 9, 14, the sentence being compounded of toi;s -ye dy. and tcivs 
fjiivToi dy. So olfiai ye yievToi, i'ipT]. But when the first word does not admit ye, but 
does admit pevroi, the order is changed : thus, Xeyovai pev tC ov fievroi ye o<tov 
olovTat, PI. Rej). 329. oxj fievroi ra^v ye dTrayye\a>, 2^en. An. 2, 3, 9. 

On ye Toi, see § 251. 

S TJToi, comp. of rj and rot, is epic : " verily, assuredly : a <f)[Koi, tJtol KXripos ep.6s : 

^r r often fjroi fxev. Sometimes in oppositions : rjroi l>ie(TTopi8j]v — , TT)\epa)(ov S' — , 
~-^^' Od. 15, 6. ^'toi ^08v(Tcrevs varepos, avrap Trfkefia^os irpocrff' r^yepovevev, 24, 154. 

In the alternative rj — /;, the Attics often add toi to the first 77. fjroi KKvovaa 
TTaidos rj TX)\r} ndpa. Soph. Ant. 1182. Trach. 149. iJToi oKov tov el'Sovy Jy fiepovv 
eKauTov, PL Parm. 131. Otten with -ye added : fJToi 6eovs ye -qyovpeBarj 6eo)V7ral8as, 
Apol. 27. rjToi emcrrdnevol ye — rj varepov, Phced. 76. In Pep. 344, E, eoiKas — 
rJToi fjiimv ye ov8ev KrjSeadai, the first rj is suppressed, the sense being, or (e^5e) in that 
case, you do not care for us at all. 

ovToi, not — though, surely not: ovroi — ye : ovrapa: usually at the beginning of 
a sentence, or preceded by dXkd. 



§ 

156. 



pr]Toi (the prohibitive prj), do not — though : fjLrjToi tls f]pus — dopvfBrjaj], PL Sep. 
438. fiTjTot — ye : p.r]Toi ye in aposiopesis, Jien. Cyr. 2, 3, 24. Ma At", e(f)rj 6 
ra^lapxos, firjToi ye iv pia ye rjpepq, nut in one day though : often (in the same sense 
U.T] Ti ye) =: nedum. avrovs eiroiei, prjroi Koi aAXr/Xous ye, — d8iKe'iv, not to say one 
another, PL Sep. 352. prjroi 6eovs ye, — el 6' ovv deovs, p.r]Toi t6v ye peyia-Tov twv 
Qemv, ib. 388. Sometimes p.r]Toi ye 8r]. 

S pa and ap (Epic), apa.^ 

'57- ^) P<^ enclitic, tip the same inverted, and also apa,* are often attached (in epic 
poetry) to relatives and demonstratives, particles and conjunctions, at the beginning 
of a sentence or clause of a sentence, with a notion of progress or sequence, which is 

' Not simply kol firfv, as Buttra. in 1. 

^ But Soph. CEd. C. 1366, rj rav ovK av ^ = ^ rot civ, and El. 498, ^ rot or rj toi. 

^ The supposed derivation from apa (Kiihner, Niigelsb., Stallbaum) explains some 
of the facts (see //. 14, 511, and the preceding vss.) ; more satisfactory is that (cf. 
Hartung) which connects the simple pa (lip) with the verbal root, denoting easy or 
sudden motion, which appears in pe'w, pea, and pdStos, rapio, repente (applied to 
mental action in reor, ratus), rite, and with the suflix in comparatives and comparative 
words, Seii/oTepos, TTorepos, alter{o), 8evpo, ultro, intra, T]p(Tepos, longer, other, either, 
hither, our, &c. nostr{o). On this view, u-pa is the pronominal root a — [a-Tio, d-vd, 
d priv., d-Tap, n-Tep, &c.) compounded with pa. 

* But in numberless passages, a slight alteration will give pa or ap where the 
edited text has apa, ap". 

[appendix. 



§ 258.] pa. apa. 225 

sometimes perceptible, but often so slight that the particle might as well be absent, l§ 
and seems only intended to help the metre or to close an hiatus. Thus we find. 257.] 
indift'erently, &)s 'i(^av and &)? lip '4^av, never w? p tcPav or cos p i'cbar : uis ecf)aT,ol S' 
npa and ws e(f)aT , ol de : 01 8' ore 8t] p lkovto and ol S' ore 8r] (r)(e86v fjaav : rcoz/ pev ap' 
'Ap(pipa)^o9 and tcov pev Odvcrcrevs : 01 r up ^ApvKXas ei)(ov and ot r e^oi/ A'tyivav : 
8q ro're and 817 pa ror'. — ° Sis ecpar ' i'88et(T€u 8i — , Kai p ciKiovcra KaSrjcrTo, with refer- 
ence to the preceding command, dXX' aKeovaa KciOrjao, II. 1, 060-8. ris r up <tcJ)co€ 
Beaiv eptSi ^vvirjKe pax^o'dai ; and who then — , with ref. to 8Laa-Tr]rT]v eplcravre, II. 1, 
6. 8. — It frequentlj' ap]iears in one member of an alternative : !■/' pa — 7, — etV 
apa — i'ire, ovt apa — ovTe ; or correlation, rvcaou — cktctov clp' , rjpos — Trjpos up' : 
or opposition, pev pa — 8e' (nXAd, airdp) : ovk — dXX' apa. Also orri pa. eVet pa, 
owfK (ipa, ore pa, ore and Tore 817 pa. yap pa. rj pa {verily) : ovk and 0118' apa, ei 
fif] cip. 

b) This use is less frequent with other words : it is found, however, in primary 
sentences after some monosyllabic verbs : rj pa, so sjmke he ; ^Pj p 'Ipev and avrap 6 
1^7] p uvai, IJ. 21, 205 (even not at the beginning of a sentence, p-era 8e Kkeirovs 
eniKovpovs l^rj pa peya idx(ov, II. 17, 215): more frequently in apodosis, avrap 
eneL8Tj — , /3^ p 'ipev, and dXX' ore Sr; pa — , yva p av8pas, 11. 10. 357. avrap eneiorj 
Tev^e aciKOi — , rev^' apa ol doiptjKa, II. 18, 609. avrap eVet — , etar ap', II. 22, 127. 
ol 8' eVel ovv — , (rrTjaav ap', II. 24, 349. Similarh', ^'rot oy u>s elnaiv, Kar cip' ((^ro, 
II. 1, lOl : and with the partici]ile, rov 8' ws ovv — , Kivrjaas pa Kupt], II. 17. 198. 
Rarely with substantives : Alas pa Tvpcoros, II. 14, 511. aa-nls ap' a(Tiri8' epet8e, II. 
16, 201. With preposition : rov 8' u>s ovv — , jtier' apa dpafjaiv eetnev, Od. 17, 493. 

c) apa (not pa) denotes subjective consequence, so then — .' tohy, then — .' it 
appears, or, turns out ! always with a feeling of surprise, of finding oneself mistaken 
and, agreeablj- or disagreeably, undeceived. This use is kno\vn to Homer : "E/crop, 
(i8os (ipiare, p.ax^^ "P'^ noXKov eSei^eo, II. 17, 142. cr;^eVX£e, IlT/Xe'os vie. x^l^f^ apa a 
trpecpe pijrrjp, II. 16, 203. olaiv apa Zei/j eV vforrjros e'dwKe Kal es yrjpas roXvnfVfi-v, 
II. 14, 85. in]\e€S, OVK apa aolyf 7ran)p i]v Imrora IlrjXei;?, &C., II. 16, 33. — So 
Sdt. 1, 111, TTvvOavopai — w? (ipa ^lav8avr]s re e'ir] irals, that after all (or, who 
would have thought it I) — In this sense, apa is very frequent in the Attic writers 
of ]30etr3' and prose, ovk ivevoi^aapev on elalv cipa roiavrai (pva-fis, olas rjpeis ovk 
(^■fjdrjpev, PI. Hep. 375. w TrmSej, (ns (ipa e(pXvapovpev, ore — , how, as it now appears, 
we did trifle — .' A'eff. Cyr. 1, 4, 11. epo\. w iiv8pes, dvopevcp — ovk eyiyvero ra Upri. 
KOI e'lKcroiS apa ovk ey'iyvero' coy yap e-yo) vvv Trvi/dcivopai — , and with good, reason, as 
the result has shown, A'ew. An. 2, 2, 3. pdrrjv lip' ijpe'ls, as eoiKfv, TjKopfv, why then it 
appears — , Sopih. E1.7Q'2. or ovKer elp'i, rrjviKavr lip' dp' dv-qp. (Ed. C. 394. ovtco 
Koivijv ri cipa xap« ko^i- Xi^ttt; 8(iKpvci icmv ! A'eH. Hell. 7, 1, 32. Hence the use of the 
imperfect. oS' rjv opa — , tins then is he — .' (he was so all along, as it now turns out), 
Soj?h. Phil. 966, khI ivevvqcra rore cipa KarayeXacrros a>v, rjv'iKa — €0r;i' — ..ov8ev el8(os 
apa rov npdyparos — . eyto pev yap vir di:ie\rep[as (Spqv — . ro 8e cipa. ov rnijro 
^v — , dXXd — . et Se \//'euSr;, ovSev ap' rji> npaypa, .... dWa yap iyo) ovk j]8r] (ipa — , 
PI. Conv. 198 C — E. Sometimes in the middle of a sentence: TroXXd Kal dyadd rt)v 
iroKiv TTeTTOirjKores (ipa dStKcof vtt' avrrjs dnoWwrai, cos 6 rovrcov Xdyo?, PI. Gorg. 519. 
u>s 8e raira yeXoui can, Kard8rfKov tcrrai, edv pi) ttoXXoIs di'd/iacrt ;i(pcoyie^a lipa, {}8cl, re 
Kal dviapco Kal dya6co kuI kukco, PI. Prot. 355. 

On apa in sentences with pev — Se', see § 189 a. s 

In interrogations it denotes surprise, perplexity, or, impatience : r'ls (Ipa pvaerai ; 258. 
Tis up' itvapKtcrei 6eu>v j] 6cuv ; Eur, 

APPENDIX.] Q 



226 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 259 — 261. 

[6 In exclamations, opa, rls ap rjv ; (in disappointment at not findinoj the person 

258.] who was expected;) So})h. (Ed. C. 118, ttcos TroVe — 7ra>s lipa ; Phil. 684, cos ov< 
up fj^T] — ! hoic ignorant, it seems, I was ! El. 1176. So ei and el jxi] apa — , if {or, 
■unless), which I do not expect, &.C.: Trorafios 8' el p.fv ns Kai tiWos lipa rjp.'iv eWi 
8ia^aT€os, ovK olda, if it should turn out that there is — , Xen. An. 2, 4, 6. eiVe — 
fiV lipa, whether — or (should such unexpectedly be the case). With as, " that," it 
is often ironical : as apa oi TrpoyovoL fxeyaXa fv TraBuvres ov8eva eTLn-qaav, that it 
should seem forsooth — , Dem. 

^ Peculiarities : Tavra 8rj Ka\ oi aX\oi ndvrfs apa ^vv((fja(rav, PL Conv. 177. The 

-,rQ force may be expressed by, thei/ could hut assent: ravra aKova-as 6 Kvpos eTralcraTo 
'''^^' apa (in his surjjrise) top fxrjpov, Jlcu. Ci/r. 7, 3, 6. 2aKcbv 8e i8iQ)Tr]s dvrjp djrt'XiTrfv 
apa {to the sui'jyrise of everyhodii) tw iWo) rovs ahXovs eyyvs rw T]p.ia€i rov 8p6pov, A'f «. 
Cj/r. 8, 3, 25. aare eVft edfheiTTpljKea-av, Kal to. TvavTa ttoXXu ovtu 8ia7Tf77i:^(pei 6 
Kvpos aiTo TTJs Tpa7re(r]S. eiirev apa 6 TcojSpvas' 'AXX' e'yo). w Kvpe, Trpticrdev pev rjyovfjirjv 
— {said in his surprise, or, could not help sayinci), 21en. Cyr. 8, 4, 7. In some 
]ilaces, the sense as it turned out subsides into in fact, or, it should he remarked 
that : " 2dKa fie . . . ov8ev 8i8a)s ;" 6 8e 2dKas apa — , jiotc Saras, it should be observed, 
was, &c. (or, it would turn out upon enquiry, that — ). So, in explanation of a 
preceding speech, oi 8' apa raiv ^aaikcoiv oluoxdoi . . . . , 21en. Cyr. 1, 3, 9. 

^ ydp, (nani) namely, for. 

260. Being a form of -ye with the suffix pa, ap, this particle denotes an affirmation (-ye) 
which is explanatory {pa) of something else : sometimes the notion of explanation 
predominates, sometimes the affirmation. 

a) It is little more tban merely explanatory = namely, after demonstratives and 
short sentences, such as a-qpelov fie, drjXov fie' SeiKwui fie, uKii^acrde fie, &c. (in which 
there is always a demonstrative, e. g. evBevde, evrevdev, &c. implied.) See examples 
in § 196, and R., to which add • ovkovv too-ovtov ptv rjpiv ds to TvpoaOtv nenepavTai ; 
o ydp fo-fiev, eTTieiKojs copoXoyrjTaL, PL Ale. pr. 132. thus much, namely — . 8oKei 
Tuivvv pot. ((pT], x^apucTTfpov fivai piidov vp.lv Xeyeiv. 'Hv ydp noTe, where the demon- 
strative is not expressed : to tell you a story. Namely — , PL Prot. 320. 

b) The affirmative force predominates in replies : 'fKeyes ; 'fkeyov ydp, u'hy yes, I 
did. ai prjTfpes ra naidia p.f] eAcfiei/xarowrtoi'. M17 ydp, e(pr) {PL), why yes (vou say 
true) : they ought not ■=■ why no. 

c) Very often, especially in Herodot. and Thucyd., the explanatory clause with 
ydp is premised to the thing explained: see § 196 h, and on the ellipsis in dWa ydp, 
oaX' ov ydp, see under 'AXAd. — On Ka\ yap, see under Kal, § 225. 

d) The ydp in interrogations may be referred to a) = " is this, namely, what you 
mean to say ? " or h) =^ " aye, is it so ? " In many places it may be referred to a 
preceding assertion : thus, oXw'Xe ydp ; := oXwXei'; ovrco ydp Xe'yeis. — To this head 
belong the interrogative replies equivalent to assertions : Trojy yap ; for how can it be 
so ? =!how so ? hy no means : nws ydp ov ; for how can it be not so ? = to he sure, 
itndonhtedly : rj ydp ; ov ydp ; is it not so .^ (which are sometimes inserted in the 
middle of a sentence (especially' by later Atticists) : koKtjv ye {ov ydp;) ttjv dpoi^Tjv 
aTTohoiaopev. 

^ Ti ydp ; sometimes, like quid ?, is a formula of transition to a new question. Ovkovv 

> Tipoi'^ov pev avaliaTiKOiTepovs fTTi tovs ittttovs jroirjcreis avToCs ; Ad yovv. e(f)r]. Ti ydp ; 

'" ■ e'dv TTov KLv8vvev(ii' fie'r/. noTepov — ; A'e«. In reply to a preceding question, it is a 

form of assent, aXAo understood (cf. ri pTjv under pLtjv, § 231) = " (yes ;) for what 

[appendix. 



§ 262 — 264.] T'^P- ^P^- °^^- -^"7 

(else is it, if not as you saj') ?" It raaj- be rendered. toJijj not 1 certainly, undnyht- [§ 
edly, or, after a negative assertion or question, certainly not. tovto fiev upa ttovti drjXov, 261 .] 
oTi oi'/c alcrxpuv ro ypac^yeiv AJyous. Tt yap ; why should it be 1 = of course it is not. 
MeveXae, irpoi^Biyyii viv av6(TL0v Kcipa ; " ti yap ; (ptKos poi Trarpos eariv eKyovos." 

In yap liv, ov yap civ, there is sometimes a reference to a suppressed condition : ov 
(^tXfts p.f, a> dvyarep, ov yap av fpe dneKpinrTov to. aa Trddrj, for (if you did) you icould 
not — . TovTov ivdea icpaiveTo' jSia yap av elXov to x.'^plovjfor (had it been other- 
wise — ), Thuc. 

■» (: 

apa. y 

This (Attic) particle represents the Epic ^ pa. or rather ^ apa,"^ and is described 262. 
by ancient grammarians as aivSeapos dnoprjixaTiKos, denoting perplexity together 
with surprise ; most commonly in interrogations, but sometimes also in exclamations. 

In questions, the meaning is, surely it should seem (or, it turns out, &c.) ? or, aye, 

tJien — ? or, I wonder whether / the interrogative force residing, not so^ much in 

the particle itself, as in the tone of the utterance : rt (})co ; ap eanv ; ap^ ovk eariv ; 
Tj yvoiprj nXava ; Kal cjirjfu KaTnj(})r]pi, kovk ex(o ri(pco, Soph. Qi^d. C. 315. op' OSvaaeciis 
kXvco; can it'he that — ? Phil. 964. ''Apa, e^/;, o) avbpes:, vvv pfv Kaipos StaXv^fjwu ; 
I should think it would he time — / Xen. Cyr. 7, 5, 40. Sometimes in the middle of 
a sentence : "i\bpT)Tov iv 86p.oia-iv apa Kiyxdyoi ; I wonder whether — 1 Eur. Ale. 495. 
Very often it introduces an interrogation dependent on a preceding verb, but always 
in the form of oratio recta : crKe\|/-cope^a apa 'Kiinrj vneplBaXkei, to dSiKelv ; (as if it were 
el apa), PI. Gorg. 475. 8eT lipa — aKOTrelv, dpa Text'iKos itrTiv — ; PI. Lach. 185. 
eTna-Ke\lraa6ai, dpa a viv 8i) dLijXBopfv — dppoTTfi ; PI. Pep. 462. (Cf. § 199 c, R. 1.) 

In dpa ye, the interrogator believes, or pretends to believe, that the thing is as he ^ 
says: 'O Se 8t] dr]p dpd ye . . . otl a'lpei to. dtro rJjj y^s, dr]p KeK'krjTai, I should say 06'^. 
that — 1 PI. Crat. 410. — 'Ap' ovv — ; I presume, then — 1 either where no answer 
is expected, but the speaker passes on to some further view of the subject, or where 
the question is grounded on what goes before (according to the two leading uses of 
olv, § 264, a, b). 

Ap' oil — ; expects an affirmative, opa p.r] — ; a negative answer, ap ov p.a>p6v 
eo-ri; = can it he, that it is not foolish? meaning, that it would be surprising if the 
thing were not so. dpa fir] So/celf ; surely you do not imagine ? = can it he, that 
there is reason to apprehend your imagining 1 (Cf. § 199 b.) 

In the poets, apa sometimes occurs in exclamations, in the same sense as opa: 
oipoi TaXaivT]! dpa T^s8e a-vp(popds, Soph. El. 1170. roioIsSf xPWl^ois dpa XPV 
Trenoidevai, JEsch. Choeph. 281. 

GUI', Ionic 2)1/. ^ 

This word is explained (by Hartung) as accusative avv of aZi, a Cretan and " ^' 
Laced, form of avTos. Hence its original force = " the same," " all one." (Others 
make it =: e6v, ov, so that the primary sense is ut nunc est.) 

a) Originally ovv appears only as an adjunct to pronouns and conjunctions.^ In 
Homer it occurs only so ; chiefly with eirel and ws (also otV ovv, and yovv) : a"i t {the 
cranes) €7rf 1 ovv xf'pwm cpdyov Ka\ d6ea-(PaTov op.^pov, KXayyfj jaiye -neTovTai, at ichat 
same time, i. e. no sooner have they — , //. 3, 4. tov 6' in ovv evo-qae, ih. 21 and 30, 

^ Or, possibly, el apa, when, as is most usual, it is interrogative. Cf. the instances 
where it depends on a verb of considering, &c. 
APPENDIX.] Q 2 



228 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 265, 266. 

-[§ and frequently: atr* {the fawns) iirii ovv eKayiov — , ecrTcia-i. II. 4, 243. In Attic 
264.] writers, ostis, osnep, ocro^. ottoIos, &c., oui^, with their adverbial forms ottj?, cojTrep, &c. 
ovv, all in the sense of the Lat. — cunqiie : e. g. yvvdiKa TricrTrjv 8' ev So^ois evpoi 
p.oXa>v otavTvep ovv Tkemev, such exactly (Trtp), whatever that might he (Clytaimn. is 
speaking of herself), JE^ch. Acj. 565. ttois Xeyets; ecrri yap oriovv Trpayp-a oradrj 
OTTwyoCi' e)(ovTi apuvov ayvoiiv 17 yiyvatarKeiv ; full}", anything, 710 matter what it may 
he, to any person soever, no matter in what condition, PI. Ale. 2, 143. oTiep ovv 
ov8f\s av olrjBeir], Just what {icithout more ado ahoiit it, without question), ih.^ 
Tovhe croL peXdv f(f)U6^ aurjp Kelvos, coaTTep ovv peXei, Soph. Aj. 970. ft 6' ecrriv, ataTrep 
ovv eariv, PL Phadr. 212, with the same notion of indifference, not caring to argue 
the point further.^ 

d) In its consecutive use, ovv = thus, the^i, accordingly, such heing the case: 
eSo^ev ovv p.01. Hence frequent in resumptions, after interposed matter, Karavowv 8e 6 
Kvpos as . . . . , eK tovtwv ovv {I say, oi', so then)' iiredvpei, Xen. Cyr. 3, 3, 9. — In 
poetry, often between the preposition and its noun, eV ovv ponj] roiaSe, Sopih. Tr. 82. 

§ In Herodot. hv {ovv) is frequently placed between a preposition and its verb : 

0(5? thus, i]v Ti'i ylz-avcrj] rapiav vos, avrolaL Iparioicn kut av ejSayj^e eavTijv, 2, 47. (On the 
death of any person of note) to 6r]Xv yevos ttuv to ck tuiv oIkioov rovrav kot av 
eTrXdcraTo ti)v Ke(paXf]v TvrjXa, ih. 85. (In embalming) Trapaaxicavres irapa. ttjv Xottu- 
p-qv, (^ 6)v fVkov rijv KoiXiav Tracrav, ih. 86. (In making boats) vopeicriv ovdfv j^pfcovrai, 
€(TU)6ev 8e Tcir appovlas iv u>v (nuKTCLxrav rfi /3//3Xw, //;. 96. (In sacrificing) /cat eTreira 
^pi^XV "'^P' ^^ €,:iaXe tov avxeva, 4, 60 : usually, as in these instances, with the aorist, 
in descriptions of a customary process : the force seems to be, without more ado, 
strqighttcay ; ^ comp. the Homeric ovv in the relative member. 

§ With aXXd, uTc'ip, 8e, it has a force resembling that of opcos: but, however (= all 

266. one for that), aAX' ovv toq-ovtov y laBi, Sopjh. Ph. 1289. eWco S' ovv ottws vplv 

(})lXov, QSd. C. 1207. Ka\ iXtx^^o-av Xoyot amaToi pev (vioL(Ti 'EXX7|i/coi/, eXexdrjaav 8' 

div, but spoTcen they tcere , all the same, Hdt. el 6' ovv, cfiiXel yap tovto pi] ruvrj] 

pineiv, with aposiopesis, viz. aKXr] peVet, Sop)h. Atit. 722. 

In alternatives, elV ovv — etre, the ovv implies that, whichever side be taken, it 
comes to the same thing: ovkovv SaLpvvia pev (jjrjs pe Ka\ vopi(,eLv /cal 8i8dcrK.eiv, etr' 
ovv Kaiva, e'lre TraXaid- dXX' ovv daipvvid ye vopi^w Kara tov (tov Xcyov, PI. Apol. 27 
(comp. fJTot. — fj, § 255) : with ovv in the second member, Xeyovres eiV dXTjdis, eir 
lip oSv paTTjv, or, for aught I care — , Soph. Phil. 345: in both members, kqI tovto 
Tovvopa e^ovTa, eiT ovv dXrjBes e'lT ovv \j/evdos' aXX ovv 8(8oypevovye eartTov'SaKpaTT] 
8ia<pipeiv Ttv\ TOiv c'iXXcov avSpoiTTuiv, PI. Apol. 34 fin. So ovt (pjyr') ovv : oOVe yap 
6paavs, OVT ovu irpobeia-as dpi. Sopih. (Ed. C. 90. pijT cipoTov avTols yrjs dvuvui Tiva 
pijT ovv yvvaiKuiv rraldai, ih. 275. Homer also has ovt ovv : ev6' ovtis tijv vrjaov 
eaeSpaKev u(^6aXpol(TLV, ovt ovv KvpaTa paKpa — elaibopev, Od, 9, 14/. vvv 8' fnei — 
iKaveis, OVT ovv tadrjTos SevrjaeaL ovre Tfv ciXXov, Od. 6, 192. 



' Buttmann in I. explains it as answering to a ydp in the independent form of 
sentence : tovto yap ovSeiy av olrjOelr], and similai'ly Homer's eVei ovv eKapov := a'i8e 
ydp, eVet eKapov.. But this will hardly explain the other facts. 

- Not as Stall!), in I., ovv, hie quoque nativam servat ratiociuandi et concludendt 
potestatem, whicli, in fact, is not the native force of the particle. 

'^ Compare the cognate avTiKa and avTuis = avVws. Hartung says that it denotes 
a cool, offhand way of going to work ; but this is evidently not always the case. 

[appendix. 



§ 26/ — 269.] ovv. 229 

yoiiv=ye ovv (therefore placed like ye), yes, tvit/iout more ado: ex^'^ SiSci^at 817 ^ 
, oTTot Kadtcrrafi^v ; — '' rlis^yovv 'ABtjvas oi8a, top 8e ^aipov ov," Soph. Qj^d. C*. 24 ^/;, 



M ^ . , . ... , , -, , , 

(the feeling of certaint}' with indifference). rourco S' ov ttuXiv ovtls cinoLaiTov 
aiKees Imroi afi(pa> d(f) rjpniuiv, el yovv erepos ye (pvyrjcnv. Sum. II. 5, 259, with the 
yovv in the condition (cf. § 2(31 a), where the Attics would place it in the apodosis, 
comp. ei Ka\ rvpavvels, e^icrcoTeov to yovv Itr avrCke^ai, Soph. (Ed. T. 408. 

yap ovv, with adverhial yap, in answers, denotes assent with indifference : 4'VH-^'- 
yap ovv. ov yap ovv, PI. passim. Witii ynp, " for," as in ov tvjv ye prj Biyovcrav, ev 
yap ovv Xeyfif, Soph. Ant. 77'2,for, of course : oiKovp-evn yap ovv arkyt] rrvpoi pera 
navT eKTTOpi^ei, Phil. 298. 

pcov ^ pT] ovv ; surely (without more ado) not — ? p.cov 'OSvcro-etuj efTr]a-66p.r]v ; 
surely not Ulysses? (= I hope not.) With ov : pcov ov^ opas ; surely it cannot he 
that you do not see this ? (Ed. C. 1729. But the separate force of the pai'ticles 
having become obscured, so that pa>v has subsided into a mere particle of interroga- 
tion, the Attics also say pav ovv, =■ num igitur ? and pa>v p.r] — ; Mwv tovXos iov 
{lipX^L crov 6 7rai8aya>y6s) ; then, pav prj /cut ovtoI aov ap)(ovaiv ol diSdaicaXoi, ; and 
fiav pLTj tl Tj8iKr]Kas top naTtpa r) Tr]v p-qrepa ; PI. Lys. 208. 

ovKovv, = not, all one for that; assuredly not, hy no means. When the ovk is 
assertive, and the ovv illative, ndt therefore, it should be written ovkovv, or rather ovk. 
ovv ; but in this sense the combination is rare: it is more frequent, when the ovk. is 
interrogative, e. g. ovkovv p! eda-eis ; wilt thou then not let me alone? and then it is 
usual to write ovkovv, as also when the ovv is not illative, and the combination repre- 
sents assuredly not, but in an interrogation, wilt thou not assuredly (or, without more 
ado) let me (jo? (In both these cases it would be better to write ovkovv; see 
§ 199 b, R.) But this negative interrogation is virtually a strong affirmation, and is 
often used as such, and then it is written ovkovv. e.g. ovkovv otuv 817 prj adevco, 
TreTTuva-opai, prop, shall I not — have done ? z=Aye, no doubt — , I shall have done: 
Soph. Ant. 91, with a bitter irony which sometimes accompanies this use of the 
particle. Hence ovkovv ovk — ; is it not then (or, not assuredly) the case that — 
not ? ovkovv ovk av e'lrj to pi) Xvneladai Tvore TaiiTUV tco xaipeiv ; "'tto)? yap av ;" = 
is it not then the case, that the absence of grief will not be identical with rejoicing, 
or, well then, to he sure, the — will not he — / PI. Phil. 360, where the second ovk 
is assertive. Sometimes also, where it is interrogative, ovkovv km 17 a-cocppoavpr) — 
ap' ov TovTois povoLS npoa-rjKei ; PI. Phcedo, 68. 

pev ovv, prop, for one thing, with the same adjunct notion of indifference, it is 
all one, it makes no difference, &c. (But from this must be distinguished the cases 
where pev is followed by a corresponding 6e, and the ovv is illative, on the one hand 
therefore — .) Hence in affirmative answers, ttcivv pev ovv =■ quite, for one thing 
(however it may be with the rest) decidedly (so) : so Kopi8[] pev ovv, TravTanaai pev 
ovv. With Attic urbanity, this formula of assent is used with a corrective force = 
immo vero : eycb ov (prjpi ; (f)r]p\ pev ovv eycoyf, I deny ? nay, rather {=z for one thing, 
decidedly) I assert if, PI. (rurg. 466. 'Eyw cro\ ovk av hvva[pr]v dvTiXeyeiv — . " ov 
pev ovvTi] cYKi^deia — Svvacrai dvTiXeyeiv," 7iay, rather say, you cannot gainsay Truth, 
PI. Conv. 201. In this sense, pev ovv is sometimes used in continued discourse: 
teiaaaa yap ypavs ovbev' dvTLTrais pev ovv, ^sch. Eum. 38. paTaios dp' i)v, ovbapov 
pev ovv (PpevMv, Eur. Hipp). 1009. — It is often used in continuation of a preceding 
statement: o pev ovv {now what =: as far as that goes, enough said) eyco (prjpi ti]v 
pT]TopiKr]v eivai, aKTjKoas .... I'crws pev ovv {however, or now) aToirov TveiTOirjKa . . . 

. APPENDIX.] 



267. 



230 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 270 — 272. 

a^iov fiev^ oyu^ (hoivever) i^ioi avyy vmjjirju i'xfiv icTTi .... iav fiev ovv {then, on the one 
hand) kul eycb — fxfj i'xa — , eiiv be e;^a) — , PZ. Gore/. 465. 

^ ToivVV. 

270. This particle is compounded either of enclitic rot (§ 252) {for that matter), or the 
stronger form rw, in that case, with vw (§ 243). Its use is in transitions and infer- 
ences : then (to proceed), then (in brief), we/l then, whi/ then (especially in lively 
replies). In the beginning of a speech : eya jitv to'ivvv, I, for my part, sure enough, 
Xen. An. 5, 1, 2. In continuation : "En Toivvvrdde Spare, moreover noto — , ib. § 10. 
(TvveT76ixvvfj.i firjSe a ol aXKoi arparrjyol eXajSov elXijcpevai, jj-tj tolvvv ^r]8e {nay, for that 
matter, in short, not eveti) ocra rav Xoxaywv evioi, JSlen. An. 7, 6, 19. In answers : 
aTTeifxi Toivvv, well then (to cut the matter short) I am going, So-ph. (Ed. C 444. In 
unwilling reply: rwv Aaiov roivvv rts yv yevvT]p.a.Tu>v ; well then (if you must needs 
nave it), ?i. 1167. — ra X(^<jTa tolvvv Tavra p.' aXyvvei TviiXai, why then {to dispose oj 
that matter briefly) this ivhich you call ' best' has been troubling me all along, 
ib. 1067. 

^ Toiyap. 

271. The position of this particle in the beginning of a sentence shows that its first 
element is not the enclitic rot, but the ancient rw, in that case, therefore. Hence, 
Toiyap = ergo, proinde. It is used in expressions of assent : ichy {yap) then (tw), 
roiyap TToii](Ta>, Sojjh. Tr. 1249: in inference, Soph. Aj. 666 (after citing a proverb), 
Tolyap TO XoiTTov ela-ofxeada, why then (such being the case) — . The rendering in each 
instance varies with that of yap : thus often in the beginning of a reply, yes, (and) 
therefore : e. g. roiyap 81' opdrjs rr]v8e vavKXrjpeis iroXiv, Sopth. Ant. 994. 

roiyaproL is the same with addition of roi enclitic, udiy therefore to be sure, rotydp- 
roL vvv, are p-eytara TjdiKrjKcos rcov ev MaKebovlq, ddXiujraTos eari Trdvrmv MaKeSuvoiv 
(ironically, after a recital of wicked acts), yes, and therefore no doubt — , Tl. 6ror^.471. 

roiyapovv, why then, such being the case : dXXa Beoh y e'xdia-ros rJKOi. " roiyapoiiv 
rev^et rdxa," why then for that very reason (they are the more likely to grant thy 
request), boph. Q^d. T. 1519. opdas eXe^as' roiyapovv to crov (ppdcrov, suo-h then 
being the case, tell me, Phil. ^41. ^vp.(f)r)p.i Kaya' roiyapovv awCov rube. Frequent in 
prose : e. g. (Cyrus never left a man's zeal in his service unrewarded) Toiyapovv 
Kpuricrroi 8rj vTrr]perai iravros epyov Kvpa eXex^Tja-av yevecrdai, accordingly, aJid reason 
good this — , Xen. An. 1, 9, 18. (He never broke promise) Ka\ yap ovv {and 
therefore in fact) eTr'arrevov avru) — . Toiyapovv eVei — , accordingly, (it is no wonder 
that) when — , ib. 1, 8, 7 — 9. 

f TTOV. 

^„2 This enclitic particle (an adverbial form of Tts, quis, kos, whence Ion. kov, ku>s, 
"' ' &c.) properlj' = somewhere. Apart from the notion of place, it means, somehow, 
ill some sort or degree ; in conjectures, = perhaps, I suppose, used in conversation 
when the speaker puts something in a half-questioning manner {surely), intendin.; 
to build sometliing on the affirmative answer of the person addressed: to ydp 
TTOV KaKuis TTOielv dvdpoywovs rov dSiKeiv ov8ev 8ia(jjepei, for, I presume — (it bemg 
possible that the other would say there was some difference), PI. Crito, 49. 
Also when, with a degree of uncertainty, a speaker repeats anotlier's words : thu> 
(Socr. having proposed a definition of o-;^^;ia, Meno sa3's),"0Ti crxw^ '"'"'^ eari, Kara 
rov aov Xoynv, o del xp''"} (Trerai, because figure, I take it — , PI. Men. 75. Hence 
with Attic urbanity, it is used in matter of certainty, especially to intimate that, 
before the speaker proceeds with his argument, he waits for the other to affirm tht 

[appendix. 



^ 273 — 275.] Toivvv. ro'vyap. itov. iroTe. aWa. 231 

point, or call it to mind : 6 yap crKVTOTOfios rifxvei irov rofiel koi crfilXr] Koi /iXXots [§ 
opyuvois {I sit J) pose yon will grant, or, remember that), Pl.Alc.pr. 51. Ov ri ttov 272.] 
ol'et — ; You do not, I trow, at all imagine (" mirantis et indignantis," Stallb.). Cf. 
oil dt'jnov. (Sometimes it is put before an interposed 4)r]p.i, or the like, to which it 
belongs : eSo^enov (prjai, It sai/s,I sujjjpose, " It seemed good, Sfc," PL Phcedr. 258.) 

The same, with greater emphasis, is brjuov {icemaysa!/ that' at once, I suppose). s 
'E-yoj yap itov uTreKpLmfxriv to Sia ttuvtos opBas e'xor opdcos 8e 8t]Trov e'xft to Kara rrjv ^ 
rexvrjv yiyv^fxevov, my answer, I presume you, perceive, teas as to what is done rightly > ^' 
(in wrestling) at all points: and rightly done — surely you ^ will grant this — is 
what is done by strict rule of art, PL Alc.pr. 107. r(i>v Aaiov Sijttov tls aji/o/xafero, 
I suppose we may be pretty sure that — , Soph. (Ed. T. 1042. — 

Sometimes in a direct interrogation, distinct from the latent interrogation of the 
particle itself: Ka\ ean dijnov to 8i\lros St\|^os roO ; PL Pep. 4,?A) ; even when the 
interrogation is virtually negative : kol tovtov ye brjtvov rt? av emdvpTja-eiev ; equiva- 
lent to 01) yap brjTTOv tovtov ye tis eTridvpi^creiev, PL Conv. 200. In ov drjnov (ye), the 
negation is expressed interrogatively : ov 8tj nov ae ye — ciyovcriv, surely they are 
not — / Soph. Ant. 3H1. ov yap Sr^nov aov ye — , PL ApoL 20. (" ou Sijttou est sus- 
picantis : ov tL nov mirantis et indignantis," Stallb.) 

Stronger still is h^TvovBev (see § 240) ; used when the speaker,^ with a kind of 
defiance, disputes the possibility of an opposite assertion : eoTavai yap e^a-Tai. Si^ttod- 
Sev avTu>,for I presume there can be no doubt that — , Dem. Mid. c. 26. 

Rem. Cf. p.ev in interrogation: 'EWrjv p.ev ioTi, Ka\ ekXrjvl^ei ; PL Men. 82, 
wbere p.ev assumes the fact as unquestionable : nov in the same question would 
mean, that the speaker waits for the other's assent. (Buttm. in 1. and Index, s. v.) 

TTore (enclitic). § 

This temporal adverb of rt? {quis, kos, Ion. KOTe), at some time ;^ once {noTe p.ev — 274. 
noTi 8e, one while — another while, modo — modo, or ivioTe, or llXkoTe Se) : at any 
time, ever. With other designations of time : vvv noTe, rj8r] noje, ndXai noTe, npiv 
noTe. npoa-de nov noTe, nconoTe, eTi noTe. The notion of time is less prominent in 
the ibllowing : fiedes p.eOes jxe. " nol p-ed^ ;" p.edes noTe, do let me go {utique, in any 
wise), Soph. Phil. 816. Tia-aa6e,TLaaa6'a\XaT^xp6vconoTe,atlast,tanjk'm,ahquando, 
or simply by the emphasis, do avenge me ! So /lio'yis olv noTe Tjplv uvBpconos dveui^e 
rr]v dvpav, at last. 'EKKoKvnTe vvv nod" {now. at last) Tjpiv ovSTivas Xeyets \6yovs, 
Eur. Iph. A. 872. 'Kaneibr] d(f)iKeT6 noTe o'lnnapxos. 

In interrogations, it expresses impatience for an answer {tandem), or wonder, oi- 
emotion in general, ti noTeXeyeis ; udiat do' yousay / tl noTe nenovdas ; what {in 
the world) ails you? nebs nore Spdaeis ; = kow will' you do it? t'i noTe (Horn. 
TinT), what can be the reason that — .'' lio'ica noT exprjcavro TeKprjpia ; Xen. And 
so in indirect questions : 'EdavpLacra otw nore Tponc^ tovt iyeveTo : and with indennite 
pronouns, ostis noTe, who-ever, &c. : and with et, eiTrore, if ever, and if perchance. 
With 8rj. osTLS 8r]noTe, whosoever, anov 8i] noTe. So et 8r] noTe. tl 817 Trore ; tovto 
nenpaKTai vvvi on^is 617 Trore, no matter how : and with nvv. 'EpiaduxraTo p.e ostis 8r] 
noT ovv, Msch. Ov 81] TTore in negations interrogatively expressed, surely never — ? 
oil 8!] nod' rjplv ^vyyevrjs r,KeLsno6ev ; surely it can never be that — .'' Soph. EL 1202. 
Cf. oi) 8fj nov, 

'AXXu. § 

This adverbial form (distinguished by its accent from pi. neut. aXXa) derives its 275. 
APPENDIX.] 



22,2 Appendix on tJie Pm'ticlcs. [§275. 

[§ force from the proper signification of aXXor = "what there is else remaining after 
275>] the removal or exclusion of some :" i. e. the notion introduced by aSXa is presented as 
being exclusive of some other preceding notion ; or aKka corresponds to a preced- 
ing ov, expressed or understood. 

a) ovK e'yo), aWa av. ovk (dao/ifv, aWa KcoXvo-ojuei/ : the second notion excludes 
the first, to which it stands in direct opposition. 

d) aiaxpav yvvaiK eyqjjLas, aWa irXovacav. ao<p6s av [xavTis, aXka rd8iKe2v CJ)lKS)v. 
Here the first notion is not expressl}' excluded, and the dWd introduces, not its 
direct opposite, but something different. But here also ciXAa has, in fact, its proper 
force with reierence to a suppressed ov ; for in this form of sentence the speaker 
implies, that the first notion, which he concedes, is not the point, hut the second is. 
In the full expression of the thought, there is an opposition by fiev and 6e, with an 
ov in the de clause, to which ov the dWd corresponds. Thus, to ato/xa SoiXoi/, dXX' 
6 vovs fXevBfpos, the hody is enslaved — this indeed (/neV) I grant, but (Se) not this is 
the point — but (that) the mind is free. Often, to mark the concession more strongly, 
the \i.kv is expressed in the first clause : tovto to Trpdyfxa ax^eXt/Ltoi/ fxev iuTiv, aXXot 
hva-Ko\ov, which, however, is by no means simply equivalent to a)0. ^xev e., 8v(tko\ov 
^e, nor does the dWd correspond to the pev, but to the negation in the suppressed 
^e clause. In /xeV — 8e, it is intimated that both considerations are taken into the 
account: in fxfv — dWd, the former is conceded only to be set aside. AVhen the 
second member is negative, the pev must be expressed, axj^ekipov pev, dW" ov koXov: 
without /xeV, this would = advantageous, and not handsome ; see c. — The first also 
may be negative, e.g. ovk dpvovpai fxiv, aXX' (dXX' o/ncos) fporw ; but then the dXXo 
corresponds, not to the expressed, but to the implied negation, viz. not my not- 
denying is the point, hut my asking. 

c) But the Greek often introduces with nXXd a negation in direct opposition to 
a preceding affirmation: thus, (KelOev dXX' ovk ivdev^e i]pirda-6r], PI. Phadr. 229. See 
other exx. in § 187, to which add : Xapahpiov riva av av ^'lov Xeyets, dXX' ov veKpov 
ovoe Aloov, pi. Goi'ff. 494. Ki.v8vvev€i to eKovra e'nl to dp^fiv levai, dXkd prj duajKijif 
irepipivfiv, ala-)(p()v vevopiadai, coming fortcard to rule instead of (and not rather) 
waiting till one is forced, PI. Pep. 347. ti? pr]xavfj — biKaioaivqv Tifiuu edeXeiv, aXXd 
pi] yeXdi/ (iraLvovfjievrjs aKovovra ; ih. 3G6. (piXoaoipovs dXX' ov (fiiKoSo^ovs KkrjTeov, ih. 
4hU. eneiT airo Topfjov rovs Beovs viTfp(ppovfls, dXX' ovk drvo Trjs yrjs ; Arist. Nuh. 226. 
The natural expression would be ovk evGevde nXX' eKflBeu, &c., but to give greater 
emphasis to the affirmation by more forcible repudiation of its opposite, u-hich is 
assumed as having been asserted, or UJ-ely to be so, the order is inverted, so that the 
dXXd seems to belong, in a manner, to the preceding clause, and to look backward 
rather than forward : thence (quite another thing that I), not hence. But the true 
explanation (which reduces this to the form a) is this : tKfidev ripTrdadrj- ovk {as ai) 
\fyeis, or, cos mofieda, or the like) ivQivbe, dXX' ovk ivBevbe, thence — not as people might 
suppose, "hence" — bid "not hence." This explanation accounts for the irony 
wliich commonly appears in this use. Comp. v^fis — paXiaT liv ovtcos — evdoKifxolTe 
KOL OVK enaivolcrde — ' rifxels t av fxdXiaT av ovTcas fv(f)paivoipe6a ov^ ijSolpeda, PI. Prot. 
337, followed in each instance by an explanation : to ^eu yap (vdoKipdv . . . . , to 8e 
eTTaive'iadai . . . . , &c. Here is no irony : had such been the case, the full fomr 
would have been, evdoKifiolTf Kal ovk fTraivolcrBe dXX' ovK-eTraivolade, := " and the case 
would be, not a being praised, but a not being praised ;" whence, the negative state- 
ment being suppressed, the form would be evSoK. dXX' ovk fmuvola-de. 

Kem. This use of dXX' ov must be distinguished from the but not — , which is 

[appendix. 



§ 2/6 — 2/9.] aXKd. 233 

opposed to a preceding iie'v; see b: e.g. profitable indeed, but not handsome, 
wcpeXifiov [lev, dXX' ov Ka\6v, which is better expressed, ou jueVroi (or fxtv 81)) koXov 
jf. 

oil yiivov — aWa Koi — , not onhj — , 5?«< fl/so — (the aXka in direct opposition to § 
ov, the KM = Koi — , Koi — ), sometimes with the addition npos tovtco, or tovtois. 276. 
When the Kni is omitted, the notion contained in the first member is entirely put 
aside. Thus, in ov novov fKivbvvevafv, itWa koi enaOev, not only was he in danger, but 
he {both was in danger, and) also sirffered, an equal stress is laid on both notions : 
but in the same sentence without koi, on arriving at the second notion, we think it 
so important, that we reject the intention with which here also we set out, viz. of 
putting the notions (ewi/S. and eVa^e) on the same level by (/cul — ,) Ka\ — . 

a) When aXAci follows conditional clauses with el d fx^, &c., it may be rendered § 
by yet, yet at least — saltern, certe. This case comes under b, viz. the aXXa refers to 277. 
a' suppressed apodosis with fxiv — 6e. Et o-wjua hovXov, akV 6 vovs ekevOepos : ihQ 
sui)pressed apodosis is eWco pev hovXov, to which ak\d refers in the manner explained 
above. So fl fxi) iravra. aWa TroXXd ye 'la-re. (Comp. */ m/hi bona republicafnii non 
Uciierit, at carebo mala.) This dXAd is often followed by ovv {even so, all one fir that, 

&C. ; see § 260). Ei (cni fx^ Kaff 'EXXdSa reOpafxixeff, akV ovv pveTU fxoi doKels Xeyeiv 
{Eur.), rjv Ka\ Trjv (j^vaiv KaraSeea-Tepav e'xacnv dXX' ovv rals y ep.TTeipiais . . . TTpo- 
e)(ov(nv {Isoc). 

Rem. aWd ye, in direct combination, perhaps never occurs (in fact this would 
= no yes) ; but ye, as in the preceding instances, heightens the antithetic word. 

b) By an ellipsis of the conditional clause, dWa comes to stand in the middle of 



aXXci viv, Soph. El. 411. In like manner aXX' ovv: rovs TrpwTovsr xpovo^s aXX ovu 
npoa-eTToioivff vplv (piXoi elvai {JEsch.), {if they ivere not really so) at any rate they 
pretended. 

Often aXXci stands at the beginning of a speech, either in opposition to something ^ 
advanced or supposed to be advanced by another, or to some unexpressed thought ^yg 
of the speaker : viz. in quick, abrupt replies ; in starting an objection, or in approba- "' \ 
tion and assent (§ 199 c, R. 2), in exclamations, exhortations, &c., especially when 
the discourse is suddenly interrupted and something- new^is introduced. EvpiniSr}, 
Evpinldiov, vTrcLKova-ov, e'iirep ttcottot' dvQpconuiV rivi " dXX' ou crxoXr;" {I hear,) but . 
aXX' eKKVKXi]dTjT {If so,) why then, do let yourself be rolled out (on the eceyclema)^. 
" dXX^ advvarov." dXX' o/izcos, Nay, do though ! dXX' eKKVKXrjaopaL, KaTaiiaivetv S ou 




brothers^ Why, I have none. My children ihenj — {Andoc.).^ In Xen., Cle- 
archus begins a speech with, 'AXX' u)(j)e\e pev Kupoy ir]v, ene\ 6e reTeXevrrjKev — , Well, 
I -would Cyrus were alive — . And the same author even begins his Sympos. with 
'AXX' epol hoKel — , where the dXXd refers to considerations which he has been turning 
over in his mind; Well, after all, it does seem to me — . 

dXX" (ipa : eiTve pot, eari aoi dypos ; '' ovk epoiye." dXX' I'lpa oiKia 7rpoa68ovs e'xova-a; t 
{you don't say so J) well then — ? 21 Q 

dXX' r) ; a question with surprise or perplexity, the akXd denoting difference from 

• APPENDIX.] 



234 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 280, 281. 

[§ what tlie enquirer expected: aXX' ^ ^6\ov nv, w ^iv , aficjii fioi TrXeKeu; ir/ij/ lioxo 
279-J (rs t/tis)':' — ^sch. Choeph. 214. dXX' r), to \fy6p.evov, kutottlv Tr]s eoprTJs r]<ofi€v Ka\ 
V(rrepovfi€v ; (PL) ovtos, aXX' ^ TrapajraUis ; {Luc.) 

In dXXa 6?7, 8iiTa, /xeV, fiev 8r), p.ev Toi, toi, firjv, both particles have their distinct 
force, wliich is not affected by their concurrence in the same sentence. 

aWci — yap (comp. § 196 b) is often elliptical, the sentence to which aXXd belongs 
being left to be gathered from the context. 'AXX', TjSi yap roi. KTrjixa ttjs viktjs Xa^elv, 
ToXpa. where the sentence is completed by roXpa {So/)/t.). 'lacos 'Epivv^ iariv sk 
Tpayo)8ias, ^XeTrei ye toi paviKov re Ka\ rpaywdiKov. " aXX' ovk ex^et yap 8a8as," 
i. e. dXX' OVK 'E., ovk e'xfi yap 8. {Arist.). dXX' 'iarT ep.oiy vlos KaXus re Kayafos- 
dXX' OVK ediXei yap p.av6dveiv, where dXXd — yap seems to be a mere co.loquialism 
= attamen, as the context contains nothing from which the sentence with aWd 
maybe completed (e.g. but what's the use of that ?). In familiar discourse, the 
two particles may come together : d eyw ^aldpov dyvoo). Ka\ epavTov eViXeXjjcr^iai' 
aXXd yap ovdeTfpa eaTi tovtcov, fv oi8a ort ovx dna^ rJKovdfv {PL = dXkd ^a'ltpov 
OVK ayvocb- ov yap ip,avTOv eTTiXeXrjarfiai' ovSerepa k'aTi tovtu)v). 

^ In the combinations ov firju dXXd, ov pevToi dXXd, and (much less frequent) ov yap 

''So ^^^^' there is always an ellipsis (§ 215 b, R. 2), which may sometimes be supplied 
" ■ by repeating the preceding verb to ov prju, &c. 6 "lttttos Tr'niTei eh yovaTa, Ka\ 
fxiKpoi) KaKelvov i^eTpaxfjXiaev' ov p.r]u (supply e^eTpaxrjXia-ev) dXXd eirepeLvev 6 Kvpos 
fioXis TTCJs, the horse came down on his knees, and was within a little <if't7irouii)ig C. 
over his head; not [that he did throw him], however, but C. managed somehoio to 
Tceep his seat {^en.). p.r\ crKoiTVTe p.\ d)SeX(^', ov yap dXX' exco kcikois = ov yap ware 
(TKcdnTeLv,for it is no jeering matter this, hut I am indeed in a miserable condition. 
But sometimes the notion of opposition is too vague to be supplied, and the combina- 
tion may be regarded as a colloquialism, ov pi]v (and pevToi) dXXd = veruntamen, 
attamen, ov yap dXXd {etenim : nearly =: Ka\ ydp). tovtcov dXrjdt] p.ev eaTi to. noXXd, 
ov firjv dXX' I'cra)? oi^ rj8ea aKoveiu {Dem. where only ^Sea could be supplied). 

e dXX' rj. The union of these two particles after negations, direct or implied, is 

^ explained by a union of two constructions. Ov8eva 6pS) dXXd (re, maybe strengthened 
■^ol, ^y i^i^g insertion of aXXoi', I see none other, but (I see) thee. But this sense may also 
be expressed, with a slight difference, hy ov8eva ciXXov Spa rj ae, I see none-other-than 
thee ; and with omission of the I'lXXov, ovdcva opu rj ae. The two forms combined 
(which was the more natural by reason of the affinity which the particle dXXd. in 
respect of its origin, has for fj) result in the forms, ov8e'va aXXov 6pu> dXX' rj ai, I see 
none other except that {I see) tJiee : in which, if we would express the force of both 
particles, we must sajs I see none other than thee, but {I see) thee, or, I see. none 
other, but I see {thee, and none other) than thee ; and with omission of ciXXop, 
ovdeua opco dXX' rj ere. The combination originating in this simplest form of sentence 
finds its way into more complex enunciations. 

In the neuter, it may often be doubted whether the wording is ov8ev dXX' fj = 
aXXa ^ or ov8ev aXX' rj =r aXXo fj. 

In the ellipsis of the verb (ytVcrat, or the like) to ov8eu (§ 215 b, R. 1), there is 
no doubt that the word is iiXXo : thus, ovs (pap.ev p.av6dveiv ov8ev aXXo r; dvapip.vrj- 
aKovrai {PI. ^ ovdev aXXo noLovcriv f) — ) : whence ov8ev nXX' fj (not dXX' r}) npoaKV- 
velv inreXdp.l'iavov, whether it he, I {did) nothing other than suppose him to hepyi'cii/ing, 
or, / supposed him to he {doing) nothing other than prayinq. In many ctlier cases, the 
form SXXo is easily supposable : e. g. in cyw ydp 8i ovdiv, dXX' ^ Sid ao(f)iuv Tiva tovto 

[appendix. 



§ 282, 283.] aWd. aXV r; a/ld aXk' 7']. ■>/. 235 

TO ovofia eaxriKa (PI.), it is as natural to suppose the word to be hXXo, Jy none other [§ 
tki7iq than hy — , as that it is aWa. Only where an SKkos is expressed in the first 281.] 
meniber, it may seem more natural to assume the form to be dXX' 7}' : thus, ovhiv 
a\\o aKOTTelv, clW rj ro npiarov (PL). Madvio^, however, conceives the true reading 
to be, in all cases, aXX' rj ; see § 91, E. 2. To the examples there cited, add : ov8ev- 
yap, ea-T dXX' (nX\\ Brunck) ^ Kod^. Arist. Ran. '221. apyvpiov 1^^^ ovk e^^co, dXX' ^ 
fiiKpov Ti, Xen. An. 7, 7, 53. Ls 8' ovx^- ^CKi\ a' ovd' ear evuovs, tovt avro ae Trpcbra 
SiM^co. dXX' rj 8ui TOVT avff orir] a-ov ttjs dvOpaKiai dnoKaveL, Arist. Eq. 779. firfdafiov 
dXXu(9t — dXX' fi sKe'i (PL). nT]bapSys aXXco? —/l^^' V — (P'ocr). ^ In questions 
implyino- negation : ri^ av els liXKo n «7roj3Xe'\|/-as ?*; BeiXTjv rj dvdpeiav noXiv e'lnoi, aXX 
17 els TovTO TO fiepos ; PL Rc]). 429. rivos evfKa kup tis — C'^r] dXX' r) twv toiovtcov 
fjdovibv eveKU ; PL 

Sometimes dXX' rj results from confusion of ovk — dWd with the elliptical ovSey ^ 
aXXo (ytyverat, &c.) rj. Thus, ov S' olSe y eIXkov ov8ev 'Apyeiot TrdXat, dXX' 17 Kareye- 282. 
"Xouv T03V TaXaLTj-copovpfvcov = ovde eJXKov dXXd KareyeXtjou, and ovSev enoiovv aXXo rj 
icaTfyiXcov, Arist. Pac. 476. pi] poi pvpiovs pr]8e dupvpiovs ^evovs, pT]8e ras inia-ToXi- 
p-aiovs Tavras 8vvdpfLS, dXX' rj r^s- TToXfcoj earai, Dem. Phil. 45, 19, which Kriiger 
explains as a union of the two constructions, an army must coiisist, not of merce- 
naries, nor — , but of citizens, and, not of inercenaries, &c., nor of other than 
citizens, = pr]de Xeye aXXas 8vvdpeis fj Trjs noXeas. 

dXXd without rj : ovti poi airins aXXos, dXXa TOKije Suw (ITom.). i'nai(Te S' avToxeip wt/ 
ovTis dXX' eya. Soph. CEd. T. 1355. (dXX' rj is colloquial, therefore does not occur in 
Tragedy.) «V Se rc5 /ne'cra) aXXrj pev ttoXis ovdepia cure (j^iXia, ovre 'EXXrjvis, aXXa 
OpqKfs Kftl BiBvvoi, Xen. An. 6, 2 (al. 4), 2. prjdeva erfpov elmi top NiKopri8ov (fiovea 
dxiC "Apia-Tapxov, Dem. 3Iid. 55 4<. And in interrogation: rj eV^f " aXXo jeXos 
Xe-yf"'' f's o dnofSXeyj/avTes avTO. dyada KaXelre, dXXa (Steph. ex conj. dXX' rj) rjbovds 
re Kol Xvnas, PL Prot. 354. 

fj without dXX' : tI tvoiwv rj fvaxovpevos iv QeTToXia ; PL Cn'to, 53 E. dXXa tl 
ovv rovTcov ia-rlv a'lrwv. rj on — ; Xen. (Econ. 3, 3. (tkottw el apa ji ep-ri tois deois 
epyov, rj dvdpaTTovs Bepainmiv, Xen. Mem. 4, 3, 9 (meaning, that he inclines to think 
that the gods have no [other) work than — ). 

7J, or, than. k 

The original force of this particle (radically cognate with ve, ve-l, and possibly _a 283. 
mutihited form of the relative— comp. the use of the Lat. quam in comparison), is 
how, in what manner, as, in correlation (comp. 77 piv — ^ Se, r]bi, § 242), but always 
with the notion of other-ness : rj iyw, rj crv, prop, other-how I, other-how thou. Hence 

In alternatives : rj — rj is both aid — aut and vel — vel : fj d^(^a86i/ fje Kpv(j)r]86v. 
^ Teov ^ A'lavTos — yepas, fj 'OSuo-tjo?. Often the first fj is omitted, then fj = aut 
etiam, usually with a desceiisus a majore ad minus, viz. to something conceived as 
less likely: e^opev KXios koXcos BavouTes ^ koXcos a-eaaapeuoi, having nobly died, 
or — if that be possible — nobly saved, Eur. Or. 1145. virep hv eKelvos aeTo delv 
anodvfia-Keiv fj vLKav, aut, si fieri posset, vincere. — In Attic, the disjunction is often 
rendered stronger by toi (usually followed by a ye) attached to the first r/, ™-ely to 
the second: fjroi oXov tov e'idovs t) pepovs {PL), fj^oi enia-Tdpevoi ye — fj v<TTepov 
dvapLpvrj(TKovTai {PL). fJTOi irpoTepuv ye fj vcTTepov {PL). And without the first fj : 
fOLKas, fjv S' 6-yco, fjroi rjpcbu ye ovdep Kijheadai, Like enough, said J (viz. that you do 
think so), or else (sure enough) you don't care for us, PL Rep. 344 (Stallb. in L). 

When the first member of the alternative is not expressed, ^ = or (else), alia.'!, 
alioquin. avTq pev eKpoxBovaa KepKiaiv ne-TrXovs, fj yvpvov e^o) aoi>pa (= as I must 

APPENDIX.] 



236 Appendix on the Particles. [^ 284 — 286. 

either do this, or else — ), JiJur. El. 306. tovto 8i ovt airoT^Xvadai ovre ylyveadai 
SvuciTov, 77 (supply dvayKo'iov, or else needs must — ) ivdvTa re ovpavov Trdadv re yevecriv 
av^neaoia-av crTijvai, PL Phadr. 245. (Cic. renders it, vel concidat omne caelum 
omnisque natura. See further, § 186, E.) 

§ In alternative (double) questions, Horn, has ^' — rj — ; (rare m Attic poetry): 

284. in later writers, especially Attic, irorepov — rj — ; or the particle^ is omitted in the 
first clause, see § 199 c : and on apa — 7 — ; ib. E._: also on o'AXo n rj, aXXo rt ^ 
oil, ib. h. On rj — rj for et — fj, in dependent questions, ih. c, R. 1. Sometimes, 
after a question put quite generally and indefinitely, a second is put with rj {an) with 
corrective or restrictive fi)rce = ur, which I suppose is Clearer to the truth — ? 
TVoBev rJKei ; rj Sf/Aoi' on i^ dyopds ; (PI-) dWd tls aoi Siriyelro ; i] avTos 2u>KpdTr]S, 
PL Conv. 173 (Stallb. in I. and Elrasl. on Soph. CEd. C. 66). 

Eem. When the second member of the disjunctive question is negative, this is 
expressed by 7) ov, if the predicate, and by *; pr] if only a part of the sentence, 
is negatived. 
§ In comparison, after comparatives, and words implying comparison or opposition, 

285. aXkos, erepos, evavrios, &c., I'j = than {quain. Germ, als, both illustrating the con- 
nexion of rj with the relative : our " than " is demonstrative, = " then ") ; see 
§ 89, sqq. On pdXXov fj ov, § 89, R. 2, cf. Herm. on Soph. Aj. 1260, Avherejt is 
explained, that the last of the exx. above given (Thuc. 3, 36) is equivalent to ov tovs 
aWiovs aAXa pdWov rrjv nuXiv oXrjv. — (This union of two constructions resembles 
that which we have noticed above in ovSus dWos — aXX' fj.) 

5, ov and prj. 

286. For the distinction and use of these particles, see § 200 sqq., and the §§ there 
referred to (cf. Index) : ' on oide, pr]8e, ovre, pi^re, see § 208. 216. 229 c. 

All the applications of p-rj may be derived from the prohibitive. 

Mrj Tvnrf, pi] rv^rjs. It is not, on the whole, indifferent which form is used. 
" M77 with imperative, enjoins the giving over something that a person is doing (or 
thinking of doing) : with aor. subj., the not beginning it is ordered. _ Moreover, the 
present is used of a continued act, as px] ^dWere : the aor. of a quickly transient, 
momentary act. prj ^dXjjs. when a single throwing of the weapon is in question." 
Hermaim. ad llger. § 268, p. 809. The reason vphy the imperative phrase (in second 
pers.) must always be pi] tvttt(, not pi] rv-^ov, is, because the direct actual prohibi- 
tion of a thing prohibits it, not as a single momentary act, hnt once for all. In prj 
TVTvre, pi] expresses the prohibiting, TWTTTe the act prohibited : in pp Tv^rjs.^ there is 
an intermediate verbal notion, viz. an imperative : e. g. pi] Xeye. pi] iwoei, p.i] [iovXoy, 
or the like (or rather, the prj itself is the expression of such a verbal notion, " I will 
not have it," &c.), on which the subjunctive, as a form of the future, is dependent : 
e. g. " do not let the thought come into your mind, that you will strike." And because 



1 Ov appears to be cognate with av, d-no, ab, aut, ha^id, therefore primarily 
denotes separation or removal, reversal or contrast. M??, although it coincides to a, 
considerable extent with ne, appears to have a different origin from that particle 
(Sanscrit md, Persian me, both 2}>'ohibitive). It seems to stand on the same line with 
the pronoun of the first person, pe, and with pa, pels, ph, &c. : but perhaps its 
peculiar force, as the particle of subjective denial, is best derived from the labial 
expression of rejection, dislike, impatience, &c., possibly with some notion of the 
first pers. pronoun in it, " I will not have it," or the like. 

[appendix. 



§ 28;— 2S9.] ov. fiT]. 237 

such a form of proliibltion Is more distinctly related to the future, therefore (cf. [§ 
§ 128) the subj. aor. is used, not the subj. present. (Besides, /ldj tvtttijs would be a 286.] 
circuitous -wnj of expressing wliat is better said by firi rvwre.) But fxr] Tv\//'ara) is 
allowable, § 142, R. 1, thoui>-h rare : for here, as in firj ri/TrreVco, the verb has relation 
to a suppressed imperative, just as we are obliged to express the third pers. impera- 
tive by the verb let : fxr] [let — not) TvirreTO) {strike). 

The construction of JL117 with the indicative and subj. in independent sentences is § 
always to be referred to this principle of an unexpressed imperative. Thus in the 287. 
question fifj ypd-^eis ; ''do not say (tliink, &c.), you will write" = " surely you will 
not write?" {iirj introduces a question to which we wisli, but are not confident of 
receiving, an answer in the negative : with fiu>v, we express a confidence that the 
answer will be, "no"). But Xe^ei? Se firj^ev rav iyLo\ 8e8oyiJLeva>v, JSiir. Med. 804: hut 
you ivUl{\-\oi) tell — do not thinJ,: of it ! — aught ofivhatlhave resolved upon; an asser- 
tion having the force of an express prohibition. 'AAA' ovv Trponrjvva-eis ye tovto fjLrjSevl, 
Soph. Ant. 84, with the same emphasis of entreaty or dehortation expressed by the 
following fXTj^evi, do not think of doing so (no, not) to ani/body ! The principle is the 
same for the subjunctive, which is in its origin only another ibrm of the future : ' but 
in the usage of tlie language, fxr]8ep Xe^/;?, fj.r]8evl npofXTjvva-rjs has come to be merely 
the expression of a prohibition, as above explained ; whereas the fut. indie, asserts 
that which will be. Kai rdfia revx^ P^^t dyoavapxai nves dqaovcr 'A^ai-ols p.i]6 6 
'Xvfieuv ffios, Sojjh. AJ. 569 (" admodum uotabilis hsec ratio particulai cum fut. indie, 
positae," Ellendt. ; but the explanation is obvious on the principle here given, viz.), 

" and as for my arms, do not imagine {that) eithei ;" it is an emphatic negation. — 

So with subj. /X17 8oK03fX€v, and let us not think, where p-r] = the imperative " do not 
let." S} ^flvoL, p.!] drjT ddiKrjdo), Soph. (Ed. C. 172. 

With the proper optative, e.g. prj vvv dvaiprjv, Soph. (Ed. T. 014. pi]^ dijra — 
tboipi ravTrjv ijpepav, ib. 830, the suitableness of pi], as expression of not wishing, i.s 
obvious. 

With the adj., as also infin. and particip. of the verb, " pf], non reapse negat sed s 
jubet cogitari negatum," Frank. Diss, de Partic. negant, i., p. 8. To pi] koKuv, " the (|o 
(do not call, think it, Sic) good :" alcrxpov {to) prj i:ior]6elv {if one does not — ), pr] ^ • 
hoTjdcbv, 6 prj jSor/^wi/. See § 205, 0. For pi] with inf. after verbs of denying, &c., 
see § 210. Comp. under pi] ov.) 

In sentences dependent on verbs denoting fear, anxiety, consideration, &c. (see & 
§ 124, and E. 1, 2), the pi] is evidently in its place as the expression of not loishing, ^gg 
and has the same force as. in the independent sentence, ^ofioiipai pi] evpijaopei/: ~ ^' 
without (j)ol3ovpai, {do) not {say) 2ce shall find, \. e. I hope we shall not : in (pol:iovpaL, 
the nature of the unwillingness is expressed : I am afraid (we shall). And so with 
the subj., Se'SoiKa pi] eTriKciddopfdn. ^povTiCo) pi] Kpdria-TQV r). — Hence the absence of 
8e8oiKa, &c., is not necessarily elliptical. Mi) dypoiKOTepov ?/ to uXijdes elnelv, do not 
say it is, = I fear it may be. — In the usage of the language, (f)o[doiipai pi] ecrTi is, 
I fear it is : (pojiiovpaL prj ij, I fear it may turn out to be: (j^njdovpai pi] ecrrnt, I fear (I 
think with fear) it certainly will be. — The same principle holds for the optative 

^ Thus, Od. 16, 437, ovk earff ovtos dvrjp, ovf ea-a-erai, ovSe yevijTai (ef. PI. Eep. 472, 
mjT€ yiip yiyveTai, ovt€ ytyovtv, ovbe ovv pi] noTe yevrjTai) oy Kev Tri\epax<^ trc5 vu'i 
Xe'ipas iTvoiaei : comp. Od. 6, 201, ovK ecr^' ovtos dvijp diepos (ipoTos, ov8i yivrjTai, oi 
Kev <PnirjKU>v dudpum es ydiav iKrjTat. 

APPENDIX.] 



238 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 290 — 293. 

under the same circumstances, § 131, e. g. eSfia-av jxr] Tvpocrayayouv = the prteteritive 
enunciation of (f)o(3ovvTai jjifj Tvpoa-aydyaicriv. 

S With opqv, and the like, fXTj seems to have more interrogative force. 'Opufiev, pf) 

2QO NtKi'a? ol'erat, i/ou do not say N. thinks ? {sureli/ he does not think ?) let us see iidiether 

' he does. "Opa pi) Ti6i]s, see ichether you are pu tting : Zpa prj Tt6f]s, see whether it may 

not turn out that you are futting : opa prj drjaeLs, see whether you will ie putting. 

5 In sentences of intention, § 122, Iva, oirats, &c., prj, and object-sentences after 

-,QT verbs of endeavour, &c., § 123, the pr] has the same force as in the prohibitive sen- 
' tence, e.g. tt]v y€(pvpav \vcrai. u>s pr] StajS^re, the primary sentence being, " Mjj 
8ia^S)aLv, let them not cross." 

< The use of p; in conditional (el prj), § 202, temporal (orav, onoTe prj), and, gene- 

rally, relative sentences [os, oaos, &c., 6s civ, &c., prj), ih. and 203, is determined by 

-^ the thought, " no notion of," " not to be supposed," or the like. Thus, d prj duxrov- 
aiv = " in case there be no notion of their giving ;" but d ov 8a>aov(TLv, " in case of 
their not-giving :" i. e. the difference is the same as that between prj Scoo-w := don't 
suppose I shall give, and ov Scotrco, / shall not give : of which the former is obviously 
more suitable to the hypothetical form of statement with d, iav. Hence also with 
OS, ocros, &c., oTf, oTTore, &c., the principle is that pij is used wheii there is room for 
supposition in each case that the thing does (will, &c.) occur, or that it does (will, 
&c.) not, but the supposition of its occurrence is negatived. Thus, 6? ovk oibfv, 
"a person who (as matter of fact) knows not," 69 pr) oibfv, "who (as matter of 
necessary supposition) knows not :" in the one case, the ddevai is denied directly ; 
in the other, there is implied a previous consideration, pr/ oldev, " do not suppose he 
knows," whence 6? ^17 oiSei', "the sort of person that does not know:" a prj olSa, 
ovbe n'lopai dV^'ni, " what I know not," = " if there are things that I do not know," 
or, " say I do not know them." And just so with ore and other adv. forms of the 
relative. — With civ (os civ, orav, &c.) the negation is necessarily prj, in virtue of 
the notion of contingency conveyed by that particle. 

X, In § 124, R. 4, the use of ov prj with second pers. fut. indie, denoting peremptory 

2Q, prohibition, is distinguished from that (ih. R. 3) which, with subjunct. or also fut. 

■^•^' indie, expresses a strong negation in the form of an assertion. In the latter, the p.i] 
is usually explained as referring to a suppressed verb or verbal notion, e. g. 8e8oiKa, 
dios ecrri, which is negatived by ov : comp. the full expression ov yap rjv 8eiv6v prj 
aXw TTore, Udt. 1, 84, with Kal twvS' aKOvcras ov tl prj Xrjcpdw SoXu : while the former, 
e. g. oil pr] 'krjprjCTfcs, is explained as, " will you not not-trifle ?" = " will you not have 
done with your nonsense ?" But both phrases are referable to the same origin, and 
(considered in themselves) admit alike of the interrogative or of the assertive notion, 
i. e. on the one hand, ov prj 'Krjprjaeis maj' be, "no, don't think you will (shall) talk 
nonsense," a union of oii 'krjpr;a-eis, with pr] Xrjprjcras (= pr] 'Krjprjcrjjs) : on the other, 
ov TL prj 'krjcjida (■= '\r](f)6ijao pal), " shaW I not-be-taken .f*" i.e. "shall I not be safe 
from being taken .f*" (Cf. Herm. Cens. Elmsl. in _£*«/'. lied.) In the practice of 
the language, however, the ov prj of prohibition with second pers. is best understood 
interrogatively ; in other cases, ov prj is assertive. Thus, in the exx„ given in § 124, 
R. 4, and JJwr. Bacch. 340, ov prj npoaoicrfts X^'P"' ^aKxeva-fis S' loiv, prjS" e^opop^ei 
poypiav rrjv crrjv e'poi ; where the groundwork of the sentence is ov ^uKxevaeis ; will 
yov not go, ])lay the Bacchanal? into which pij wpoaolaeis xdpa, do not imagine you 
shall lay your hand upon me, is inserted, and prjh' e^., &c., is added as opposition. But 
in Soph. (Ed. C. 173, oijrot prj irori a (k rcovd' idpdvcov, w yepov, ukovto. tis ci^ei, the 

[appendix. 



§ 294) 295-] ov jxri. fxri ov. 239 

interrogative form is evidently not intended, and the sense is, "no, assuredly ! do not [§ 
imagine, do not fear, kc. (= /x/;) that any shall carry thee off, Sfc." Tlie usage of 293.] 
the language would rather require a^Tj {ayayj)), hut the thought prominent at last in 
the speaker's mind is ovk a^ei: hence the future indie. = "do not iniMgine that the 
thing shall he ; it shall not be." So (Ef/. C. 848, ovkow ttot e/c tovtow ye fiTj o-/c^7r- 
Tpocv ert 68onroprja-eLs — , where, though the verb is in the second person, ov — ;u7j is 
assertive, not prohibitive; you shall not have these — do not imagine it — as props 
in your wayfarings, and the assertion is stronger than with Sdonropija-rjs. Soph. El. 
1052, aX\' e'lcnd'' ov aoi. fii) fiede^ofxai irore, ov8' rjp a(f)68p' Ip-fipovaa tovto rvy)(dvT]s, 
the fut. indie, as in the preceding instance, because the action is negatived for all 
future time. Arist. Ran. 508, p.a tov 'AttoXXco, ov ^rj a e'-yw TrepiC-^^rofiai anikOovra, 
an asseveration beginning in the usual form, p.a toi^ 'A. ov, and strengthened by the 
prohibition of imagining the contrary.' — In the dependent sentence, edeanLaeu — wp 
ov fXT) TTOTf Ttepa-oiev, Soph. Phil. 607, represents ov fxij irore nepaovcri of oratio recta. 
So ace. c. inf., a-a(pa>i yap elne Teipeaias, oi) fir] Trore crov r^i/Se yrju oIkovutos evvrpd^fiv 
7roX.li/, J*Jur. Phcen. 1606. 

The usage of /itj ov is derived from that of /117 prefixed to a verb negatived § 
by ov. 294. 

In the independent sentence, this combination does not occur with the indicative, 
i. e. not jtiij ov ypdcjieis ; you do not say you are not writing ] but only p.wv ov : thus, 
eV ot? Tt XPW TToieli/ ep.e ; p.aiv ov^ oTrep enoiovv ; Soph. (Ed. C. 1727. But with the 
subjunctive in a form of sentence which may be considered as elliptical (cf. § 289), 
we have p-rj ovv, ecfirj, ov hvvaip,ai iyio . . . i^rjyrja-aa-BaL ; you do not say I am not 
to he able — / Xen. Mem. 4, 2, 12. riplv 8e . . . p.rj ov'dev aXXo aKenriov §, where 
ihe supposed ellipsis is opa, PI. Crito, 48. — In the dependent sentence, deSoiKa fiq 
'■vK dTro6dvr], e8ed. p.r] ovk dnoddvoi, dedoiKa fiTj ov reBvrjKev, require no further ex- 
planation. 

With the inf., see § 211, comp. § 210. Here observe that (1) ovk dpvovp.ai ovtcos § 
eJvai represents the simple assertion ovtms e'a-riv, with negation of denial, ovk dpi>ov- 295. 
jiai. (2) In dpvovp.ai p.r] ovTais eivai, there is a union of dpvovfj.ai ovtcos elvai with fiTj 
ovTcds 'ea-Tiv,you do not say that it is so ? or with (/)r;/xi jxrj ovtcos eivai : the phrase is 
therefore stronger than (1), viz. = both I deny that it is so, and, I have no notion 
that it is so; and, the whole phrase being negatived, ovk a. p.r} ovT(^is elvai = I do 
not deny that it is so, and, J zcould not have you imagine that it is not so, which is 
equivalent to contendo ita esse. (3) Lastly, ovk dpvovp.ai ^77 011;^ ovtuis elvai may be 
referred to a union of ovk dpvovfiai ovrais flvai and /117 ov\ ovtcos 'iuTiv,you do not say 



' The pres. subj. is rare : ov firj 8vva)p.ai (Xen.), and ov /x?) olds t jjs {PL), are not 
conclusive instances, since these verbs have no aor., and, besides, dvvaa-dai and olou 
r dvai have in themselves the future signification which is required in this phrase. 
In Soph. Q^^d. C. 1023, the text is uncertain : ovs ov pi] ttotc p^copay (pvyovTfs rrjsS' 
eTTfvxoiPTai, al. eTTev^avrni, for the inevxovTai of the MSS. Ellendt receives iirev- 
Xf^vrai, in the sense, " are now giving thanks to the gods," viz. " because Theseus 
surmises the persons to be already taken : with iinv^ovTai or i-nfv^wvrai, he would 
imply, that they would be taken ;" and so Hermann in 1. ; but Schueidewin reads, 
ovs oil 8r] TTOTf, and fTVfvxovTai. As regards the principle, there is no reason why the 
vulg. should not be retained, viz. iirj and enevxovTai, " they are not — never imagine 
it ! — giving thanks — ." 

APPENDIX.] 



240 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 296, 297, 

[§ that it is not so ? In tliis construction, the leading verb must be expressly or 
295-] virtually (by interrogation) negatived, or must contain a negative notion, SetwV, 
al(rxp6v, al(T)(vvrj, &c. (cf. § 211 b) : thus, ouVe ^r] nffivrjcrdai ^vvafiai avrov, ovre 
fj.eixvT]H€vos fii] oiiK inaLvelv (21en. Ajiol. fin.), where fxri fjiffivrjcrdaL is the necessary 
infinitive form of ou fj.envrjfj.aL, and /xtj ovk iTvaiviiv of jj.i) ovk inatveira) : you do not 
imagine I am not to praise him ? Impossible (not to do so).' 

§ AVith the participle, fjrj ov (rare in Attic prose, § 211 c) will be found to involve the 

296. same relation to p.rj ov with the indicative = you do not suppose, S^c, that — not — ? 
Thus, oiiK av d^LOTnaros e'lrjv fjir] ov)(i Trporepov avTos (pavels oios et/xt : with ov only, 
this sentence, reduced to its simplest form, is 011 np. (j^aveLs — , ovk a|., " a person 
not first showing himself what he is, is a person not worth}' of credit :" with fii) only, 
OIIK a. av (iT]v, fxrj np. (f)av([s : both expressions are united upon the basis of the 
expression p-r) ov ivp. ((pdvrjv.you do 7iotsvppose I have not first showed myself! so that 
the whole is not simply =^ without first showiny myself, which would be sufficiently 
expressed by p.i] alone, but together with this, as it is not to he supposed that I should 
not. So Soph. (Ed. T. 13, SusaXyT^ro? yap av i\r]v Toidvhe pi] ov Ka-roi-KTeipcov eSpav, 
without oil,- the sense would be, et prj KaroLKTeipoifxi, witli it SusaAy. must be 
resolved into a negative expression, and we have then 011 KaroiKTeiprnv, ovk evuXyrjTos : 
OVK e'irjv av evaky. prj KaroLKTfipcov : and, as the basis of their union, pi] ov KaroiKTfipco, 
you do not imagine that I do not tahe pity ? Soph. Q^d. C 35i*, r/Kei? yap ov Kfvrj ye, 
roijT eyo) aacpas e^oi.8a, pi] ov)(\ SeZ/x' epol (pepovad ti : the negation is ov Kfvrj, and this 
is taken up and enlarged upon in the last clause, which, however, is formed as if the 
negation were oii;^ fJKfis: thou comest not eynpty — (not) without being the bearer — I 
am sure it cannot he otherwise — of some terror to me. — With ellipsis of the Jpar- 
ticiple, at TToXeiy ttoXAoi Ka\ xdhetraX XajBelv al rav ^coKtav, pi] ov )(p6va) Ka\ TroAiopKi'a 
{Dem. in § 211, c). The ellipsis is aXoucrat, or the like, and x^XeTTaWajielv =z ovk 
eudXwrot, and the explanation is the same as in the former instances. — With the 
gen. absolute : elvdrr] Se ovk e^eXevaeadai ((paaav pi] ov rrKrjpeos euvros rov klikXo*, 
Hdt. 6, 106. The elements are, 011 ttX. ianv 6 k., ovk i^fXevaopeda : ovk e^. p.r] ttX. 
ivvTos Tov K. : pi] i^ekevaopeOa, ov ttX, e. rov k., " do not imagine we shall go out 
with the moon not at the full." 

■^ av, and enclitic k€, Kev (not Attic). 

■^97' 'Av is ]irobably cognate with the preposition dvd (Hermann, de Part. "Av, Opusc. 
t. i\'., makes ejBov'Koprj.v av d edvvdprjv = i^ov\6pr]v dvd tovto el eSvvdprjv, secundum 
hoe) ; and Ke, Kev with Kurd, therefore also with Kai (Hermann), and pre-eminently 
with the enclitic ns in the form kos {kov = 7701;, kccs = ttcoj). — In the earlier 

1 " Pf,j, n^ certo, per p.i] ov dubifa?itius negatur," Hermann, ad Vig. p. 797. But 
in many places, the meaning is rather that of wondering or indignant repudiation of 
the opposite notion, e. g. oiS' ideXoi TvpoXnreXv roSe, p.r] ov rov epov arovaxetv Tzarep 
aSXiov, Soph. El. 131; I ivill not forego or desert this sad duty • — you do not 
imagine that I should not bewail. &c. ? Hence (as H. also suggests) its force may 
be rendered by mirtim foret, ni — . 

2 Omitted by Schneidewin on grounds which seem to be insufficient, since, 
according to the explanation in the text, the ov before KaroiKT. does not serve for 
" merely external correlation " to the ov involved in the primary clause. In (Ed. 
T. 221, 01' yap CIV paKpdv '[^(vevov avrvs, pi] ovk e\a>v ti, avpjioXcv, the pi] is better 
omitted (with Schn.), since (Ed. does not mean to allege that he has a clue, and 
OVK £. Ti a. carries on the notion of avros, " left to myself alone." 

[appendix. 



§ 298, 299-] ^^' '^^^* 241 

(not Attic) Greek, Kfv and av often appear in correlation (cf. re — Kal, § 222), the [§ 
former in tlie protasis, the latter in the apodosis, e'lTrep yap k€ /3XeTo — , ovk av — TreVot 297.] 
ISeXos, II. 13, 288, but often so that the apodosis stands first : thus, avrov 6' av Tvimarov 
fx€ Kvves TTpaiTfiai BvpTjcnv cofi-qcrral epvova-iv, (net Ke ris — fK 6vp.ov eXijrai, II. 22, 66. 
0)? av eiTfiT dno (reio — ovk edeXoijxi Xelnea-d', ov8^ e'i Kev [xoi vTrocrTairj 6f6s avros, II. 9, 
444. The force of Kev — av is, in some (or, any) %oay {sort, case, &c.) — , in that 
way {sort, case, &c.). More frequently k€v appears in both clauses (cf. re — re, § 227) : 
el Se Ke firj baaxriv, eyw 5e Kev avros eXcofjLai = if in any way — the7i in some way. 6 
Se Kev KexoXaa-erai ov Kev iKap^ai. But the one or the other particle is often omitted : 
n't K aiiTov yvaco vr^jxepTea iravr evfTTovra, ecra-o) jj.iv ^Xalvav. And verj' often the pro- 
tasis or condition to which av or Kev refers, is not expressed. Thus, ttXtjOvv 6' ovk 
av eyu) p.v6t]arofj.ai ovb' 6vop.i]va>, viz. (ei Ke — ) " if I try," or, " if another can :" kuI Ke 
Tis 0)8' e'peei, viz. " (if in any wise so be,) then may-hap — ." " Kv, and in apodosis 
Kev, always thus looks back to a supposition expressed or understood. 

But av, though it properly belongs to the apodosis, is often drawn into the pro- ^ 
tasis, viz. with the particle el in eav, rjv, with os, and its adverbial forms {os av, orav. -„ q 
wr av, &c.) ; also evr civ, enel av, and e'nfjv, &c. In all these cases, the av, together -^ 
with its verb, is apodosis to a suppressed condition : thus, oyj/eai ijv edeXrjcrda =: thou 
shalt see, if, when the time comes, then thou shalt be unlling (i.e. if in the event it 
shall appear that thou art willing). So with the relative forms. Ovs av 'idrjs KaXe- 
(Tov, = tchom, if so and so (e. g. if there be any to be seen), you shall see . . . us av 
eyaiv e'lTTui, Treidaipeda = in what xvay (whatever the way may be,) I shall sjyeak, 
or, in what way (supposing that I speak,) I shall speaTc : i. e. the groundwork of the 
sentence is, if I speak, I shall spieak so {e'i k e'i-nu), rwy av fiVca), and this thrown into 
the relative form becomes w? av e'ina. So eK yap 'Opearao tlctis ea-aerai . . . . , ottttot 
av ijliijaj] : the groundwork, " when the time shall come {ore Kev — ), tot av rj0j]a-r)," 
in the relative form, ottttot av rjjdrjar]. Or, as all relatives imply correlation, the 
relative with av may be explained as condensed from demonstr. with av together 
with relative with Kev, viz. tot uv {ecraerai) ore Kev ijlirjarj. So II. 15, 232, T6(ppa 
yap ovv ol eyeipe fievos fieya, o(f)p' av 'A)(aio\ (pevyovTes vrjds re kui 'EXXt^sttovtov 
iKcovTaL =■ T6(f)pa av {eyepels) . . . . , 6(j)pa Kev 'iK(ovTai. — Hence, where av appears in 
the protasis, the apodosis rarely (perhaps never) has Kev : i. e. it would be difficult to 
produce a sentence of the form rjv 6e /X17 Scowcrti', eyw 8e Kev avTos eXoifxai. In vvv yap 
X "'EKTop eXois, eTve\ av p-dXa Tol (Txe86v eXdoi, II. 9, 304, the Kev in the first clause 
corresponds with an unexpressed e'i Ke OeXois, e'i Kev eXOoi, or the like, not with enel 
liv in the latter clause, which resolves itself into some such correlation as bia tovto 
av (sc. eXois) oti Kev /x.. cr;^. eX6oi. 

Sometimes av and Kev appear in the same clause : thus, laTavro (jidXayyes, as ovt 
av Kev "Aprjs ovocraiTo peTeXdutv, ovTe k "Adrjvair], II. 13, 127, where uv (see next 
paragraph) is attracted by oiVe, and the sentence may be resolved either into Tal av 
eoovTai {al (/).) as ovTe Kev "Ap., ovTe k 'Ad., or, independently of the relative, ovre, e'i 
Kev"Apr]s 'eXdoi (or eOeXoi, &c., or e'i Kev"ApT] XeyoLS, &C.),"ApT]s ovoa-aiTo dv. (See 
other instances under ocjipa.) 

With res|iect to position in the sentence, Ke never recedes far from the beginning. ^ 
Et 8' 'oSutrei'i i^XBoi — , aj-^d Ke — aTTorlaeTai, Od. 17, 540. dXX' T/Vot vvv p.ev Ke 
vep.e(T(Trj6e\s viroe'i^a, II. 15, 211. Kai Ke tis wS' epeei, II. 4, 176 (not Kal tls x' ^^' epeei, 
like fxaOiiv be tis av epe'i. Find. Nem. 7, 68*). But av, besides its attraction by the 
relative or conditional word, though its proper place is with the predicate, usually' 

* Hermann remarks, that rj Ke jxey wpco^eiev 6 UeXoTri^ris 'Ayap-epvuv. Hdt. 7, 159, 
APPENDIX.] R 



299. 



242 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 300. 

[§ attaches itself to the emphatic word of the clause. Thus, Trarpos Se kul ^r^rpos ovKeri 
299-] jxev ^wovTcov, dbeXtpeos av ciWos ov8ev\ rpowco yevoiTO, Sdt. 3, 119 (see § 139 b). 
Hence it likes to attach itself to words by which the simple form of the sentence is 
altered, such as ovk, ovt, oiS', ovnorf, &c., ris, t'i, ncos, apa, &c., adverbs of time, 
place, manner, such as evravda, t6t€, ra^a, 'laws, elKorcos, pa.8ia>9, paara, ixaXicrra, 
/ioXir, axo^U' rjdeas {ciap-evos), (rcf)68pa, kol {kuv, etiam, vel), &c., and the inferential 
ovv, ri ovv civ ris einoi — , the principle being the same in all, viz. that that term of 
the apodosis which is to have the greatest prominence in reference to the conditional 
sentence (expressed or unexpressed) draws the av after it, because av has the same 
reference. For other remarkable attractions (hyperbatou) of av, see § 139 b, R. 

«!^ Tor the usage of the particle "Ai/. see the Index. — In the cultivated Attic prose, 

-.QO the use of av with fut. indicative (Homer, Pindar, and lyrical parts of Tragedy) is 
rejected, partly in consequence of the rejection of Kf, partly because the provinces 
of the indicative future and the subjunctive are more clearly discriminated (whence 
also the omission of a^ with the subj. in conditional and relative sentences, which is 
frequent in the early and extra- Attic Greek, is rare in Attic, e. g. el Troiriarjs, ore Xe^r;?). 
Thus, avTov 8' av Trvp-aTov fxe Kvves 7rpa>Tr]ai dvprjcriv utpjqcrraX ipvovcriv, enei Ke ns — 
€K 6vp.ov ekrjTai, II. 22, QQ, an apodosis with av, followed by its protasis with Ke : 
here the Attic, rejecting the (ce, gives the protasis in the different form, eVetSaj/ eXj;rat; " 
consequently, the av of the apodosis falls away. In the elliptical sentence, irXrjBvv 
6' OVK av eyoj p.v6r]crop.ai, where av points to an unexpressed ei Ke — , e. g. " if I shall 
try," the Attic retaining av for the like reference uses the optative. In the passages 
^of Attic prose) where av appears with fut. indie, there is some negligence of con- 
struction. Thus, PI. Apol. 29, ws ei 8ia(j)ev^oLixr]v, 7J8r] av vjioiV oi vlels eTriTr]8evovT€S 
a ^coKpaTTjs 8i8d(TK€i irdvTes TravTcnracn, 8La(f)daprj(T0VTaL (so all the best MSS.) : the 
writer meant to say, r]8r] dv vp-wv ol vlels i'!nTrj8evoiiv . . . . , Ka\ tt. tt. 8ia(p6apr](T0VTai, 
but, changing the construction, puts the participle in place of the finite mood. The 
other two undoubted instances in FL, are J?e^j. 615, ovx rjnei, ov8' dv rj^fi 8evpo ; 
Phcedon. 61, oiS' ottoistiovv dv aoi eKav elvai nfifreTai: in both, the irregularity is 
caused by the aptness of dv to attach itself to ov8' and ovv. So Tkuc. 2, 80, pabias 
dv axovres — KpaTrjaova-i, the adv. pa8ia)s drawing av after it, as if the writer had 
meant to say, axolev, Ka\ axovres Kparrjaovai. Just so Sleii. Cp\ 6, 1, 45, dcrpfvos dv 
TTpos av8pa olos av d aTraXXayrja-fraL = f]8ecos av, " he would gladly come forward (or 
the like), and will — ." lb. 7, 5, 21, ttoXv dv en pdXXov t) viv dxpeloi ecrovrai = 
TToXii dv — TOvTo yevoiTo — , oVt — . JEsck. de f. leg. 196, ovtu) yap dv pd\i<TTa pe- 
pvr](Topai Ka\ 8vvr]cropai elirelv, = dv e'lr], on — . And in questions : t'i tiot av e< 
TovT(x)v epel ; JSitr. IBaccJi. 595. dpd ye tovt dv eya> tvot e7r6-^op.ai ; Arist. ]\ub. 
465. n 7T0T dv epel; ^sch. Ctes. 155: here the av does not belong to the verb, 
but to an unexpressed optative, \eyois, (pairjs, or the like, followed by on. 

With imperf. and aor. indie, av is always = " in that case," with reference to a 
preceding " if:" el e^ov\6pr]v, eXeyov av. — oi pev ovoi, errei ns SicoKoi, 7Tpo8pap6vTes av 
elaTTjKeaav [prwcurrere et deinde restitare solehant, Porson : instead of the vulg. dv- 
eia-TTjKecTav, for which others ecrrao-ai/ without civ), Xen. An. 1, 5, 2,50 ofte^i as — , (in 
that case) they ^oould — {dv rei fieri solitce) : cf. Soph. Phil. 287 — 295, which is the 
locus classicus for this usage. 

So in all the usages of ar with optative; pevoip.' dv (viz. el deXois, or the like). — 

was suggested by reminiscence of rj Ke pey olpu^eie yepcov Irnnj^aTa UrjXevs : else the 
speaker would have said, rj pey dv cofx, 

[appendix, 



I 



§ 301, 302.] dv. 243 

But civ witli subjunctive alwa3's accompanies a conditional or relative word ; and [§ 
here the "in that case" refers to a latent condition, as explained above, whence it 3°°-] 
closely accompanies, or even coalesces with, the conjunction or relative. ^Vhen 
with the temporal particles, eVei, ewy, /i«xP' °'^' ^^•' ^^^ "" i^ omitted, the event is 
put by itself without the " in that case," or " if so be," involved in liv. "Eo-nficrTat 
fJ-fXP^ °^ fTraveXOacriv 01 irpecrfieis (Th.), iv rw (j}pove7v yap pLr^Seu t]8i(ttos /St'os. etos to 
Xaipet-v Koi to Xvue'icrdai iidOrjs {So2:)k.). (On npiv, nplu civ with subj., see § 306.) 

It follows from the foregoing principles, that av cannot appear in the indicative ^ 
or optative protasis, unless the protasis be itself in some respect conceived as -p^, 
apodosis to some other proposition. Thus, eSw/cas av, d av fjde'Kes avTos, " you would "^ 
have given what (if so and so) you would have wished." onoTav tJkoi eVi to temvov, 
Xe'yoi/x' av {2^e)i.) = ottots (if SO and so, r^Koi civ,) Xeyot/x' av. (This, however, may be 
considered as indirect form o£ onorav tJkj], Xf^co: comp. the ex. of opt. with eTretSav in 
a depend, sentence which has passed from the subj. into the opt., § 132 b, E.) With 
el, the av will usually follow the verb : Et Xaov kuI ap-eivov e'ir] av tjj Tro'Xei ovtcl> Kcna- 
a-Kfva^ojjLfvr] (Dem.) : here the basis of the sentence is, X. Ka\ a. e'lr) dv tjj tt. oCVw 
K., = et ovTO) KQTacTKevd^oiTo, and this whole assertion is made conditional with el. 
So from the assertion 8ov\ov aKpuTrj {= el iiKpaTTjs eirj) ov te^aiped' dv, we have the 
condition e'l ye firjde 8ovXov OKparf} 8e^aifj.e6' av. 'AyaTrrjTov, el Ka\ e^ vTro^oXrjs 
bvvaivT dv avdpes dya6o\ elvai {Xen.), the fundamental assertion being Ka\ el vTTojioXf] 
e'irj, e^ v. dvvatvT dv. — Et tolvvv tovto Icrxvpuv av rjv Trpos Vfids TeKpLrjpiov . . . , 
KapoX yevea-6a> TeKprjpiov, Dem. c. Timoth. 1201, " if this, had it been alleged, would 
have been — ." — Ov yap dv KaXais ^xoi, el otl TeXeas avrjp ayadoi eyevero, did tovto 
ov8e peiovcov y dv Tvyxdvoi enalvcx)v {Xen.) ; here the assertion peiovcov y dv Tvy)^dvoi, 
el (cat diKtticov /x?) Tvyxdvoi, negatived by ov8e, is put hypothetically with ft. Ovtol ft' 
el pev elxov xeipov dv rjpcov, ov8ev dv rjv 8eiv6v (Dem.), 1. e. ei eixov, x^'^pov dv Tjpcov 
eix^v, and et ;^et'poi'' rjpcov elxov, ov8ev av rjv 8ei.v6v. 

With the final particles, u>s, ottcos (poet. d(j)pa) dv with subj., refers to a condition t 
implied either in the protasis or in the apodosis. Thus, as dv pddrjs, aKova-ov, ut ^ 
(h'scas, audi (i. e. vt disci(s, si forte discas, Herm.) ; or, and this jnore frequentlj', ut 30-« 
disccts, disces antem si ctudias. This will be evident upon reducing m dv pddjjs to its 
original correlation : coy Kev duovaeis, tus dv padrjcrrj. — vuvKXrjpov TpvTTois popcprju 
doXaxras, ws dv ciyvoia irpocrf), Soj}h. P7i. 129 = " that it may be so, as, if I do this, it 
will be so ;" therefore almost equivalent to so shall — .' ec'icraipev . . . eKrjXov avTc'w, 
uis dv els vTTvov TTecrj], ih. 815 = " that he may — , as he will, if we leave him quiet." 
as dv aKonol vvv rjre tcov elprjpeveiiv. Ant. 215 =: " (you say well : do it then ;) so 
shall ye be — ." Creon not only insists that they shall make this their object (^re), 
but that it shall result (eVeu^e) .'■ tcr^i Trav to hpapevov, oncos av eificor i]piv dyyeiXrjs 
(7a0J5, "acquaint yourself with all that is doing, that you may — ," and, "so shall 
you — ." — With the optative, as dv, onas dv ^ quomodo, or ^lt. npoprjdovvTat 
OTTO)? dv fvtaipovoiTjs, derived from the direct interrogation nas dv {el Swutov e'lrj) 
ei8aLpovo[T]s; — 'iva with dv, subj. or opt., is never final, § 122. Trarpts ydp eVrt ndcr' 
'iv dv (uhicumque) rrpaTTT] tis ev, Arist. 



' I cannot assent to M.'s statement, § 122, note, that dv does not perceptibly alter 
tlie meaning. 

- Comp. oTTcos with fut. in the phrase oncos ovv ea-eade dvdpes u^ioi t^? eXevSepias, 
Xen. An. 1, 7, 3. 

APPENDIX.] R 2 



244 Appendix on the Partieles. [§ 303 — 306. 

5i '6(\>(ia (Horn.). 

Z'^})- The derivation is eitlier the relative form o-^t with pa, or 6 Trapa, and the 
meaning, until that, ivMle thai ; but o(/)pa also assumes the force of a final particle, 
the point of time to be reached being conceived as the goal or intent of the action. 
In this sense, o0pa I'Sco, i!)<^pa nvdol/jLrjv expresses the same thing as as, oncos, tVa. 
The appearance of k€ and iiv with this particle results from the correlation o(j)pa 
Ke — , t6<Pp av (or Kf) — . 'Ye S' apa Zevs (Twex^es, ocppa Ke Oacrcrov akin\oa Tei)(ea 
6eir], II. 12, 25 (as the direct expression of the purpose would be To0p' av (or Kei>) 
vau), o(ppa Ke delco). So, o(ppa Ke repTTopevos otv UKOvrjs ^eiprjvm'iv, Od. 12, 51, " (let 
them bind thee = they shall bind thee the while, T6(pp' nu (or Kev) drja-ovan) that 
thou the while mayest hear, &c." Mrj pe ttw es 6p6vov t'^e, 8ioTpe(pes, o(f)pa Kef "EKrcop 
Kelrai (r. KijTai) evl K\icru](Tiv a.Kr]8r]s, II. 24, 5o3- In this correlation, the av is 
often attracted to the relative clause, especially when the demonstrative clause is 
imperative : p^rjaaade Se 6ovpihns dX/o^? o<^p' av eyuv 'A;(tX^o? dpvpovos evrea 8i;co. 
So Tov ^e'lvov 8vaTT]vov ay' es ttoXiv, o(pp' av eKeWi Balra TVTco^evr]. In a few passages, 
where the correlation is expressed, we have o(f)p' av pev Kev — , ro</)pa : viz. o(f)p' ov 
pev Kev Spa . . . t6(Pp' dvaxatpeiToi, II. 11, 187, and ih. 202. o^p av pev Kev tovpar 
dprjpr], Tocfyp' avrov pevea>, Od. 0, 361, and o(f)p' av pev k dypoiis 'iopev — , T6(ppa — 
KapnaXipcos epxeaBai, ih. 6, 259.' 

X ems. Te'cos. 

304. The earlier form is probably rjos or ^o? (comp. rjpns). Its correlative is re'a)?, but 
also Tocppa is so used, rocppa yap av TvorinTvacrolpeBa pv6m .... ecaj k otto ndvra 
hoQelrj, Od. 2, 77. eats (j]m) o ravd' coppaive, Tocppaol eyyvBev rfkQev — 'Hecrropos vlos, 
II. 18, 15. Sometimes ew? in Homer is demonstrative, e. g. wy "E^crcop e'ias pev 
aTTeiXeL, in the same sense as Teas pev (for a tohile) rjavxaCov, errel Se — , ^en.: and 
sometimes in Attic pi-ose, reus is used for ecoy. {Buttmann, Index ad Dem. Mid.) 

^ eVre. 

305. Comp. Homer's els ore, e'laoKe, and Lat. usque. The Attics use it instead of ocppa, 
and in the sense usque with a preposition, eVre eVt to ddnedov {Xen). 

Rem. The same sense is expressed by ems oil, pexpi-s ov, axpi-s ov. These two 
prepositional adverbs, in Avhich there is no perceptible difference of meaning, are 
derived from paKpos, dKpos (" to the length of where," " up to where "). Hom. 
has also pea-tpa (related to peaos) in the sense of pexpi, II. 8, 508. 

& TTplv. 

306. Tliis particle, whether explained as a locative form of the root Ttpo, or as an ancient 
comparative (irpiov-, co\i\\).2)rius2i\\A.prismp}'iscus, &c.), is properly an adverb (and 
so used especially in poetry : hv nplv ovk dKijKoas. os irplv cp;^ero. iv tw irplv ;^poi'(i), 
&c.), and is still in fact such even wben it is used as a conjunction in the conviexion of 
sentences, and ranks, as such, with the temporal particles oTe, e'nel, ecos, &c. (§ 127. 138.) 

^ Thiersch holds, that ocjipa with Kev, civ, is not final, " in order that," but " while," 
" until ;" but in several of the passages cited, an intention is clearly implied. Rost 
makes licfip' av to be = ut, .si forte, and o0pa Ke to imply that the event is confidently 
expected. Quite an erroneous distinction. The difference at most is that between 
icppa Ke — T6(j)pa Ke, and o(f)pa Ke — rot^p' av (§ 297) ; and o(f)p' av 8v(o is " so shall (or, 
uuiy) I the while put on," Zcj)pa dvco, "while that I put on." 

[appendix. 



I 



§ 307.] 6(f)pa. e&)?. eare. irpiv. o)?. 245 

Thus, ill Homer, ovS' oye trplv \oip.olo jSapdas Krjpas a.cf)e^ei, irplv y airb narpl (jilXco [§ 
8vp.fvai. eXiKcoTTtSa Kovpr]v, II. 1, 97, with correlation, not' will he sooner hold off — , 306.] 
sooner there must he a giving — ; the first irpiv looking forward, =: "before the 
giving ;" the second looking back, = " before the holding off." i]neff uTv^ofxevai . . . , 
irpiv y ore 6)7 p.e aos vlos cino fieydpoio KaXeaafv, Od. 28, 43 : here the Trpiv properly 
belongs to the first clause, tee sat — before, and then indeed, which in the relative 
form becomes — before (the time) tvhen at last, or rrplv ^ ore. So with urav : 
op-ocrou p.rj pAjdrjcracrBai,, irpiv y orav . . . yevqrat, = firj irplv pvdi^aaadai, rj orav, or 
flXX' orav. — In good Attic authors, we find irp\v nv with subj., irpiv with opt., only 
after a negation expressed or implied, probably because this form of sentence is 
conceived as resting on the correlation of irpiv — irpiv, which necessarily involves a 
negation of one clause. This correlation is sometimes even expressed : e. g. oix 
airoKpivovpai irpoTfpov .... irplv av irpmTov diroKpivcopat 6 ri ecrriv (PI.) ^ " I will 
not answer sooner . . . . , (but) before ^doing so) I will first answer," combined with 
the form ovk diroKpivovpai irpiv, j] (or dXX') Srav diroKp. So (ei) /lit) aveir] .... irplv 
e^eXKvafLev fls ro tov TjXiov (pas, which is the indirect form of ovk avrjcrsL (irpiv, or 
irpoTfpov), irplv (dvuvai) e^eX/cuo-ei, and ovk avrjo-fi, irplv (fj ore) e|eXKi'aet. Or, the 
irpiv may be conceived to belong to the latter clause, but with relation to the first, 
as in Homer's rrjv S' eyco ov Xvtrw irpiv piv Kal yrjpas eirdcriv, " I will not let her go : 
before (ere, sooner than, that shall be) old age shall come upon her." With the 
indicative, an affirmative sometimes precedes, but this is comparatively rare (mostly 
confined to Trag. and Thuc, who usuall}^ has irplv 8r], irpiv -ye 8rj). Thus, 01 Aa/ceSai- 
povLoi r](x{)-)(a^ov, irplv 8rj rj dvvapn toiv ^Adrjvaiwv (Ta(pa>s jjpfTo (Thuc.) — a phrase con- 
tracted from fj(TVX(tC'^v irpiv, kuI. Tore 8r] — , or rja. irplv fj ore 8r]. TIapair'kr]aLa . . . 
eiraaxov, irpiv ye 8rj ol ^vpaKccrioi. iTpe^av (Thuc). Here no correlation is implied: 
but in the negative sentence, ovk livat rjOeXev irplv rj ywrj aviiiv eneicrev (JTew.), the 
form maybe either ovk fjOeXe irpiv, irplv i'lreia-ev, or ovk ijd. irpiv, ij (or dXX') Sre i'lreLcrev. 
So irpiv with inf. may follow either a negative or an affirmative assertion, according 
as there is or is not correlation. OvSe tls erkr] irplv iriUiv, irplv \ili\rai, II. 7, 480, the 
elements being, " they will not drink first, (but) first they will make a libation," " they 
will not drink before (libation made), before (drinking, there must be) libation:" 
but crrrjT avrov irplv irecreeLV := ctt^t' avTov irplv fj irea-elre, II. 6, 82. (Both forms, 
iufin. and subj., are united by 7, "or," after a negation, in II. 14, 504.) 

Eem. In Attic, ^' is rarely expressed after irpiv; and liv with the subj. is some- 
times omitted, as also with p.exP'- °^' ^'"^' especially in Ti-ag. and Thuc. ov xPl 
dpx^l^ ciXXrjs optyfo-Qm, irplv f]v i'xopev /3e/3a(a)(7a)/xe^a (Thuc), the thought being, 
" before (we do that), let us (=: I counsel, that we first) make sure what we have." 
Mi) a-reva^e, irplv pdd7]s, Soph. Phil. 917, " before (you groan), (I advise you to) 
learn," combined with p.r] ctt. irplv paBeiv : but irplv av jxddjjs would be, " not 
sooner, but when, if so be, you shall have learnt." — On the other hand, av is 
sometimes inserted with optative : dirayopevovrav prj diroKreiveiv rov livhpa irplv 
av eyco eXdoipt (Antiph. 5, 113), as indirect form of pi] diroKreive irplv av eya eX^w. 



This adverbial form of the relative 09, the same as ut (i. e. quiit from qui), derives 307- 
its various usages partly from the correlation tw? (a)s,ovTws) — coy, in the manner — 
in which, so — as ; partly from the corresponding interrogative form iro>s ; {kS)s ; 
ti'om Kos = ris ; quis ?) and indirect interrogative ottcos. 

a) as, sicut, quemadmodum, in comparison, ourws cJ? exo>,Just as I am. irpeirei cos 
Tvpnwos (sc. irpeirei) elaoQiiv (Soph.) : exi8vr]s ms coy (sc. 8aiyuTai) e8aivvT0 ((Sci/)/<.) : 
APPENDIX.] 



246 Appendix on the Partieles. [§ 307. 

^f^ and frequently in Homeric similes, a5s Se — , wy — , and as — , so. Strengthened by 
•''■-' Tiep, e.g. ?; V'l'X') ^KjSaivovcra cocTTrep nvevfjia i) Kanvos duicrKedacrde'Lcra o'lx^Tai. — In 
wishes and asseverations, as in Engl., " so heaven help me, as — :" ovras 6imifM]v 
TovTcov cos aXrjdii epS), cf. ita me dii ament ut ego l(Btor{Ter.). — With 6 auro?, i'cro?, 
&C., the same as, for 6?. to airo axw^ cocrTrep to iTpa)Tov{S^en.). tovtov fie eivai tov 
TrXdaTTjv tov uvtov &a-nep TOTe. Similarly, Tncrroj wj tis koL uXkos implies the com- 
parison, as faithful as — . 

d) As, itf, in the sense quantum, quantum quidem, in interposed sentences of a 
limiting or restrictive kind (where the speaker qualifies a statement by remarking, 
that he puts it, or wishes it to be understood, m that icay in which it holds, is allow- 
able, &c., under the circumstances described in the parenthetic clause) : e. g. " he 
will come to-day, as I hear, co? cikovu) : as they say, cos \k-yov(yiv : as it seems, gJs eoiKev." 
The correlation is, e.g. I sjieak this {so) as I hear, &c. Iv H, as eoiKas, vopi^eis. — 
Of the same kind is the as with inf. in the phrases as elnelv, as enos elirfiv (where 
we use the demonstrative, "so to say"), ^ ovTa Xeyco as 'i^ea-Tiv elnfiu, or the like : 
&$? uvvTofias el-Keiv, as (rvvekovTL elneiv. EUipticallj', as irkrjdei, ut summatim dicam 
{PL), — and eTTicTTapai Idiaras ovTas as Tvpos rjp.as dyavL^eadai, and f) cusmth inf. after 
a comparative. So as y epol KpiTi/, for which we have also aij y epol xpw^'^'- '^P'-'^'Ili 
as y ipo\ ciKpoaTfj : — as ipf] ^'J^U (-ie«.). — cos ye ivTevOev Ihiiv: cos ye ovTacri fio'^ai 
{PI-)- So cos with a preposition and its case, ivvpyoX pev cos an oppUTav npocra 
{Sojyh.). as eK tu>v dvvaTav, as eK Tav vTrapx^vrav {Thuc-) : ajncTTov to 7rk)]dos 
'Keyerai airoXecrSai as irpos to peyedos tJ)s ttoAccos {Thuc-)- To the same head may be 
referred the cos which we should express by for. Thus, rjv fie oifie ahvvaTos, as 
AflKeSat/jowos, elnelv {Thuc), for a Lacedce77ionian. tticttos cos vopevs dvqp {Sojyh- 
CEd- T- 1118), faithful, for a herdsman, that is (viz. considered as a mere herdsman, 
as far as such a person is likely to be faithful), (ppovelyap as ywrj peya,she has, for 
a woman, a high spirit. (Here the force of the particle will be perceived by substi- 
tuting an interrogation with iras; e-g- "for ho^o should a Lac. be bvvaTos eiVeti/;" — 
TTcos av yvvT] (ppovol peya; &c.) And with the same construction, the dative: 
paKpav yap as yepovri 7rpov(TTa\-qs 686v {Soj^h.), long, for an old man. TaxeMv, co's 
epo\, aKi'^iv eTTLTc'iTTeis {PI-)- — 'Hs Ta ttoXXo., as enl to ttoXv, as eVi to TrXfjdos, and 
the like, may be explained in the same way. 

c) As, in the sense quasi, tanquam, also qulppe, iitpote. In this use of cos with 
nouns and participles, there is involved a notion of cause, as when we say, " as the 
case is so and so, therefore — :" i. e. the relation is partly that which is expressed 
by " hoio — ? as — ," partly by " \y\\j — ? because — ." This use ol as also differs 
from a), as the things are not compared in their own nature, but put together as like 
in some thought, feeling, or purpose of the speaker or some other person. Thus, 
cos TToXepiovs ((pvXaTTovro fjpas, as (they thought us) enemies, (therefore) they were 
on their guard against us (so as they would be against enemies), e'lnep as (f)iXoi 
TvpoarrjKeTe, if, as (you wish to be) friends, (therefore^ yoio are come (iu the way that 
friends do come), cos cf)vXaKa a-vvenep^ev avrov, as (he wished him to be) a guard, 
(therefore) he sent him with (us) (so as one sends a guard). 6 S' co's dvrjp yewa'tos 
ovK o'lKTov peTu KUT^vea, as (he was) a noble-tjnrifed man, (therefore) he complied (in 
the way iu which such an one acts). Especially with the participle (as, indeed, in 
the case of subst. and adjj., the participle av, eaupevos, &c-, may always be supplied). 
Thus, dyavaKTova-iv as ijiraTtjpevoi, as (they think themselves) deceived, (therefore) 
they are indignant (in the way that people are, who find themselves deceived). 
Trapea-Kevd^fTO as paxovpevos, as (he said to himself) he tcould fght, (therefore) he 
made ready (as one docs who is going to fight). fjTLavTo as neiauvTa, as (they said) 

[appendix. 



§ 307-] w?. 247 

he had been the mover, (therefore) &c. See § 175 d. ("ATe, an 81], in the same [§ 
connexion, denotes the objective reason, § 175 c.) Hence with the gen.absol. 307-] 
cos TjTrarijufvcDV rjfiMv rjyavaKTovv, as (tliey said) we were decdved, they toere indicfnant 
(so, as in the case of our havinof been deceived) ; see § 181, R. 2 : and the ace. 
absol., see § 182, with R. 1. — Inlike manner, w? with the finite verb, in the sense 
as = " as assured that — ," especially followed by a negation. _ deojiaiovv aoy irapa- 
fxe'ivai rjp.lv, ojy eyw ovK ivos rjdiov aKovcraifxi 77 crov. And so with tut. mdic. as ovtls 
o/x0i rwS' vypav 6i](T€i Koviv, Eur. Cf. § 215 b, R. 2. (os, av croi -Keidajxeda, ovre 6 
yecopyos yecopybs i'cTTai, = since, ox for — , PI. 

As if, with the finite verb, in the ironical uts hi] — , e. g. w? hi] <tv ^pax^a ravra 8' 
(V KaipS Xf'-yfi? {So2)h.), as if forsooth — ! This might also be referred to the sense 
hoio, see under e. Comp. ola br] — , are hi]. 

With els, €771, irpos c. ace. : e. g. Trapeo-Keudffro wy is pfX^v {Thuc), dvdyeadcn 
e'fieWev as enl vavfiaxiau {Xen.). Here the sense quasi is unsuitable, and_ it is 
better to understand the phrase in the same manner as cos fiaxovpeuos,^ loith the inten- 
tion of going to — . In the same way, KareXalie rr]v aKpo-rroXtv as eVt rvpawlhi ^ cos 
Tvpavvi](TQ>v. — 'ATrayyeXXere tt} p.r]Tp\ x^-'-P^'-^^ ^^ ^^' ^V"^ = "^ ciTrayyeXXcov, or 
uyyeXo? an ejxov. 

'Q,s with numerals, ehcoKev as pvplas hpaxpds {Lys.), some ten-thousand drachma, 
scarcely differs from ds: thus, in the enumeration Xen. An. 1, 2, 3, oTrXiVas ets -nev- 
raKoaiovs Kal x'Xtov? . . . , ottX. as TTevraKoa-lovs . . . , (avhpas) fls enTaKoaiovs. It 
is usually referred to the sense quasi, but is rather to be pplained as oaov : comp. 
the partfcles in the phrases, " how many ?" " as many as," and ews, ahe, usque. 

Rem. 'Q,s with the accus. (but only of personal objects, or objects conceived as 
persons) is distinct from the preceding w? els, &c. It is a pronominal form (like 
Lat. quo, comp. usque), denoting the direction whither, the terminus ad quern oi a 
motion, and used quite as a preposition. ale\ rov op,oiov ayei 6ebs as rov bpoiov 
{Horn.), like to like, ovx '?'««'• 7rp6? ere Kr]pva<Tav ohe, aXK' wseV^' {Eur.), rropeverai 
as (Baa-iKea (Xen.). rjnovros ws Tf]v }<li\r]Tov, and as"Al3vhov {Thuc). 

d) With superlatives, especially adverbs, ws raxtora = quam celerrime. Cf. on 
(= o,Tt) Taxia-ra : both combined, as ort a-p.iKp6TaTai. Comp. also dnexQeiai — oiat 
XaXeTzaraTat, PI. x^P^°v 0'°" x°^^^'^'^'^°'^°''' ■^^"- ^ere the full construction is ws 
hvvarbv, or ol6v re, or hvvavTai, &c., rdxia-Ta. See § 96. Also with^ some positives : 
as aki]d(bs = as oUvre dKT]das, as true as possible. So ijyyeCkav ws eTr]TVp.as {Soph.), 
and as j'/Trt'o)? ivpeweiv {Suph.),^ and as raxos = "hi what way speed is possible." 
So as nrexv^s, as Tvavv, as jxciKa. w? avTas {aaavras), w? erepas. Hence we may 
explain w? eKaaroi as representing w? e/cas {eKas). 

e) hoiv, quotnodo (and quantojjere). In the sense^ of onas, iii indirect interroga- 
tion : thus, {nas e'xei to TTpayp.a;) avTos av e'lnoi ws f'x^' "^^ -rrpdyp-a, hoio the affair 
stands, as 6' olha ravra ri]h' exovr , eyw (l)pd(Ta {Soph.), how I know —.^ And in ex- 
clamations : as da-relos 6 llvSpairos, {see,) how polite the man is — .' ws ovhevapa 
"lajxev, {to think) ho%o ignorant we are ! as p! v^r)\de ris 4>vl3os {Soph.). So evhm- 
]iav p.0L ^aKpdrrjs ecfiaivero — as dheas Ka\ yewai'cof ereXevra {PL), tchen I thought 
how fearlessly — , though this may also be explained as § 198 a, R. 3.- n irpos rov 

1 Not as EUendt s. v. as explains, = ovras wore eTr]Tvpas dyyeXdevra {rjnias elpr]- 

fievov) hoKelv. ^ _ > » x 

' Xen. An. 2, 5, 39, ovk alcrxvvea-de — , olrives opocravres r]piv _ — , rovs uvdpas 

aiiTovs ols apwre as dnoXaXeKore, an anacoluth. : as either = {to think) hoic — .' or 

ort roiovras, that you have so — . 
APPENDIX.] 



248 Appendix on the Particles. [§ 308, 309. 

[§ Qvi(rTy]v wj co/xa huTvpamTo, PI. Crat. 395, may be explained as a parenthetic excla- 
307-] ni at ion, 7^0 ?t' ruthless !^ davfiacrTa yap to to^ov iis oKicrdavei, /So^/i., whence the 
adverbial phrases davfiaa-rus cos, § 198 a, R. 4. — In wishes, as oXoiro ! hoiv {I loish) 
he might perish ! unless this is rather to be referred to the ancient nse of ws 
demonstr. = ovtms. But comp. irws av in wishes, § 129, R. 1. — Possibly, los Sr) 
ironical : how much forsooth it is the case that — / but see under c. 

f) In object-sentences, § 123, wy for ottcos withfut. indie. eVt^fXeTo-^ai oj? eVoi/rat, 
hoio they shall he : with subj., eVt/xeXoi/i'Tai as i'xT] ovrms, prop, hotv it may he so (the 
latter usage is rare). — In final sentences with subj. and opt., § 122, 131, a, b. ttjv 
yecfjvpav Xvaet a>s prj hiafirjTe = either (considering, planning, &c.) how yon shall not 
cross, or with the notion of intention as explained under c. So Kvpos (piXav aero 
(ifiadai as (xvvepyovs e;(ot, Xen. On as av, see § 302 : but as av with opt., ra ^acrt- 
Xfta oLKoSoixelv as av dTrop.dxe(Tdai iKava fir], = in the manner in which — , § 137. — 
With the past tense of the indie, cb? is used in the same manner as 'iva, see § 131 b, 
R. 3, to denote an unattained result : tI fi ov XajSav eKzeivas ev6vs, as edei^a p^Trore 
ipavTov dvBpaiToicn.v ivdev rjv ytyas, (so) as J should never have shoicn — , =■ so had 
I never shoton, approx. to the final that I might never — . See under Iva. 

g) To the same head belongs the use of as instead of ort after verha declarandi et 
sentiendi, § 159, R. 3, as we sometimes in the like case use hoiv, or how that (and in 
vulgar Engl, as how), padav tov ^pepbios ddvarov as KpviTToiro yevopevos Ka\ as 
oXlyoi rjaav ol eTTicTTdpevoi avTov Hepaeav, tchen he learnt the death of S., how (that) 
the fact of its having taken jAace tvas concealed, and hotv {that) few — . With verbs 
of fearing, considering, &c., as with fut. indie, is rare : pr] dela-rjTe ws ovx rjdeas Ka6(v- 
dijaere {^en.). 

h) When coy with inf denotes effect or consequence (more commonly cojre), it 
may be explained as representing the correlation tooovtos — oaos, roiovros — olos. 
Thus, evpos as 8vo rpirfpeis irkeeiv opov, a hreadth (so great, or such) as for two triremes 
to sail abreast : and rj w? with inf. after a comparative, pei^a rj as {aa-re) (pepeiv. So 
pel^ova riyr]a-dpevos elvai fj ws eVi Ilialdas rrjv TrapaaKevrjv {^en., suppl. eivat). In 
Herod, and Att. poets, sometimes also in Xen., as for cocrre occurs with the finite 
mood, with the correlation ouVco — as, toiovtos^ — as expressed: see the exx. in 
§ 166 c, R. 2. — 'Qs also occurs (and asnep) where we should expect 7 after a com- 
parative, pdXXov as poi TTpoarjKii {Lys.). The full construction is t] as. Thus, paXa- 
Karepoi ylyvovrai rj wf KdXXiov avTols (PL). 

i) Lastly, wy ■=■ ore, as 'iSev, when he sato, ut vidit : and hence, like other tem- 
poral particles, it denotes cause, see c. " Croesus, as it was summer, did so and so," 
as Bepos rjv (JTew.). 

The comparative coy is strengthened with Trep, acnTep,just as: ovras, roioOroy, 6 
aiiTos, t'o-oy — aa-nep. On the ellipsis aa-irep {as) av el — , see § 139 c. 
Rem. On coy, in the sense oti, ovras, see under e. 
^ coy, demonstr. thus, so. Frequent in Horn, as '4<paT, &c., and in comparisons, as 



308. 



5' — , as — , and as — so. Also ovd' coy, not even so, which is also used in Attic 
prose. Plato has also <uy — as : wy Tvpos dorrpovopiav oppara rrenrjyev, as rrpos 
(vappoviov (popav ara [Kivdwevei) TTayrjvai, Hej). 53U : and as (prjaopfv, ib. 415, Stallb., 
so we shall say. as ovv TvoLriaere kuI ireideade pot,, id. Prat. 338, thus then ye shall do — . 
3 cocrre = coy with the particle re, S 227. 

309. [ ! . 

' Heindorf. in I. and in Phsedon., p. 152, explains it, " ^exquam steva," which is not 
amiss, though many of his exx. are of a different kind. (It may also come under d.) 

[appendix. 



§ 3^0-] ^^- OTTco^;. 249 

a) It is used in comparisons by Horn, and the Tragedians, TrdvTis wsre ro^drat [§ 
To^evere, Soph., and now and then in the older Attic prose. 309-] 

b) In the sense {so) that, it refers to a preceding ourcoy, or the like,^ expressed or 
understood. 7; 8' wSe T\r]fxwv, coare tm iiiaaropi ^vveGTi, Soph. Sxtt ouSev avTols 
TTpovpyov dveiv — ndrqv {PI.) = qnocirca, igitur, i.e. the case is such that — . dirrjTos 
S" 'OpecTTTjs, uxTTe p.t] Xiav arive {Soph.). 

c) With infin. e'xety tyK\r]p.a aare BvpLoixrdai, such as (is reason enough = dpKovv- 
Tcos ware) to he angry, § 152. — So that, see § 166, a, b. (In tbe passage cited in 
§ 1-44, R. 1, d^vvarov vpiv aare Upcorayopov rovde croffyajrepov ekeaOai {(Spa^evrrjv rav 
/ o'ywi/), mare is not superfluous : this construction occurs only witb_ aSw. and the 
like, and implies the looking out, &c. for a way so as to — : i. e. it is impossible for 
you to be in such a condition as to — : it combines ddvmTov eXeaOai and ovk eaeade 
oloi re eXecrdat..) 

d) "With the participle, in Herodot. where the Attics have ws, or are: t]v yap 
dSvvaros, cosre ar^nop-ivov tov p.r]pov. — Ct. § 166, note. 

onas. § 

This is properly the dependent interrogative adverb corresponding with TTMy, hoio, 3 lO. 
as 6-tt6(tos with ttoctos, S-nore with nore &c. Thus, eWco S' ovv oVco? vpiv (j)[Xov 
{ Soph.) : the direct interrogation is noos vpiv (jiiXov ; indirect or dependt. ((rK€\|/a(r^f ) 
oTTw? V. (p. : hence, (say for yourselves,) hoiv ijou like to have i7, (and) so Jet it be = 
so be it, as you like. In most of its usages it coincides with ws, differing from it 
(originally) only as implying a question hotv ? 

a) As correlated to wSe, ovrois. Frequent in poetry, but less so in prose. 'Ottcos 
e/cao-ros vpa>v — ^ovXerai, tovtov tov rponov ^epeVco Tr]v i\fr]^ov {Isocr.) = ovTiva 
TpoTvov. XPV '''ovpov a-mpa dd-rrTeiv ovtcos ottcos tiv ijyj] vopupov dvai {PL) Houi oTruy 
apKTTov aot. 8oK.fl (hat {Xen.). Like los in comparisons, it frequently follows the 
term compared : "Epcort — oirts avTavidTarai, irvia-qs ottcos is x^'P"^' "^ KaXws 
(fipovel {Sopih.). 

b) The sense oti, after vei'ha declarandi, &c., is even more rare (viz. like ws, 
especially after a negative verb of this kind: ov Xeyw ottcos), and where it does 
occur, the sense is still that of a depend, interrogation : tovtov e'xot rty av elirilv 
oVcos ov bUaiov itrriv dnodv^a-Kfiv ; {Xen.) = Trwy ov 8.,^' how it is not just— ? can 
ami one say how .<"' tovt avro p.rj fioi <ppd^ oirms ovk el kukos (Soph.), don't tell me 
(that you are not a villain) ; how are you not a villain ? Comp. § 159, R. 3. 

c) The force of oncos is just the same in ovk ead' onas — , there exists not the way 
in which, = it cannot be but that — , § 102 b, R. 2 : 122, R. 2, and in the ellip- 
tical ovx orras — dXkd — , " I say not how — " = not only — , but — , § 212. — It 
should be observed, however, that this phrase (and oi>x oVi) is sometimes not only, 
sometimes not only not. Thus, ovx ^^"^^^ erpeaev, aXX' (or dXkii koi) i'cpvyev, should 
prop. = I say not how he was frightened (he was frightened, and iiotonly that) but 
he also fled, ovx ^'^'^^ e<pvyev, dXX' ov8e erpeaev — : here the negation in ov8€ extends 
to both members, he did not — I say not, flee — but {not) even tremble. "Ecfyvyev, ovx 
oTTco? erpeaev, he fled, (I say not how = ) much more, he was afraid; fur/it, nedum 
extimuerit. But in the usage of the language, oi'x oVw? in the first clause is often «o» 
solum non, even when the adversative clause is positive : thus, ovx ^"^^^ X"P"^ avrols 
exfis, dWa Ka\ — Kara rovrooj/i TroXireur; (Dem.),you not only are not grateful to them, 
but you even — , viz. because the first clause is, to say nothing of your being grateful— 
(you are not grateful, and not only so) hut — : in other words, ovx ottws has become a 

APPENDIX.] 



250 Appendix on tJie Particles. \_\ ^w. 

[§ phrase of negation, as if it were one word, like oi/Vcos. On the other hand, in ov^ onas 
310] Tovs TToXffiiovs irpe-i^avTo ol "'EWrjves, aXka Kol rfjv x^pav avraiv fKaKcoaav {Xen.), the 
ovx 07TCOS is not treated as a negation of eVp., but retains its proper force, I sa^ not 
how they routed — ; they not only did that, but also — . With the infinitive : fxr] ottcos 
op^elcrdai, dW ovd' opdova-Qai ibvva<Tde, not only not to dance, hut not even to stand 
upright {Xen.). {tovs Qrjliaiovs) rjyelTo ovx tiVco? duTnrpd^fiv — dAAa Kai avcTTparev- 
a-eiv(Dem.), that they ivould not only not act against him, hut would even join toith 
him in the expedition : = that far from acting against him, &c. 

d) With the superLative, oncos apia-Tu : to be explained in the same way as wj, viz. 
OTTO)? bwuTov ia-TL, &c. ("how can it be best done?") 

(?) After such verbs as a-Konf'iv, jSov'Keveardm, p-rixavdadai, aTT0v8d(eiv, (ppovTi^eiv, 
and the like : to see hotv, &c. : see the rules and exx. in the §§ referred to in the 
Index. Hence the ellipsis, ottcos ovv ea-faSe, (see then) how ye shall he. — Also after 
verbs of fearing and of prohibition, § 124 b, e. g. 8e8oiKa ottchs pi) yevrjo-erai, I fear 
{considering loith myself) how it shall not he. 'AneLprjTai pot, onas prjdep epcb — , 
the prohibition being, 6pa oncos prjSev epels. 

f) As final particle, ottco? and oiras px] with subj. and opt., § 122 and 131 b. eis- 
Kaipov ^K€is oTTQis dKovjjs = your intention heing hotv you may hear. On oTrcoy av with 
subj., see under "Av, § 302. It results from the proper interrog. signification of 
oTTws that this particle (not w? or Iva) can be used with fut. indie, in the final sense, 
see the exx. at end of § 122, (To do so and so) ottcos pa^ovvrai ■= ivith this view 
and intention, how they shall fight. 

g) Its use with histor. tenses of indie, to denote an unattained result is rare. 
'E;(p^i' ae Urjyaaoi' C^v^ai ottco? e(paivov TpayiKciiTepos = that you might have appeared, 
prop, how you loould have — . See the expl. under Iva. 

311. The root is either the pronoun of the third person 1 or 1', or perhaps more 
probably the relative 0- with the vowel lightened (attenuated) into i. The original 
meaning is " where," " in which (or, what) case," &c. (comp. iv in '4v6a, xchere, 
and the first element of i«-de, «/i-de, last of 2X\Q-q^uin.) 

a) tihi and quo. "iv o"x(TaL, where {whither) it is gone, Horn. Od. 4, 821 : and 
demonstratively, Iva yap a^iv enecPpaSov Tjyepeea-Oaijfor there (= it was there that) — , 
II. 10, 127. This use is almost entirely confined to the poets. iKop-qv "iv \K6pr\v. 
ovS" opds iV ei KaKov, Soph, (lua with gen.) With nu : ere Trpocrdecrdai 7r«Xay ;(a)pay 
6ekov<n, pr]8' "iv av aavTov KpaTjjs, Soph., and not ichere (if they place thee) thou shalt 
he thine own master. (Brunck and Elmsl. KparoU, wrongly, since tV av is never 
final = oTTcof av.) 

b) With subj. and optat. it forms sentences of intention, that, in order that, i^avba, 
pi] Kev6e voa, Iva e'idopev {=■ el8(bpev) aptpco, prop, in that case (or, as the case in 
which) we shall both know it. See § 122. 131. I'm ri; ellipsis, § 198 a, note. 

c) More frequently than ms, it is used with the historical tenses of the indicative 
to denote a7i unattained result, i. e. something which would be (or would have been) 
attained on the supposition made by the speaker (in the form of a wish, a question 
implying a %vish, or of a declaration of what should be, or should have been). Here, 
" I wish he bad come, in which case (= so that) I should (might) have seen him," 
implying, " but he did not come, so I did not see him." See the exx. in § 131 b, R. 3. 
Thus, " he does (did) so and so, Iv y {f'ir]) rvcpTius, as the case wherein he may (as 

[appendix. 



§ 3^2.] Iva. OTi. 251 

he purposes) be blind;" but "he should have done so, &c., ii'' ^ (imperf. indie). [5 
Tv(l)k6^, as the case in which he would have been blind." The force of the latter 311] 
clause rests upon the convertible proposition, " where this (e. g. the doing) is, there 
that (e. g. the being blind) is," and " where that is, there this," so that the one 
being denied, the other is also denied. 

The absence of av from the relative clause is explained by the kindred meaning 
of the two particles, Iva and av : comp. el (^ovXofx-qv \iyeiv, rJKovcras av, " if I had 
wished to speak, you would in that case have heard," with fj:iovX6iJ.T]v av Xe^ai, Iva 
fJKova-as, '" I wish 1 had spoken, in ivJiich case you would have heard." Where av does 
occur in the relative clause, it is drawn in by some other consideration : thus, Kalroi ov 
■rvpo<T?]K€v aX\' ivdvs Xeyeiv — Iva fiaXXov av eTticTTeveTO vcf)' vfiav {IscBUs), the I'lv 
attaches itself to [xaXXov as a set phrase (see av, § 299). 

OTl. , ^ 

This is the Lat. quod, our that : not originally the neut. of osris, but the ancient 3 ^ -■ 
form of neut. ace. of 6s, or, covered with the vowel i. Hence Horn, has indifferently 
o and OTl. 

a) that, after verba declarandi, sentiendi, &c. ovk aieis o /xe ^aXtv A'ias ; Horn. 
prop, hear you not this — ivhich {= that) Ajax haszcounded me? Xeyei {aKovei, ot'erct, 
&C.) OTl voae'is: eXeyev on evoaovv, on voaolni. § 159, R. 3, 4 ; 178 a, R. 5. On the 
moods in object-sentences with on, see § 108. 130 a, b ; 137. On the difference 
between on and'ws (ottws), § 159, R. 3. ""Oti and as are very rare after verbs 
denoting a purely subjective or uncertain view (e. g. o'ieadai, 8oKflv, vofii(eiv, (pdvai := 
' to declare one's own opinion :' but we find (pcwac on, PI. Gorcj. 487 ; u?, Dem. 4, 48, 
Xen. Sell. 6, 3, 7 ; o'UaOai cos, X^en. ^lem. 3, 3, 14. In later writers, 8oKe7v ort, 
Polyb. 28, 9, 14 ; iXmCeiv on, Arr. An. 1, 4, 7. Cf. Thuc. 8, 54. voniCeiv «j, Thuc. 
3, 88). But after Xeyetv, to tell (with reference to the substance of the narrative), 
and elnelv (with reference to the expression), on and as are not uncommon." Kriiger. 
Also, it follows from the original meaning of los, that this particle is preferred to ort 
where the "as" or "how" is of more importance than the "that:" hence, TTfideiv 
a>s, to get one to believe, and aKoveiv, Trwddveadai, dyyeXXeiv, to bring a report, cmo- 
tnKviivai, &c. ws; and after vei'bs oi calumniating, reproaching, accusing, &c. 

On on in the sense {the circumstance) that — , (inregard) that — , § 170 a, R. : 
(to prove) that — , § 192 b, R. To 8e /xeytcrroj/ oVi, § 197. And on fifj on (= fxrj 
f'tTTio on), ovx^ on {= ovk ipa ort), see § 212, and cf. under ottcos, § 310 c. 

Rem. We also find, ov fiovov on : thus, Kal fifjv vTrepanodvrjaKeiv ye p.6voi edeXovaiv 
ol epcovres, ov povov on livbpes, dXXa Ka\ yvvalKes {non modo — sed etiam, PL). Like- 
wise ov;^ ocrov and ovx olov : ol pev oi;^ oaov ovk i]pvvavT0, dXX ovS" iaaBrjcrav, 
Thuc, which might have been expressed by ovx ottcos, or hj prj (ovx) °''''> Vl^^'- 
vavTo. Ovx °'*'*' '^'^c^f''' tvvaivT av tovs (piXovs, dXX' oOS' avrovs croo^eiv, Polyb. 

b) because, for bid tovto on, whence also hi6n. apa to o<tiov, oti ocriov eari, ^tXetrnt 
inrb Twv dewv, tj, oti (piXe^Toi, ocriov icrn ; PI. Aid ti fie dXXo aXvnoi dXXr^Xot? elcrlv oi 
epnXeovTes, r> dimi iv Td^ei — KdOrjVTai ; 21en. 

Rem. The poets have in the same sense, ovveKa = ov eveKa, i. e. tovtov eveKa, 
6 — , and oBovveKa := otov eveKa. 

With the superlative, though written as the conjunction, on rdxia-Ta, the word is 
o Ti, ace. neut. governed by dvvapai, or nom. neut. subject to BvvaTov eWi, or the 
like. — Also in the elliptical oti pi) {exccp)t), the full construction is ovbev 6 ti pi]. 

APPENDIX.] 



252 Appendix on tJie Particles. \h 1^1 — 3^^- 

§ on, token. 

313- This adverbial form is not a compound with re, but its second syllable is an ancient 
case suffix : cf. quum, quando. Like other temp, adverbs, it is also used in a causal 
sense, § 127, R. 1, whence ore ^r] = quando non and si non. 

On fiejivrjfxai, oTf, see § 178 a, R. o, and note. — With fxep and 8e, sometimes — 
sometimes, the accent conforms itself to that of Trore, viz. ore fiev — ore §€. 

The correlative of ore is rore, then. The corresponding interrogative Trore, tvJien ? 
indef. Trore', at some (any) time, § 274, and relative (depend.) interrogative, onoTf. 
Hence SnoTe, as implying the question w/ien ? is indefinite. Cf. iraprjyyeiXev vtto- 
/xeVet!/ ore oi noXffjLioi emKeoivTO {Jilen.), and etco^et yovv 6tt6t€ bevp" e'/i/SciXXot, tcken- 
ecer — , X.en. 

§ oTrov, where. 

3^4- As ore, Trore ; OTrore, Trore' (end.) of time, so ov, ixov, ottov, ttov (end.) of place. 
The correlative (roti being lost) is 'ivda, demonstr. or hravda. — In prose, onov has 
taken the place of ov, as the simple relative tohere. — Sometimes, but rarely, it is 
since, siqiiidem, quandoquidem : and then the apodosis is often ^Trou, in the sense, 
if — , then surely, ottov yap ' Adrjvohaipos Ka\ KaXKia-rpaTos — oioi re yeyovacnu, tjttov 
— f^fxels — av dvyqdeirjijiev (Isocr.), if A. and C. have been able, surely tee should be 
able. 

5i eVet (eVeiSjj). 

3 ' 5 • Properly a particle of time, when, after, postquam, but, like most particles of time, 
also denotes cause, since, quoniam, quandoquidem. eVel ra^KTra, as soon as ever. — 
Both are also since {ex quo) o? time. Ov ttoXvs xP°^o^ eVeiS)) ;^ircovas Xivovs enav- 
aavTo (popovvTfs (Thuc). With iiv: iireibav, iirdv. firrjv ; the first by far the most 
frequent, and the second somewhat more so than the third. 

In the sense "for if not" ''for otherwise" ''for if so " (where et 6e fir], or et be after 
a negat. proposition might have been used), there is an ellipsis : since [if you doubt 
it, or, if you thinh so, &c.) — . Noo-oi/ -yap 6 Trarrip dXkuicoTou avrov vocrel, fjv ouS' hv 
eii yvoiT] ttot ov8' av ^vfi^aXoi el jxr) 7rv6oi6' i]p.S}v, enel TOTra^ere, Aristoph. 

§ ei, if 

316. This is an ancient dative of the pronoun of the third person, i or I, comp. Lat. si 
(sibi). Its original force is "in this that," " in the (case, hap, event) that," " on the 
(condition) that."^ 

For the use of et, edv, fjv, in conditional propositions, see the Index. 

From such expressions as aKe^j/ai el — , consider if — , results the sense ichether in 

' This (the reflexive) pi'onoun is closely connected Avith the relative pronoun, 
so that, in point of sense, the conditional particle may be said to be dii-ectly 
derived from the relative. Thus in Sanskrit, from relat. yas, yd, yat, os, 17, o, 
we have yadi = ore, " when," and yadi=i " if;" and in German, " wenn" is both 
when and if. Accordingly, the usages of the relat. (and interrog.) and of the con- 
ditional particle very often run over into each other. Thus, ore and onov approach 
to the sense of condition : et rty is more nearly =^ os tis than " if any :" davfxd^oi 
el represents 6. on (see § 194 c) ; the el of wishing may also be expressed by 
wy and TTws (the relat. utinam), and the interrogative et {iche-ther) by Trorepa. 

[appendix. 



§ 31?) 31^.] ore. oirov. eVet. el. eha. eirena. 253 

depend, interrogation, § 199 b. d {idv) is tlms used only in indirect, and, indeed, [§ 
properly only in double questions, denoting a wavering between two considerations: 3^o-J 
but often only one member is expressed, the other being present in the mind of the 
speaker. Where both are expressed, the second is introduced \)j ?)', § 199 c. 
"S.Ki-^ai d 6 'EWr]vix)v vofios koXXlov e'xft, ic/iet/ier it be not (Xen.). Seo^at vjjlcov tovt(o 
Tov voiiv 7rpocre;^eii' ei bUaia Xe'-yco r] ^rj (= ^rj SiKOia) PL Comp. np\v drjXov eiVai . . . 
TTtjTepov eyJAovrai Kvpa t] ov (= ovx (yjrovTai). — The same thing is expressed by 
flVe — e'ire, § 199 c. In poetry we also find e'lre — 7, el — f'ire, and — ciVe with the 
first elVe omitted. 

Rem. Etrf — e'lre is also conditional, viz. where several cases are put condi- 
tionally, both if — and if: but here also in English we use the interrogative 
whether — or. See § 194 a. 

The use of ft in wishes, el yap a>(f)eXov Trporepos Idelv, is elliptical : if it toere so, it §> 
would be well. Thus we say, O if it loere no ! i^.Q. how hapinj I shouldhe !) — 317. 
Hence with suffix 6e, § 239, e'lQe, utinam. See exx. in § 129, and E. 2. 

ei' ye (= si quidem) if at least, if, that is {el — ye when the ye distinguishes the 
interposed word, e'i ye when its influence extends to the whole clause). Ovheis, e'i 
ye (TV dXrjdrj Xeyeis, nobody, if, that is (or, if, at least) what you say is true. 

elrrep is el strengthened by nep. It calls attention to the condition, and so adds 
emphasis to it. The force of nep may be rendered in the condition by always stij}- 
2)osing that — , in the apodosis b}', then it quite foliates that — . 

rat et, is even if: the Km emphasizes the condition, marks it as improbable, ex- 
treme, or as the most imfavorable that can well be conceived. In el kuI, the Kal 
gives emphasis, not to the condition, but to the thing supposed. Ka\ el Xeyco, even 
supposing I say, i.e. go so far as to suppose that I say. el Ka\ Xeya, supposing I 
even say, i. e. suppose I go so far as to say. For (see § 222) /cat adverbial implies 
a correlation Kal — Kal : therefore the first is koI (ciXXas), klu el Ae'yw ; the second, el 
Kal (aXXais), Kal Xeyw. This is the principle of the distinction, but in practice the 
difference is often so slight, that no reason appears why one form should be chosen 
rather than the other. 

elra. eireiTa. ^ 

These particles, perhaps, are related to el, enei, as S^ra to Sj}, T-qviKavra to rrjviKa ; 3 ^ ^• 
and thus they may be considered as denoting the demonstrative apodosis of a sup- 
pressed condition (if) or relative (when). Thus EUendt remarks that elra may 
sometimes be explained by a sentence with ft or ft kuL Sojjh. Phil. 1337, dXX' 
fixa^ci) 8>]T ; elra rrcos.o 8v(Tpopos els (pais — ft'/xt ; i. e. (and ifl yield) then how — '/ 

Others make fira cognate with fri (corresponding forms in Sanskrit ati, eta), and 
eireira = err eira {Kiihner). — In Latin, the sense is expressed by deinde : — 

a) In enumerations, irparov (ptev) — , fira, eneira (be) — . (b) In the usage 
with participles, see § 175 a (comp. 181, R. 2). (c) In interrogations, expressed 
with vehemence or indignation : as in the ex. given above. Ev 'ia-Qi., ecprj, 6ti, el 
vopl^oipi fieoijs dv6pu)iTU)V rt, (ppovrl^eiv, oik uv dpeXairjv avTcav. 2. ' ETretr' ouk otft 
4^povTi(eiv ; {Xen.) It maybe explained z=post talia (Gronov.), quum ita sit, ergo : 
the Lat. uses deinde in the same way : quce nunc deinde mora est, aut quid Jam, Turne, 

APPENDIX.] 



254 Appendix on the Particles. [§ SiQ* 

[§ re^rarfa*? Virg.iEn.12,889. Mercules solus domat. CiirdLeindelatebrasautfuc/am 

3ii5-] vecors peiam ? Sen. Here. 1407. — Often Kara, Karreira, which are more emphatic : 

KcineiTa toiovtov ovra ov ^iXeis aiirov; (Xen.) — EtVa, eVf ira, and then, § 185 a, R. 6. 

^ ert. 

3^9- This particle is cognate with Lat. e#, «i, prep, ad, ai-que = «f?-que. Its meaning 
h, further (on), ?/e^, still. Comp. also Lat. item, raira jih ovv navra o/xoi'ws dfxcpo- 
Tepav ia-TiV aXXli to fxaxea-OaL ovk€ti (ovKeri, non item) dfi<poTfpa)V (Xen.). dixa-rpd- 
cprjcrav oi dfi(p\ jSacriKfa, Tre^oi fj.(v ovKfTi, twv 8e Innfcov 6 "Xocpos fverrXijcrdr] (Xen.). 



INDEX I. 



A. 



A privatlvum ; adjectives so compounded, 

with the genitive, 63 a, E. 1, and c. 
ciyanav with accus. and dative, 44 a, R. 
fiyyeXXeti' Tim noiovvra and Troielu, 178 a, 

R. 6. 
ndiKdv, to have done u'rong, 110 a, R. 2. 
-ai.o£, adjectives in, as adverbs, 86 a, R. 
aladdvea-dai c. g., 58 a, R. 3 ; riva ireir- 

TcoKora and tivos (TVKo^avrovvros, 178 

a, note. 
alaxyvecrOai riva noielv ri, 145, R. 1, 

note ; \eyovTa and Xeyeii/, 177 b, R. 3. 
aiTios with the simple infinitive, with the 

genitive of the infinitive, and with 

the accusative and infinitive, 164, R. 3; 

TO 8' aiTiov — 7"P) 196 a, R. 
(iKovew with gen., 58 a, R. 3; in the sense 

to obey, with gen. and dat., 58 b, and E. 
(iKoveiv TL Tivos, 60 a. 
iKovfiv Tiva rJKovra. rivos 8ia\eyonevov, 

178 a, note ; aKovm Tiva rjiceiv, 178 a, 

R. 6. 'AKoi'eti/ and aKovaai added to 

adject, and phrases, 150 a, R. 2 ; of. 

151, R. 1. 
akis c. g., 49 b. 
aXlaKOfjiaL Troiav, 178 b. 



dAXci (uXX' ov), 187 with R. ; in answers 
199 C, R. 2 ; aXka yap, dXX' ov yup, 
196 b ; aXKd with the verb repeated 
as answer, 199 c, R. 2 ; dXXa rl ; ibid. 
lApp. 275—282.] 

ciKkos. Ot 'dWoi., we (j'ou) others, the rest 
of us (you), 6 a, note; 6 oXXos vfiere- 
pos and 6 aXXos 6 vp.., 10, R. 5 ; aXXos 
constructed as comparative, 91 (ovdels 
aXXos nXrjv, R. 2) ; d'XXwv pleonastic 
with the superlative, 96, R. 3. "AXXo 
Tt rj, aXXo Tt, aXXo Ti rj ov, aXXo ri ov in 
questions, 199 b, ovbiv liXXo rj, ti uXXo 
rj, 215 b, R. 1 ; dXX' rj after a nega- 
tion, 91, R. 2. [Cf. App. 281, 282.] 

dXXoTpios c. g. and c. d., 62, R. 

ajia with partcp., 175 b ; apa rjXia dvia-- 
Xoi'Ti, 181 a, R. 6. 

apfivov poi ecrrai 7Toirj(ravTi, 177 b, R- 5. 

dp(j)i, construction, 72. 

dpcfioTepov, dp(p6Tfpa, as predicate, 1 b, 
R. 5 ; as apposition to the predicate, 
19, R. 3. 

av in general, 107 ; av c. imperf. and 
aor., sometimes c. plusqiiamperf. in- 
die, 117 a; in object and other ac- 
cessoiy propositions, 117 b, R. 1 ; c. 
aor. of that which might have hap- 



^ The numbers refer to the paragraphs and remarks : n. =: marginal note. The 
particular words which come under a general rule (especially of case-government) 
are, except in a few instances, not specified in this Index ; e. g. for dtaafiv X"P" 
(22, R. 2), fjSacrCXfvcra, became I'inff {111, 'R.i), see in Index II. " intransitive verbs" 
and " aorist of verbs denoting office and public station ;" and so in other instances. 



256 



Index I. 



pened, ibid., R. 2; c. aorist or im- 
perfect, whicli was wont to happen, 
ibid., R. 3; omitted with the imper- 
fect indie, 118; av with the futm-e 
indie, poetical, 118, E. 3. " Kv with 
ws and ottws in final sentences, 122 ; 
with relative words and conjunctions 
with the subjunctive, 126,127 ; omitted, 
126, R. 2, 127, R. 2 ; different from av 
with opt. in a relative sentence, 126, 
R. 3 ; av retained in a relat. sentence 
which has passed from the subj. into 
the opt., 132 b, R. " h.v with the opt. 
in hypothetical sentences, 135 ; po- 
tential, in principal and accessory sen- 
tences, 136, 137 (123, E. 3) ; whether 
omitted, 138, R. 2. " Kv c. inf. 173 
(separated from the inf. and repeated, 
ibid., R. 1) ; not c. fut. infin., 173, 
R. 2. *Ai/ c. partcp., 184 (not c. fut., 
E.). " hv belonging to two verbs, 
put once or twice, 139 a; to be un- 
derstood from the preceding clause, 
ibid. Position of av ; detached from 
verb and repeated, 139 b, with R., 
note (173, R. 1, 219 b, R.). Trans- 
posed (ouK oW av, ei), 139 b, R. Kav 
=z av — Kal el, ibid, ellipt. with verb 
omitted, 139 c. [Apj^. 297— 3u2.] 

dvd c. acc. and poet. c. dat., 28 a, with 
R., note. 

civayKa^fiv Tiva Ti, 25, R. 2. 

ai/OKcof ex^"' ■'■'^of, 63 C, R. 2. 

dvaniiivr]a-KeLV riva ti and tivos, 25, with 
R. 1. 

dvex€<T6ai rivos {ttoiovvtos ti), 60 a, R. 1. 
(ivT]Kova-Telv tlvos, 58 b. 
dvTjp Tcov prjTopojv, 51 a; dvi)p with an- 
other substantive, 87 b, R. 2. 
dv6' cov, because, 103, R. 3. 
c'lvdpanvos with another substantive, 87 b, 

, ^- ^\ 

dvievai opyrji, 51 b. 

dvvaa^, 170 c, E. 

ci^ios .{d^icos, d^iovv) C. gen., 63 e ; d^iov 
Tiw, ibid., E. 1 ; c. inf., 149, with E. 

OTTO instead of the partitive genitive, 
50 a, E. 2 ; approximating to the da- 
tive of the means or instrument, 39 a ; 
instead of vrrd with the passive, 78, E. 
6 djTo instead of 6 iv — 6 irapd tivi, 



79 b. Verbs compounded with 0770 

with the genitive (or aTro), 57 b, E. 
dTToh€-xea6aiTivos{Tivos\tyovTOs),Q0,7\.. 1- 
dTTOKpvTTTeiv, dnoKpxjTTTicrBai, 82 d. 
dTTokavei,v tlv6s, ti tivos, 57, note. 
dTToaTepelv Tivd tl, Tiva Tav TzaTpcouiv, 

25, and E. 1. 
dno(f)aiveiv, dnocfiaivea-dai with acc. C. inf., 

178 a, E. 8. 
apa, dp' ov, dp" ovv, 199 b, in depend. 

questions, ibid.; dpa — rj, 199 c, E. 1. 

lApj}. 262, 263.] 
apa in sentences connected by p.ev — Se, 

189 a. [Ajjp. 257—259.] 
cpecTKeiv c. dat. and gen., 36 a, R. 1. 
dpKelv with a participle, 177 b, R. 4. 
apx^i-v, upxfa-6ai, 82 d, R. 2 ; apxopai 

Xeyeiv, rarely Xeywv, 177 b, R. 3 ; dp- 

XOftews, in the beginning, dp^dpavoi 

OTTO TIVOS, 176 c, R. 

danis (jj-vpia), 18 c. 

OTe, ore 8t] with participles, 175 c. 

aii^dveiv Tivci peyav, 24 a, R. 

avTos, 6, with dative, 37, R. 2 ; avTols 
dvbpdcriv, men and all, 42, R. 2 f airoj 
avTov with comparatives, 90, R. 3. 

d(^aipeicr6ai Tivd ti, ti tivos, dcpaipdv Tivi 
Tl, 25 and R. 1. 

B. 

BaaiXevs anarthrous, 8, R. 2, b. 
jSfXTLav elpi with participle, 177 b, R. 4. 
^ovXei, ^ovXeade noirja-wpev, 123, R. 5. 
(iovXeveiv, ^ovXfViaBai, 82 d, R. 2. 
^ovXoliJ.r]v av, 136 ; r}^ovX6pr]v av, 117 b, 
R. 2 (118, note). 



r. 



Tap connecting a sentence to a demon- 
strative pronoun or adverb, 196 a, after 
T{Kp.f]piuv 8e, &c., 8t]Xov 6e, ibid., R. 
(omitted, ibid.), serving to insert a re- 
mark as parenthesis, 196 b ; after to 
de ptyia-Tov, and similar expressions, 
197 ; in answers, 199 c, R. 2. [^7^^^ 
260, 261.] 

ye, position, 219 b. [ApjJ. 248—251.] 

yi] omitted, 87 h, R. 1. 



Index I. 



257 



ylyvea-dai with an adverb (xcopLs), 1 b, 
R. 6 ; conforming itself to the predi- 
cate noun, 4 ; yiyveadai rift, 38 a ; 
with partitive genitive (y. rwv rpia- 
Kovra Tvpdvvcov), 51 c ; with the geni- 
tive of the material or the origin, 54 c. 

yiyvaaKeiv with participle and infinitive, 
178 a, with E. 6. 

yva>fir] omitted, 87 b, R. 1. 

iyoiiv, Ap2i. 267.] 

A. 

[Am, App. 238.] 

hi, fiev — Be, 188; position, E. I; 6 
fiev — 6 6e, &c., E. 2 ; fxev — 8f — Be in 
anaphora, E. 3 ; 8e — 8e (both in the 
relat. and in the demonstrative clause), 
E. 4; in apodosis, E. 6. Sentences 
connected by fiev — 8e instead of a 
primary and an accessory sentence, 
189 a and b. Ae in resumption, 216. 
[App. 229.] 
bflv. Aet [loi rivos and poet. SeT fie r.. 
Set p.e TToielv, rarely S. poi n., 36 a, note. 
UoXXov, fiiKpov Seco, Set, 57 a, note. IIoX- 
\ov, piKpov belv, 168 b. Aei to be un- 
derstood from a preceding gerundive, 
216, E. 2. TpuiKoa-Tov eVoj evo9 8eov, 
rpLCiKOVTa err) evos teovra, 57 a, note. 

SeLKvvvai Tiva ttoiovvtu, deiKwpL ttoiSjv 
and ep.avTov iroiovvra, 178 a, E. 1. 

617 \_App. 234 — 236] in resumption, 216. 

[S^^ei., Ai)p. 239.] 

S^Ac? elpi 7Toio)v, 177 b ; SriXos ei/xt. on 
and dfjXov euTiv, on, ibid., E. 2. AJjXov 
oTt added by way of assurance, 193, E. 
A^Xov Se' with following yap, 196 a, E. 

[S.JV, App. 242, E.] 

[Si^TTov, 8^iTov0ev, Ap)p. 273 and 240.] 

mra, App. 237.] 

Sta, construction, 69 ; different from the 
dative instr., 39 a ; 8ia ^paxe(ov, 87 a, 
E. 2. Verbs compounded with Std, 
with two accusatives, 28 a, E. 3. 

StaipeTi', Stave'^eti/ ti p.epr] rpia, 24 C. 

Siap-dxea-dai, dianpaTTeadai with accus. c. 
inf., 164. 

Sta^epoi/Tcos Tivos, 63 c, E. 2. 

8i.a<pep(ov eljxi, 180 C. 

SiSatTKeti', 8i8daKea6ai riva, 82 a, E. 2. 

StScj/at, offer, 113, E. 1. 



StKaidy €t/xi TTOietj/, 165 a, E. 

8i.KT]V Tivos, 31 d, E. 

doKelv (SoKfi? /iot SoKw /xot, and simply 
SoKto, SoKw ^ot KaraKeia-eadat., So/cei ^ot 
with acc. c. infin., Sokw tre eivai), 161, 
E. AoKw, Sofcet /xot without gram- 
matical connexion with the sentence, 
193. AoKelv ifioi, 168 b. 

86^av ravra, 182, E. 2, note. 

8pdv Tivd Ti, 25, E. 3. 

8vo'iv Bdrepov, 19, E. 3. 



'Eav and et, 125, E. 1 ; edv (rjv), idvnep, 
idv re, 194 a ; edv ttws, whether per- 
chance, ibid., E. 2 ; edv in dependent 
sentences after a-KOTrelv, 199 b. ['Edv, 
J-i^p. 298.] 

e'auToO with comparative, 90, E. 3 ; with 
superlative, 95, E. 2 ; eavra added to 
the verb in the middle, 82 a, E. 1. 

eyyvs with genitive and (poetically) da- 
tive, 55, E. 1. 

e'yKaXeti' rivi d8iKLav, 61 a, E. 2. 

eSet for eSei av, 118 a. 

el {_App. 316] with indie, 108 and 117 ; 
with opt., 135 (cf. E. 1 a and b) ; in 
sentences of comparison, ibid., E. 2; 
with an opt. and an indie,, ibid., E. 2, 
with subjunctive in the Ionic poets ; 
125, E. 2. Et, et ydp, eWe [Ajyp. 317] 
in wishes, 129 (et ydp co(f)e\ov, E. 2). 
Et, etVep, etye, 194 a [App. 317], et pr/ 
(et pr] apa, el prj el), 194 b ; et Se pr), if 
othertoise, ibid. ; et Se for et Se pr], ibid. 
El pev without following apodosis et Se, 
ibid., E. Et pr] {edv prj) with partici- 
ples, 175 e, note, and 181 a, E. 2, note. 
Et as interrog. particle, 199 b \_Ap>p. 
316] ; el — rj, 199 c; et, ei -am, ^che- 
ther perchance, 194 a, E. 2. Et for on 
{6avpd(ai, el), 194 c. \_App. 316, note.] 
El Kai and Ka\ el, 194 d. [App. 226. 

elhevai, see oiSa. 

eWe in wishes, 129 \_App. 317] ; f"6e ax^e- 
\ov, 129, E. 2 ; ei6e otherwise with 
indie, ibid. 

eimt with an adverb, 1 b, E. 6 ; con- 
forming itself to the predicate noun 
{gerundive, <fec.) in gender and num- 



258 



Index I. 



bei\ ibid., R. 4 ; eorii/ with a plural 
subject following, 1 a, E. 2, note. 
EiVai C. d., 38 a. "Ecrri /xoi ^oyXofievco, 
&c., 38 d. With partitive genitive 
(tcov alcrxpojv, &C.), 51 C. "Eo"Tt diKaiov 
dv8p6s — , 54 a ; with descriptive gen., 
54 b ; c. g. originis et materice, 54 c. 
"Eo-rii/ OS — , ecTTiv ol — {ovs, &c. — , 
oiTivei — ), 102 b, R. 1 ; ea-riv ov, 
oTTOts — ov< ecTTiv OTTco? OV, ibid., R. 2. 
EtVi, edTLv, elaiv omitted, 215 a with R. 
Eti'at redundant with eKa>v and other 
expressions, 151, R. 2. ^Hv, vid. 

tine'iv Tiva ri (KaKots), 25, R. 3; elnetv 
as limiting infin. without as, 151, R. 1. 

els with names of persons, 28 a, R. 1 ; 
Tvapelvai, Ka$e(eadai els — , 79 a ; els 
with adverbs of time, 81 ; e's 8ida- 
a-naXov, et sim., 47, R. 2. 

eira with participles, 175 a (kuto) and 
181, R. 2; for KUL etra, 185 a, R. 6. 
^ lAjjp. 318.] 

elVe — e'lre {kcil), 186. 194 a, in depend, 
questions, 199 c ; elVe — 7], el — e'lre, 
194 a, R. 1. [App. 257. 266. 316, R.] 

eKoa-Tos with and without article, 11, 
R. 2 ; to be supplied from oideis, 213. 

cKcov elvai, 151, R. 2. 

e\aTTov with or without ^', and with gen., 
92. 

eXeyxeiv, with acc. c. inf., refute and 
prove, 159, R. 2. 

eKKeiv Tiva TTohav, 57 a, R. 

f'XTTty, eXiri^eLv with aorist inf. without 
av, 172 a, R. 

fV nearly in the sense of the dat. instrum., 
39, R. ; in statements of time, 45 a and 
66 a, R. 2 ; eu 8i8aaKcikov, 47, R. 2 ; 
ev Tols with the superl., 96, R. 2 ; 
verbs compounded with eV in the infin. 
of the intention {evev8oKifielv), 148, 

evavrios with gen. and dat., 37, R. 1. 

e'vavTiovcrdaL tiul noielv ri, 146, R. 1. 

eveKa after its case, 80 b ; its significa- 
tion expressed by the mere gen. of the 
infin. or of the acc. c. infin., 170 c, R. 3. 

evddde, fVTaiida jja, 79 a ; evdevSe, eKeWev 
with the art., instead of ivravda, eKel, 
79 b. 

e'^ of the occasion, source, &c., 39, E. ; 



e'K BLbacTKoXav, 47, R. 2 ; e^ instead of 
partitive genitive, 50 a, R. 2 ; instead 
of uTTo with passive, 78, R. ; 6 e^ instead 
of 6 ev, 6 TTOpd, 79 b ; eK tov (fiuvepov, 
87 a, R. 2. Verbs compounded with 
e|, followed by e^, or by the genitive 
alone, 57 b, R. 

e^apvos eljil Ti, 22 b, note. 

e^eari fioi iroielv, rarely p.e noielv, 165 a. 

e^fjs, e(jie^rjs elvai, Keladai rii/i, 55, R. 1. 

eoLKas olofjievM, 177 b, R. 5, note. 

eirei, enei8f] with aorist and plusquamper- 
fect, 114 c; eneibr] with acc. c. infin. 
in oratio ohliqna, 169 b ; e'nel,for, ibid., 
R. lApp. 315.] 

eVetra after participles, 175 a (181 a, 
R. 2) ; for Kai erreiTa, 185 a, R. 6. 
[Aj)p. 318.] 

ini, construction, 73 ; after verbs of re- 
joielng, &c. at something, 44 a ; en\ 
KoSpov \3aaCkexjovTos, eiu -xiovi TreaoiKTrj, 
181 a, R. 7. 

emlialveiv yrjs rivos, 59 c. 

ipyd^ecrdai tlvcl ti, 25, R.3. 

tpardv Tiva ti, irepi tivos, 25, R. 2. 

ea-Te '[App. 3u5] with the aor.,114 c, R. 1. 

ea-Tiv (ecTTiv ol, &c.), see elvai. 

evBaljicov tov Tponov, 61 b. 

ev6vs yevofievos, 175 b. 

evpicTKeiv Tiva ttoiovvtu ti, 178 b. 

e(pT]v as aorist, 113, R. 2. 

e(p' a, efj)' a re, 103, R. 3 ; with infin., 
ld2. 166 'b; with the fut. indie, 166, 
note. 

e)(^eLv Ti, e)(ea6ai tivos, 57, note ; ws exoi 
(kuXoos exco) with gen., 49 b, R. 2 ; 
exfi^v with adverbs governing the gen., 
63 C, R. 2 ; e'xod, ovK e'xcD o, ti with 
subjunctive, 121 ; with the fut. indie, 
R. 1 ; e'xcov, with, 174 b ; Bavp-aaas 
ex(o, 179 ; ex(i>v (KaKus) as adjective 
after elfil, 18(3 c ; e^wz/ (Krjpe'is), 176 C, 
R., Ti e'xatv — ; 176 b, R. 

^XPV"' XPW without av, 118 a. 

eoos (eo)? nep) [_Ap>p. 304] with aorist, 
114 c, R. 1. 

H. 

"H \^App. 283 — 285] with comparatives, 
89; rj Kara, r) asTe, 90, R. 4; after 
words denoting an opposition : Tovvav 



Index I. 



259 



tLov ^, 91, R. 1 ; inserted and omitted 
after -riKeov, (Xottov, 92. 

ij, Tj — fj, TJToi — 7, 186 [Aj)]). 2S3 and 
255] ; 7, 0?' else (sometimes with an 
iufin. not quite accurately used), R. 1 
[A})}}- 283] ; 7 — 7 for el — v in de- 
pend, questions, 199 c, R. 1. [Ajjp. 
284] 

TJ interrogatively, 199 b. lApp. 246.] 

7) paara, 96. 

^ (subjunctive) omitted, 215 a, R. 2. 

7/3011X0/X71/ civ, 117 b, R. 2 ; i"w omitted, 
118, note. 

Tjyovfial TIV09 and rivi different, 58 b, R. 

ir^^, App.2^2.-] ^ _ ^ 

^eti/ as aorist, 113, R. 2 ; j?a epcoj/, 175 d, 
R. 1. 

ijKfii/ with adverbs and the genitive [ev 
rJKfiv Tiros), 49 b, R. 2; rjicu} as perf., 
110 a, R. 2 ; rjKov as aorist, 113, R. 2. 

T]Ki(TTa, rJKKTTa. ye in answers, 199 e, 
R. 2. 

TJXiKos, attraction, 106. 

Tjfxepa omitted, 87 b, R. 1. 

^u, where the present might have been 
used, 113, R. 3 ; rjv instead of rjv av, 
118 a and b. [71/ apa, App. 257 c] 

[rJToi, App. 255.] 

e. 

Oavfid^eiv Tiva rivos, 6avp.d^eiv rivos, 

6l b, R. 1 ; rovro crov davp-u^a, 53 ; 

6avp.a(ai, el, 194 C. [_Ap2J. 316, note.] 
— 6e, — 6ev [App. 239], e'l ovpavodev, 60, 

R. 4. 
[d^v, App. 241.] 
dftjorKOVTes, ol, = ol davovres, 183, R. 1, 

note. 
6veiv TO. AvKaia, 26, R. 2. 



'Uvai epovvra, 175 d, R. 1 ; uVai rov 
Trpocro), 51 b, R. 

lepo? riTOS, 62 ; lepov omitted with the 
genitive, 47, R. 2. 

iva [Ajjp. 311] with subjunctive, 122. 
131 b ; with optative, 131 a ; with in- 
dicative of the intention of an action 
which has not resulted, 131 b, R. 3 ; 
tva ri ; 189 a, note. [Jv av, App. 302.] 

Innos, cavalry, 18 c. 



K. 



Kai [App. 222—226], ml — Kai, re — 
K.al, 185 a with R. 1 and 3 ; Kai — re, 
R. 3, Kai — 8e, ibid., R. 2 ; Kai omitted 
before eha, eneiTu, ibid., R. 6 ; Kai (re 
— Kai) in statements of time (when), 
185 b ; Kai after adjectives and adverbs 
of likeness and equalit}', 185 c [koI 87, 
A])]). 236 ; Kai ye, ib. 249 ; Kai rot, ib. 
253] ; Kai, Kalirep with participles, 
175 e ; Ka\ ov, 187, note. Kai el and 
fi Kai, 194 d. [Apj). 226. 317.] Kai 
pa\a, Kai ttoXXo in answers, 199 c, 
R. 2. [kqi ravra. A])}}. 253.] 

KQivorepos in a sense approaching to the 
positive, 93. 

Ka\elv Tiva rt, ovopid ti, ovopd ri rivi, 
24 b, R. 1. 

KdprjXos in the sing., of a multitude, 18 c. 

Kav el, 139 b, R. 

Kurd, construction, 70 ; verbs com- 
pounded with Kard, denoting a dis- 
tinction, 23 b; verbs compounded 
with, with gen., 59 a ; also used in the 
passive, 56, R. 2. 

KOTa for eha with participles, 175 a. 

Kureaya ttjs Ke(^aKr]s, 51 b, R. 

KaTTjKoos with gen. and dat., 63 c, R. 1. 

[Ke, Kev, A]?p. 297 sqq.] 

Ke(pd\aiov 8e— yap, 196 a, R. [App. 260.] 

Koii'os with gen. and dat., 62, R. 

Kpare'iv vivos and riuu, 58 b v.dth R. 

Kpelrrcav elpl with participles, 177 b, R. 4. 

Kvpios elpi TTOiav ti, 177 b, R. 3. 



Aayxdveiv, to become hy lot, 20, R. 1. 

XapjidveivTi, Xap^dvecraal rivos, 57 a, note. 

Xap^dveiv riva ttjs ^oivrjs, 57 a, R. 

Xai'^ai'eii' with participle, 177 b ; with 
oTi, ibid., R. 2 ; eXaOov, Xtjctco with the 
aorist of the participle, 183, R. 2. 

Xe'-yeif rivd ri, KUKas, 25, R. 3 ; Xeyeti/, 
to tell a person to, 146, R. 1. Aeyw, 
I mean, with the foregoing case, or 
with accus., 19, R. 4. 

Xoibope'iv Tiva, XoidopeiaBairivi, 82 d, R. 1. 

Xomov, TO, and tov Xoittov, Q6 a. 



S 2 



26o 



Index I. 



M. 



Mel with accusative, 28 b. \_Ai)f. 245.] 

[xa6(i)v, ri fiadciiv, 176 b, E. 
fjidXa separated from its adjective, 218 b ; 
^jLoka {koI iiaXa), ^loKicrra in answers, 
199 c, E. 2. 
fjioWov, redundant witb comparatives, or 
omitted after certain verbs, 93 c ; fiaK- 
Xoj/ ri oil, 89, E. 2 lAj)p. 285]; fiaXXov 
rj in comparison of different qualities, 
93 a. 
Mapa6S>vi, 45 b. 

fiapripiov be— yap, 196 a, E. [App. 260.] 
fieXei, fxeXm, construction, 58 a with E._ 
p.eXX€iv (/x«XXw, fjp.€Xkov, ^/ie'XXryo-a), peri- 
phrastic, 116 ; et jJieXKo}, 6 p.eXK(ov, ibid. 
p.ep.vr}(T6ai, construction, 58 a, E. 2. 
pfp.4>€a6ai, construction, 86 a, E. 1. 
Hfv {Apip- 230], 188 with E. {p.ivye, note) ; 
omitted, ibid, note, and E. 2 {xa'ipet. 
Tore 5' aXyel) ; position, ibid., E. 1 : fiev 
— fxev — be — Se, ibid., E. 4; p,€v with- 
out following 6e, ibid., E. 5 ; p.€v — 6e' 
instead of the connexion of a primary 
with an accessory sentence, 189 a and 
I3. ^f'l, — gg inaccurately connected 
(anacoluth.), 216, E. 1. [p-ev 617, A2Jp. 
236. 250. piv ovv, ib. 269.] 
pkvei ae nvBeadai, 145, E. 1. 
p.ivTot iAjjp. 254] with the verb repeated 

in answers, 199 c, E. 2. 
pepos, TO ipov pepos, 31 C. 
pea-Tos elpi with participle, 177 b, E. 5. 
perd, construction, 74. 
perapeXfi poi with participle^ 177 b, E. 5. 
pfTci^v with participles, 175 b, 181 a, 

E- 2. 
peTaridtcrdai tovto elvai, 159, E. 2. 
pfTfx^i'V pepos, perkx'^iv rtj/o?, 57 a, note. 
pkxpi lApp. 305] ; /xexpt o^\re, 81. Me^pt 
with aorist in the indie, 114 c, E. 1 ; 
pexpi- instead of /xexP' "''j -'■27) E. 2. ^ 
^T] [App. 286 sqq.] with subjunctive in 
final sentences, 122 ; after dedoiKu, <^v- 
XuTTopai, &c., 124 a (with the fut. 
indie, ibid., E. 1 ; with the present 
after 6pw, ibid.) ; eUiptically with the 
subjunct. present, 124 a, E. 2 ; with 
optative, 131 ; with the imperative 
present, aorist subjunct. in prohibi- 



tions, 142 and E. [App. 286.] M17 

{prjbeis, &c.) and ov different, 200 sqq. 

M17 very rare in a principal sentence 

in indie. [App. 287] or optat. with av, 

200, E. ; pri with the imperat. and 

prohibitivesubjunct.,201 a [App.286'] ; 

in final and object-sentences, 201 b; 

(po^ovpai pT) — ov, ibid. ; rarely p-rj — 

prj, note ; prj in conditional sentences, 

202 a, after temporal particles with av 

or without av, of the action so often 

as occuiTing, with ore, cmore, ottov m 

causal signification, 202 b ; in relative 

sentences, 203; in depend. inteiTOg. 

sentences after et and oncos, 204 a ; 

in the second member of a disjunctive 

question, 204 b ; with the infin., 205 ; 

with adjectives and participles without 

the article. 206 a and b, with E. 1 ; 

with adject, and partic. with the art., 

207 [Ajjp. 288] ; in later wi-iters, where 

the earlier have ov, 207, E. 2. M^ with 

infin. after verbs of negative meaning, 

210 with E. 1 and 156, E. 3, 4. M17 
in prohibitions of two members, 189 a, 
E. 1. Mjj (dpa pr]) interrog., 199 b. 
\_App. 287.] M17 ovra>, p.Tj pot. Avithout 
a verb, 215 b. M17 ov t^pp. 294r- 
296] with infin. after a negative verb, 

211 a with E. ; after expressions of 
disapprobation, &c., ibid, b ; with par- 
ticiples, ibid. c. M17 oTi {p.rj oTi — aXX' 
ouSe, ov — p-rj on — dXX' ov8e), 212. 
[^^j/5.312.] M)7 71 ye. 212, note. [Miy- 
Toi, ye, Ap>p. 256.] Ov pi], see oii. 

p,r]he, pr]Te — P-rjre, pijre — re, 208, prjTe 
— pTjb' av, prjre — 8e, ibid., E. 1. 

[pi,v, App. 231 sqq. 236. 250.] 

prjxavT), Tis prjx- with acc. c. infin., 165 a. 

p.iKpov Set and simply piKpov, 57 a, note. 

povos, where in English we should use 
the adverb, 86 a ; povos rmv uXXav, 96, 
E. 3. 

pvpia {ucnvis, &c.), 18 C. 

pav, picov ov, p.(ov p.T], 199 b. [App. 267.] 

N. 

[Nat, vrj, App. 245.] 

i/ecorepoy in the sense of the positive, 93. 

viKuv''l(T0pia, 26, E. 2; vikoo, have con- 



Index I. 



261 



quered, 110, R. 2 ; eviKi^ae fioXt'iv, 145, 

R. 1. 
vofML^fiv with dative, 44 b. 
[I'vj', loiz', ini, App. 243, 244.] 



'O TTfv TTopf^vpiba, the man loith the — , 
32, R. 1. 

6 /xeV — 6 Sf, 188, R. 2. 

o, oTTtp, 6 Kat, a Kot as connecting particle, 
195 d, R. 

ohe, here, 100 c. 

oboi omitted, 87 b, R. 1 ; 6b6v, 31 d, R. 

o^eiv pvpov, 60, R. 2. 

olba with partcp., on or w?, 178 a and 
R. 5 (rare with ace. c. infin., R. 6). 
Olba, fv Icrdi extra structuram, 193; ev 
old' oTi, 'lad' on added for assurance, 
ibid., R. Ola-d" 6 8paaov, 141, R. 1. 

olKelov Tivos and rivl, 62 with R. 

oIkiq omitted with the gen., 47, R. 2. 

olpai Seti/ with nominative and infin., 
160, R. Olp.ai, o'Ui extra structuram, 
193 ; olpai Sf , Ka\ crv and oifiai 8e koi 
ae, 193, note. 

o'lxopai with signification of perfect, 110 
_ a, R. 2. 

olos with the superlative, 96, R. 1 ; at- 
traction with olos, 106 ; ola aol dv8pi, 
106, R. 2 ; olos, TOLovTos olos instead 
of cosrc with infin., 166 c ; oi6s re, oi6i> 
T€, ibid., R. 1 ; olos ^= on toiovtos, 
198 a, R. 3 ; olos with adjectives 
{dp.Tixavos olos), ibid., R. 4; in ex- 
clamations of wonder, 198 b, R. Oiov, 
ola S7 with participles, 175 e. 

oXiyov with comparatives, 43, R., oXiyov, 
as adverb, 57 a, R., note ; without au 
with aorist indie, 118, R. 2. 
oXos, the article with, 11, R. 4. 
opoLos with dative instead of Kai, 37, R. 

2 ; opoios, opoiais Kai, 185 C. 
opov, adjectives compounded with, with 

dat. and gen., 37 with R. 1. 
6p(t>s with partcp. transposed, 175 e. 
ovopa, TO, 6 ^laKapraros, to ovopa Swcriaj/, 

49 a, note. 
ovopa Tideadai Tivi, ovopa 'Saxrlav t. tivi, 

24 b, R. 1. 
ovopd^eiv eivai, 24 b, R. 2. 
Sttoos I App. 310], 123, R. 1 ; (and ottw? 



pr)) with subjunctive in final sentences, 
122. 131 b ; in object-sentences, 123 ; 
with optat., 131 a ; with the fut. indie, 
122, 123 with R. 1 ; with in die. of au 
action intended, but which has not 
resulted, 131 b, R. 3 ; ottos (ottcos pt)) 
with the fut. indie, instead of the im- 
perative, 123, R. 4; oTTCDs pr) with 
subjunctive and indie, (for pr])^ after 
verbs of fearing, 124 b ; ottws pr] ellip- 
tically with the fut. indie, 124 b, R. 1. 
"Ottcos (interrogatively) after verbs 
such as pr])(avd<Tdai, 145, R. 2; after 
a-nov8d(€Lv, and the like, 164, "R. 2; 
oTvas pr] after verbs denoting a pro- 
hibition, or a challenge, 146, R. 2 
(124 b) ; oTTcos after negatived ver7)a 
declarandi, 159, R. 3. "Oiras dv in 
final sentences, 122 [App. 302]. Ovk 
ecTTiv 6'7ru)s, 102 b, R. 2. 122, R. 2. 
"Ottco? with superlatives, 96. 
opdv pr] with subjunct. and indie, 124 
with R. 1 ; the infinitives opdv, I8flv 
after adjective phrases and intransitive 
verbs, 150 a, R. 2. 
OS and OS dv, 126, R. 1 ; os in causal re- 
lative sentences, 105 d (os ye) ; inter- 
rog. = osns, 198 b ; 6s dv [App. 298] 
instead of d ns, 195 b ; referring to 
a plural antecedent, 99 d. 
ocros, attraction, 106; after adjectives 
(davpaa-Tos oaos), 198 a, R. 4 ; in^ ex- 
clamations of wonder, 198 b, R. ; ocroi' 
:= Toa-oiiTov asTe with infin., 166 c ; 
daov pr], da-a pr], with the partcp., 175 
e, note, 
oo-ai Tjpepai, 6(Tr]pepai, 106, R. 3. 
osTtr as simple relative pronou.n, 105 (a 
man to — , ea-Tiv ostis, ovtms — osns, 
in causal signif.) ; for el' ns, 195 b ; 
referring to a plural antecedent, 99 d. 
"Osns jSovXei, 103, R. 2, note; o,ti 
(6'n) with the superlative, 96. [App. 
312 b. o n pr], ibid.] 
ore [Ajjp. 313] in causal signif, 127, R. 1 ; 

pfpvr]pai, oTe, 178 a, R. 5, note. 
on [App. 312] and as after verba decla- 
randi, (fee, 159, R. 3 ; a statement be- 
gun with on, carried on with the infin., 
ibid., R. 4. "On after the verbs to knotv, 
&c., 178a, R.5. "On, the circumstance 



262 



Index I. 



that, as regardi7ig the fact that, 170 
a, R. "Ort before oratio recta, 192 a ; 
iJTi, for proof that, 192 b, R. To 8e 
fjLeyicTTov, oTi and 6 Se fxeyiarov, on, 
197. "On ri, 198 a, note. 
Ou (ovK, oiSei's, &c.) [^_pi>. 286 and note] 
different from fj.ri, 20i) sqq. (see firj) ; 
^ojSoOynat, fjLT] — ov, 201 b ; ov after ei, 
202 a, R. ; in causal sentences, 202 b, 
R. ; in relative sentences, 203 ; ovdeh 
ToiovTos osTis oil, ibid., note ; in depend. 
inteiTOg. sentences, 204 a and b; with 
the infin. after (prjfii and verbs of opi- 
nion, sometimes also others, 205 and 
ibid., note; with the infin., but belong- 
ing to the principal verb, ibid., R. 1 ; 
or repeated, R. 2 ; after asre, R. 3 ; 
otherwise irreg., R. 4 ; ov with adjec- 
tives and participles without the article, 
206 a and b, R. 1 ; with the art., 207 ; 
in sentences which would else require 
fxri, as neg. of a single portion of the 
predicate, 207, R. 1 ; 17 ov T^eptTeixicris, 
207, note. 

Oil [ovk) redundant after fxaXkov rj, 89, 
R. 2 \_A2jp. 285] ; belonging to two 
clauses connected by fiiv — 8e, 189 a 
and note ; redundantly repeated, 209 a, 
R. 1 ; redundant in sentences with to? 
after negative verbs, 210, R. 2. Oi) 
(oil bfiTo), no, 199 c, R. 2 {ov fxa rbv At", 
oil, 209 a, R. 2) ; ov hi], ov drjTTOTe, oij 
Ti TTov iuterrog., 199 a. Oi; jiovov, 
OVX on, OVX OTTO)?, 212 l^App. 310 c, 
312 and R.]. Oii (jltj (oiSels fxr]) [A2Jp. 
293] with subjunctive (indie, fut.) ne- 
gatively, 124 a, R. 3 ; with the indie, 
fut. in prohibition, 124 a, R. 4. 

ov?lafia>s OTTCOS {cos) ov, 105 b, R. 

ovde, 208 (cf. ovT(). 

ovdels osns oii {oiibeva ovnva ov), 105 
b, R. 

ovbkv fiaWov, 43, R. {ov8ev adverb.) ; 
ovbev rj, 93 c ; ovhev cikXo rj, 215 b, 

R. 1. 

ovBeTfpov, ovberepa as predicate, 1 b, R. 5. 
ovKovv, ovKovi/, 199 h with R. lApj^. 268.] 
ovu \_App. 264 sqq.] in resumption, 216. 
oi'vena, odovueKa, 159, R. 3. 
ovre — ovTe, ovre — re, re — ovre, 
208 ; T€ — oil for o0T€, ibid., R. 1 ; 



ovTf — ovT€ — ov8e {ov8 av), ovTt — 
ovS av, ovre, — Se, ov — ov, ovre — 
oil, ovre the first time omitted, ibid. 
Ovre — ovre, the connexion resolved, 
216, R. 1. 
ovTos, here, 100 c ; redundant, 100 e ; 

TpLTOV eVoy TOVTO, 30, R. 

ovT(jL)s with participles, 175 a (181 a, 

R. 2). 
ocpXicrKaveiv dcre/Se/as, aStKt'ai', yeXura, 61 

a and R. 2. 
[_o(f)pa, A^yp. 303.] 

n. 

IlaBtiov, tL iraBcov, 176 b, R. 

Trai/rcos in answers, 199 c, R. 2. 

TTOLvv ye, Traw pev ovv in answers, 199 c, 

R. 2. 
Tiapa, construction, 75 ; instead of iiTrd, 

78, R. ^ 
napa(jKevd^f(j6anToirjaovTa, as noirjo'ovTa, 

noulv, 175 d, R. 1. 
nds with the article and without it, 11, 

R. 4 {01 TrdvTfs, in all) ; es irav kukov 

Itvat, iy TTavri KaKov eivai, 49 b, R. ; 

TO) TiaVTl KpeiTTav, 43. 
Tvaveiv and Tvavtadai {eTravcrdprjv, enav- 

a-Brjv), 82 b ; naveiv Tiva ttoiovvtu ti, 

178 b. ^ 
ireldeiv, neidea-daL, erveiadrjv, 82 C, R. 2 ; 

TTfiOeadai nVos for nvi, 58 b, R., note. 
TTfipdcrdai. TTotovvra for iroielv, 177 b, R. 3. 
nip \_App. 247] with participles, 175 e. 
TTepi, construction, 76 ; put after its case, 

80 b ; TTepi or simple genitive after 

certain verbs, 58 a, R. 1. 
irepiopdv riva noiovvrd Ti, 178 b (and tt. 

Ti yiyvfcrdai ^= ('u>) ; TrepiiSe'iv with the 

aorist of the participle, 183, R. 2. 
— TrXdaios, adjectives in, constructed as 

comparatives, 91. 
TrXeof with or without fj, and with gen., 

92 {-rrXeiovs fj). liXeov ovbiv ecrri p.01 

dyavaKTOvvn, 177 b, R. 5. 
TrXr/c, ovdev aXko ttXtjv, 91, R. 2 ; as ad- 
versative conjunction, 187, R. 2. 
■nKrjcriov tlvat with the dative for the 

genitive, 55, R. 1. 
TToidv Tim Ti {ev), 25, R. 3 ; €v, (caXois 

77010)1', with good reason, 176 c \_App. 

:i48 b] ; TioiiiaOai onXa, to cause to be 



Index I. 



263 



made for oneself, 82 a, R. 2 ; Troieicr^ai 
6r]pav, and the like, 82 c, R. 1 ; Troiel- 
cr6ai Ti 77ep\ ttoXXov, oXiyov, 65 a, R. 

TToios with the article, 11, R. 5. 

TToXXa as adverb, 88 a. 

TToXXanXda-ios, construct, as compara.,91. 

TToXv with compara., 43, R. ; and noXXa 
sometimes put after the adject., 218 b. 

Ti6pp<o {ao({)ias, &c.),far gone, advanced, 
in any thing, 50 b (different from 
TToppco , far from) . 

\_TroTe, App. 274.] 

TToTepov [TiOTepa) — rj, 199 C. 

[ttou, Ap]). 272 sq.] 

TTpo-TTeiv, TTpaTTecrdai, 82 a, R. 2. 

irpiv (ov — TTpiv) with indie, aor., 114 c, 
R. 1 ; TTpXv civ with subj., 127, Tvplv 
with opt., 138 ; Trpiv with infin., 167 
(nplv 7, ibid., R.). [App. 306.] 

7Tp6, verbs compounded with, with gen., 
59 b. 

TrpoKaXeladal riva ti and us ti, 25, R. 2. 

Trpcf, construction, 77 {irpos 6e, adverb. 
77, 2). 

rrpcsrjKei p.01 ttoiuv and pe noieiv, 164 a ; 
TrposrjKev without civ, 118 a. 

TTpoTfpaios as comparative, 91. 

TTpoTepov I'j with infin., 167, R. 1. 

UvBol, 'ladpoi, 45 b. 

iTVKvd as adverb, 88 a. 

TTvvOdveadai rt Tti/oy, 60 a ; Trwddveadai 
Ti yiyvupfvov and yiyveadai, 178 a and 
R. 6. 

TTcos ; TTodev ; negatively, 199 c, R. 2 ; 
TTa>s yap oi ; ncos ov p,eXXei in answers, 
199 C, R. 2; TT^f ov (deivov;), 199 b, 
note. TrS)s av in wishes, 129, R. 1. 

2. 

2,^pe'lov Se — yap, 196 a, R. [App. 260.] 
aTipyuv Ti and rivi, 44 a, R. 
crDyyiyi'a)(r/cftf tyj imOvpia Tivos and (but 

rarely) tiv\ tTjs tT7i.dvp.ias, 61 b, R. 1. 
(Tvp^alvtL yiyveaSai ti, 164, and t\ yiy- 

vopevov, 177 b, R. 3. 
(Tvp^ovXeveiv, uvp-^ovXevicrBai, 82 d, R. 2. 
(Tvpf^epov, TO, substantively, 180 b, R. 2. 
(Tvv Tw (polSco XfjyovTi, 181 a, R. 7 ; verbs 

compounded with avv, with the dative, 

36 b and R. 2 ; adjectives with dative 

and genitive, 37 with R. 1. 



crvvei8evat Tivl iroiovvri ti, Tiva jroiovvTa, 
epavTcp TTOLovvTi, and ttoiwc, 178 a, R. 7. 
(TVveXovTi, (TvvfXovTi, iliTelv, 38 C and 151. 
(TVVTepVOVTl iiTTeiv, 38 C. 
(TvvTpi^rivai TTjs K((}iaX^s, 51 b, R. 
(T(f)68pa ye in answers, 199 c, R. 2. 

T. 

TaSe of persons, 98 a, note, th vvv raS?, 
100 e, R. 

TavTa, therefore, icai TavTU, and that, 100 
e, R. [Ap>p. 253.] 

TavTov TovTo, Ukeivise, 19, R. 3. 

Te [App. '227, 228]. re — KOI, 185 a and 
R. 3 ; Te alone, 185, R. 1 ; re — re, 
ibid., R. 3 ; position of re, ibid., R. 4 ; 
re' — 8e' (re' — eVetra 6e', &c.), ibid., 
R. 5 ; anacoluth. with re — Kui, 216, 
R. 1 ; re transposed, ibid. ; re — ovre, 
208 ; re — ov instead of ome, ibid., 
R. 1. 

TeBvdvai rw (polSa TOvsOr]^aiovs,22h,note 

TeKpTjpiov be — yap, 196 a, R. [App. 260. 

reXevrcoi', at last, 176 C, R. 

TiKTOvaa, T], =r TeKovcra, 183, R. 1, note. 

ri/iSi', Tipdadai Tivi with gen., 61 a, R. 1. 

Tipapelv TLVL, Tipa>pela6ai Tiva, 82 C. 

rt's (interrog. pron.) instead of osrt? in 
depend, cjuestions, 198 b ; ti as predi- 
cate to a plural subject, 97 b. Tt ov 
— ; instead of the imperative, 141, 
R. 3. Tt ydp [App. 261],- Ti fifjv 
[App. 231] ; ri yap ov peXXei ; in an- 
swers, 199 c, R. 2. Ti paOcov ; Ti 
m6(ov; 176 b, R. 

rt'y (indefinite pron.) understood from 
the infin., 144, R. 2 ; tl adverbial, 
(/iaXXdi/ Tl), 43, R. Tco(/ Tis imremv, 
218 a. 

TO 8e elliptically, 188, R. 7. . 

TO pfj, TO prj ov with the infin., 156, R. 4. 

ToLovTos with the article, 10, R. 3. 

Tore with participles {tot ^brj), 175 a. 

Tovvavriov, 19, R. 3. 

Tpetreiv, Tpeneadai, eTpeyj/'dprjv, eTpanopiji', 
82 b and d, R. 2. 

TpoTTov and rpoTTO), 31 d, 41. 

Tvyxdveiv with participle, 177 b (wi/ 
omitted, R. 1) ; o,ri Tvyxdva, onov 
Tvyxdvu), ibid., R. 1, note, tv^ov as 
adverb, 182, note. 



264 



Index I. 



Yto'y omitted, 47, R. 1. 

vTTaKoveiv rivi and rivos, 58 b, R. 

vnep, construction, 71 ; verbs com- 
pounded with vTTfp, with double ac- 
cus., 28 a, R. 3 ; with gen., 59 b {lirep- 
opav TLva). 

vnevdwos rij? apxTJs, and the like, 63 d. 

VTTTJKOOS, 63 c, R. 1. 

vTTo, construction, 78. 
varrepaios as comparative, 91. 
va-Tfpov 1] with infinitive, 167, R. 



^avfpos elpi TToiav ri, 177 b ; cjiavepos, 
oTi, ibid., R. 2. 

(f>alve(r6ai with participle, 177 b (aJj/ 
omitted, R. 1) ; with infin., R. 3. 

^fvyeLv, to he an exile, 110 a, R. 2. 

07/^t, (paa-iv, exh'astructuram, 193; posi- 
tion of(f>7]ixi, 219 C (civ (f)airj, b, R.). 

(pBdveip ?l for (f)d. irpiv, 167, R. ; (pddveiv 
TToiovvTci Ti, 177 a; ovK av (f)6dvois 
TTOLwv, 177 b, R. 6; €(f)6r}v with the 
aorist of the participle, 183, R. ; ovk 
€(pdT]if TTOirjcras — Kal, 185 b. 

(f)iXos as adjective and substant., 37, R. 1. 



X. 



Xdpiv as preposition, 31 d, R. 

XiXia (lttttos), 18 c. 

XPwBai rivt (j)!Xa>, 19, R. 1 : xpr)(j6ai Tivl 

Ti, 27 a, R. 1. 



"ir. 



^^](pos omitted, 87 b, R. 1. 



"Qv or some other paj-ticiple, where in 
Engl, when, 174 b, R. ; omitted after 
are, oia 8r],^ wy, 175 C; with Kainep, 
ibid, e; with rvyxdveip and other 
verbs, 177 b, R. 1 ; 6'1/7-a omitted witli 



drrocfiaiveiv and other verbs, 178 a, 
R. 4 ; 6W0S in the gen. absol., 181 a, 
R. 5, ovra in the accus. absol., 182, 
R. 3. 

wpata ydpov, 63 b. 

(OS [Aj)2). 307]. cos i&sirep) placed before 
the preposition {as irepl ixr)Tp6s rrjs 
X<i>pas), 80 d, R. cos, as Tdxiara, tem- 
poral particle [Aj)]). 307 d] with aorist 
or plusquamperfect, 114 c. 
coy with subjunctive in final sentences, 
122. 131 b ; with optative, 131 a ; in- 
stead of oTTcoy in object-sentences, 123, 
R. 6 ; after verbs of fearing, 124 b, 
R. 2 : coy av with subjunctive in final 
sentences, 122 [with note, and Ap2J- 
302] ; coy with potential optative with 
civ of intention and aim, 137. 'fly and 
oTi after verba declarandi et opinandi, 
159, R. 3. 
'Q.S {as ye) with the infinitive in a restric- 
tive sense (coy enos (iTreh), 151. 'fly 
instead of cosre, so that, 166 c, R. 2. 
'fly with participles, 175 d (rare after 
olha, 178 a, R. 3) ; with gen. absol., 
181 a, R. 2 ; with ace. absol., 182 with 
R. 1. 'fly = 6Vt oiJrcoy, 198 a, R. 3 ; coy 
with adverbs (^av/iacrTwy coy), ibid., 
R. 4. 'fly with superl. [and some posi- 
tives], 96 {_App. 307 d]. 'fly av ft, 
139 c. 'fly elliptically with the fut. 
indie, 215 b, R. 2. [coy with numerals, 
^ App. 307 c. coy et'y, &c., ibid.] 
[a)s as preposition, App. 307 c, R.] 
[coy, demonstrative, App. 308.] 
"flyTrep with ace. absol., 182 ; wyTrep av el, 

139 c. 
"flsre [Aj)]]. 309] withtheinfin.in general, 
152; so that with infin., 166 a and b {on 
condition of, in order to) ; with indie, 
ibid, a ; redundant with infin., 144, R. 1, 
145, R. 3, 146, R. 2 (156, R. 3) ; ;; 
wyre after the comparative, 150 c; 
with ace. c. infin. after verbs of efiect- 
ing, 164, R. 1. "flyre (so that) with 
partcp. after a preceding partcp., 166, 
note, "flyre with participles ^ are, 
175 c. 
(o0eXov, e'iS' axpeXov, 129, R. 2. 



INDEX II. 



Accusative, 21 ; with verbs which in 
Engl, do not take the ace. object, 22 
a and b ; in phrases having the signi- 
fication of a transitive verb, ibid, b, 
note ; with verbs which in composi- 
tion acquire transitive signification, 
23 a (with verbs v/ith Kara, ibid, b) ; 
double-accus., the one as apposition to 
the object, 24 (with verbs denoting 
distribution by parting into, 24 c) ; 
double-acc. of the object, 25 ; accus. 
of the same etymol. or of cognate 
meaning, after intransitives, 26 a (vikuv 
"ladfjiia, R. 2) ; with adjectives, 31 b. 
It. ; accus. of the same etjmol. to- 
gether Avith an object-accus., 26 b ; 
with a passive, ibid. Accus. of a pro- 
noun or of a neuter adjective after 
iuti'ansitives, 27 a and b. Accus. with 
pi-epositions, 28 (68 sqq.) ; with verbs 
of motion without preposition, 28 a, 
R. 2 ; double accus. with verbs com- 
pounded with 8id and vnep, ibid., R. 3 ; 
accus. of the extension and distance, 
29 ; of time, 30 ; of the part in respect 
of which, 31 with R. {40, R.) ; of the 
part of the bod}', and along with it the 
object-accus. of a person, 31, R. 2 ; 
adverbial accus., 31 d ; put elliptically, 
32 with R. 1. Accus. retained with 
verbs which are predicated passively 
of the object of reference, 35, R. 3. 
Accus. absol. (or double-accus.), 182. 

Adjective ; position with the article, 9 
with R. 2. Adjectives with the accus.. 



31 b; with the dative, 37 (with the 
dat. and the gen., ibid., R. 1) ; with 
the gen., 62, 63, 64 (adjectives com- 
pounded with a priv., 63 a, R. 1 ; 
compound, with the sense of fulness, 
63 a, R. 2 ; in ik6s, 63 c ; compound, 
with the gen. of the substantive notion 
involved in them, 63 d, R.) ; in the 
gender of the partitive gen., 50 a, R. 
3. Adjectives where in English ad- 
verbs, 86 a (adjectives in alos and 
other adjectives of time and place, 
ibid., R.). Adjective in apposition to 
a substantive with the article, 12 and 
86 b; with the article in the mai-c. 
and neuter put substantivelj', 87 a {to 
^ap^apiKov, and the like in ikov) ; in 
the neuter for abstract substantives, 87 
a, R. 1 ; with a preposition instead of 
the adverb, 87 a, R. 2 ; certain ad- 
jectives quite as substantives (with a 
gen., &c.), 87 b (in the feni., ibid, and 
R. 1). Adjectives in the neut. plur. as 
adverbs, 88 a with R. ; singular, 88 b. 

Adverbs in the form of the dat. fem., 
42, R. 1 ; of place and time, with 
partitive gen., 50 b; adverbs (prepo- 
sitions) with the gen., 63 c, R. 2 ; 
adverbs of rest after verbs of motion, 
79. Position of, 218 b. Adverbs 
with eivai, 16, R. 6. 

of place with the partitive gen., 

50 b ; interchanged with each other, 
79 a and b ; attraction after the rela- 
tive adverbs of place, 103, R. 2, note. 
Local adverbs from names of cities, 
28 a, R. 2 and 45 b. 



266 



Index II. 



Affirmation, forms of, in answers, 199 c, 
R. 2. 

Affirmative notion to be supplied from 
the negative, 213. 

Anacoluthia in general, and forms of, 
216 ; more special kinds of, with re — 
Kai, fjLfv — 8e, ovre — ovre, ibid., R. 1 ; 
(with Tf — Kai, 185. R. 5 ; with fj.ev — 
8e, 188, R. 5, 189, R. 2) ; as construc- 
tion TTpos TO a"rjp.aLv6p.(vov, ibid., R. 2 ; 
where the substant. is detached from 
its sentence by a relative sentence, 
101 a, R. ; with on, cos, and accus. c. 
infin., 159, R. 4; in participial con- 
structions, 176 e and R. ; where the 
negative is repeated, 209 a, R. 1. 

Anastrophe of the preposition, 80 b. 

Answer, affirmat. and negat., 199 c, R. 2. 

Aorist indie, 111 ; peculiar usage of, 
ibid., R. (of that which is wont to 
happen, a ; eyeXaaa, yjvfcra, &c., instead 
of the present, b ; in negative ques- 
tions instead of the imperative, c, cf. 
143, R. 3 ; of verbs denoting office, 
public dignity, aor. of first attainment, 
d) ; sometimes not very different from 
the present, 112, R. 1 ; with cVei, &c., 
114 c, with eo)?, esTf, TrpiV, /^e'xP'* ibid., 
R. 1 ; instead of the plusquamperf , 
114 c, R. 2 (retained in oratio ohliqua 
from oratio recta, 130 b, R. 2) ; with 
av, 117 a and b (instead of the im- 
perf., a, R. 1 ; of that which might 
have been, b, R. 2). Aor. subjunct., 
128 a ; with fir] prohibitive, 142 [_App. 
286]. Aor. optat. with signif. of past 
time, 134 a and b ; without this signif., 
ibid. c. Optat. of aor. and fut., 134 c, 
R. Aor. imperat., 141. Aor. infin. as 
prfeterite, 172 a ; without this signif., 
ibid, b ; with av, answering to aor. 
indie, and optat. with av, often ap- 
proximating to the signif of a fut., 
173 ; without av instead of the fut. 
after iXiris, &c., 172 a, R. Participle 
of the aor., of a simultan. single and 
momentary action (especially with 
e\aeov and ((pOr^v), 183, R. 2. Par- 
ticiple of the aor. with av, 184. 

Apposition to the subject or object, 19 
with R. 1 {as) ; in statement of ex- 



tent, weight, &c., ibid., R. 2 ; to cha- 
racterize the whole sentence, 19, R. 
3, and 197 {to he jxeyia-Tov) . Apposi- 
tion of the part to the whole as ob- 
ject, 32, R. 1. Apposition partitively 
instead of a partitive gen., 50 b, R. 4. 
Apposition of an entire sentence, 190. 
Article, in general, 8 ; where in Engl, a 
possess, pronoun, 8, R. 1 ; omitted 
with certain words, 8, R. 2 ; position 
of, with substant. ha^nng an adject, or 
partcp., 9 a ; put to the following ad- 
jective, 9 a, R. 3 ; connecting adverbs 
or prepositions with substantives, 9 b ; 
with substant. governing a gen., 10 
with R. 2, and (gen. of a pron.) 3 ; 
with possess, pronouns, ibid., R. 4 ; 
with substantives to which two speci- 
fications are appended, ibid., R. 6. 
Article with demonstr. pronouns and 
adjectives, 11 with R. 2 and 3 ; when 
omitted, R. 1 ; with Tray and oXos, 
R. 4 ; with tto'los, R. 5 ; with nume- 
rals, R. 6 ; with substantives having 
an adject, in apposition, where in Engl, 
the indef. art., 12 ; with pi'op. names, 

13 a and b ; before the gen. of the 
name of the father, 13 a, R. AYith 
adject, and partcp. put substantively, 

14 a (180 b, R. 1) ; with an adverb or 
a prepos., substantively, 14 b ; put ad- 
verbially, ibid., R. 2. The art. go- 
verning the gen., 14 c ; with the infin. 
and ace. c. infin., 15 a and b (154 and 
170) ; belonging to an entire depend. 
sentence, 15, R. 1, 2 ; with omission 
of the substant. or adject, to be re- 
peated, 16 a ; omitted with the second 
of two connected words, 166 ; ellip- 
tically, with a substant. understood, 17. 

Asyndeton, 185 a, R. 6 ; where a whole 
sentence attached, 190. 

Attraction of the case with as, asirep, 
KaOdntp, 20, R. 3 ; with the compara- 
tive, 89 ; of gender with the demon- 
strative pron., 98 a ; of the case of the 
relative pron., 103 with R. 1 ; rarer 
instances of, R. 2 and note, R. 3 (at- 
tracted relat. pron. neut. nearly in the 
sense of oVt) ; attract, of relat. adverbs 
of place, ibid,, R. 2, note. Relat. ad- 



Index II. 



267 



verbs by attraction after prepositions, 
passing into pronouns and forming con- 
junctions, ibid., R. 3. Attraction with 
oios, TjXiKOs, 106, R. 2 ; with oiSets 
oyrts oil, 105 b, R. ; with wyre, 166, n. 
Attraction of subject of a depend, sen- 
tence to the primary, 191 with R. 1. 

C. 

Causal conjunctions, 194 d, note. 

Cities, names of, in dat. without iv in 
statements of place, 45 b. 

Collective, sing, with verb plur., 3 a. 

Comparative with 77 and the same case, 
or an entire sentence, or the nomina- 
tive by itself, 89 ; with tt/jo, irapd, 
ibid., R. 1 ; with gen., 90 with R. 1 ; 
with gen. of a pronoun, and therewith 
Tj, ibid., R. 2 ; with avros, avrov, 90, 
R. 3 ; with the genitives eXnidos, Xd- 
yov, etc., 90, R. 4 ; with rj Kara {[xei- 
^(ov napa, irpos, ^ &STe), 90, R. 4 ; 
two comparatives connected by jj, 93 
a; comparat. of a tolerably high de- 
gree, 93 b ; comparat. instead of the 
positive of certain adjectives (in the 
neuter), ibid. Comparative instead of 
the superlative, in speaking of two, 94. 

Conditional sentences, simple in indie, 
108 ; hypothet. in indie, 117 (indie, 
with av in the primary apodosis) ; 
in the optat., 135 (the apodosis in 
optat. with av) ; both forms (indie, 
and optat.) used interchangeably, 135, 
R. 1 and 2. Conditional conjunctions, 
194 a ; the condition expressed as in- 
depend. sentence without conjunction, 
194 a, R. 3 ; more specific condition 
annexed to a condition, ibid. 

Conjunctions formed of a preposition and 
a relative pronoun, 103, R. 3 ; copu- 
lative conjunctions, 185 ; disjunctive, 
186 ; adversative, 187 ; adversative 
and partitive, 198 ; causal, 194 d, 
note. Temporal, ibid. The conjunc- 
tion omitted in attaching a sentence 
to ravTov, &c., 190 ; the conjunction 
repeated after an interposed sentence, 
216, note. 

Construction npos to crr}fJiaiv6iJ.€vov, 216, 
R. 2. 



D. 



Dative, 33 ; commodi and iucomm., 34 
with R. 1 ; dat. comm. to a substaut., 
34, R. 2 ; of the object of reference 
to verbs governing the accus., 35 a 
and b; to verbs which take the gen., 
ibid, b, R. 2 (the object of reference 
of active made into subject of the 
passive verb, 35, R. 3) ; to intransi- 
tive verbs, 36 a, and (to verbs com- 
pounded with a preposition) b ; in- 
terchangeable with a prepos., 36 a, 
R. 2, b and note. Dative governed 
by adjectives, 37 ; in Bome, alternating 
with gen., R. 1 ; to op.oios, 'iaos, in- 
stead of Kal with nominative, R. 2. 
Dative to verbal substantives, 37, R. 
3 ; to €t/ii, vTrdpxoo, 38 a ; with a 
partcp. in statements of time, ibid, b ; 
dat. of a partcp. of the situation in 
which any thing appears, 38 c; ean 
jjLoi ^ov\o[ievco, and the like, 38 d ; dat. 
to the predicate instead of the gen., 

38 e; dat. ethicus of pron., 38 f ; dat. 
instead of vn6 with the passive, 38 g. 
Dat. of the means (instrumentalis), 

39 (different from 6ia, dnu, e^, iv, R.) ; 
dat., in respect of, 4(3 (different from 
accus., R.) ; dat. of the efficient cause, 
41 ; dat. modi, 42 (of certain substant., 
adverbially, R. 1 and 2 ; of the military 
force with which, R. 3) ; of the mea- 
sure of difiPerence, 43 ; with verbs de- 
noting an affection (at or upon some- 
thing), 44 a mth R. ; with xpw^at, b; 
dat. in statements of time, 45 ; of the 
place, poet., 45 b. Dat. denoting cir- 
cumstance or appurtenance, attached 
to a substant., 45 b, R. Dat. or accus. 
with infin. to a dat. as subject, 158 b. 
Dat. governed by the principal verb 
with annexed infin. or ace. c. infin., 
162. 164, R. 3. 

Demonstrative, see Pronoun, demonstr. 

Dependent sentences in orafio obliqua 
after a preterite, 132 a — d ; appended 
to a dubitative optat. with av, 138 
with R. 1 ; in the indie, where other 
languages have a different mood, 140. 
Depend, sentences accessory to an 



26^ 



Index II. 



accup. c. infin., sometimes absorbed 
into tbe same form, 169 a and b. 
Depend, and primary sentence alter- 
nating, 197 and 216, R. 3. Instead 
of tbe depend, sentence, a co-ordinate 
connexion by /xeV — fie, 189 a and b. 
Peculiarities in tbe manner of attacb- 
ing dependent sentences of different 
kind, 191 sqq. 

Deponens, medium or passivum, 82 b, 
E. 1 ; depon. pass, from an original 
purely passive signification, 82 c, R. 2; 
perf. mecl. of deponents used actively 
and passively, 83 b ; passive aor. of 
depon. med., ibid. 

Dual of tbe subject witb tbe verb in tbe 
plural, 1 a, R. 2 ; with a partcp. in tbe 
plural, 1 b, R. 1 ; in tbe femin. witb a 
partcp. in tbe masc, 1 b, R. 2. 

E. 

Ellipsis of tbe substantive to adjectives 
and possessive pronouns, 47 b with R. 
1 ; of tbe verb, see Verb. Ellipsis of 
an entire member of tbe tbougbt, in- 
timated by a particle, or in some otber 
way, 215 b, R. 2. 

F. 

Feminine in tbe dual witb a partcp. in 
tbe masculine, 16, R. 2. 

Final sentences in tbe subjunct., 123 witb 
R., and 131 b ; in tbe opt., 131 a ; in 
the indio., in speaking of an action 
which has not taken effect, 131 b, 
R. 3. 

Future in the med., with the otber 
tenses actively formed, 82 d. Fut. in 
the indie, 115 a (in relative sentences 
expressing purpose and destination, 
R. 1) ; with OTTO)?, oTTwy /117, 122, 123 
with R. 1 and R. 4 ; with \x.r\, 124 a, 
R. 1 ; fut. in pr£psenti and in pra?ter- 
ito expressed by fxeXXa, 116 ; (in 
prseterito not denoted, 130 b, R. 2). 
Optat. fut., 134 a with R. Infin. fut. 
after imiaxvovfiai, and tbe like, 171 a, 
R. 2 ; for the present after certain 
verbs, ibid., R. 3. 

Futurum exactum, 115 b (for tbe simple 
future in certain verbs, ibid.). 



G. 



Genitive, 46 ; possessivus and conjunc- 
tivas, 47 {elvai Tivos, Troielv t'l tivos) ; 
witb omission of vlor, yvvrj, R. 1 ; of 
oiKia, ifpov, R. 2 ; governed by a pro- 
noun in neut., 47, R. 3 ; by tbe article, 
14 c ; objective, 48 ; for preposi- 
tions (Trpdy, els, rarely Trept, ev), ibid., 
R. ; definitivus, 49 a. Gen. generis, 

49 b ; with adverbs to the verbs ex^tv 
and 7]Keiv, ibid., R. 2 ; partitive gen., 

50 a (position of words, R. 1) ; go- 
verned by an adjective in tbe gender 
of the genitive, 50 a, R. 3 ; by ad- 
verbs of place and time, 50 b ; with- 
out a governing word, 51 ; of the 
name of a country, governed by name 
of a particular place, 51 b ; with thai, 
yiyveadai, ypdcpeiv, Tideuai Tim, eyypd- 
(peadai, &c., 51 c ; instead of the ac- 
cusative, somewhat of, 51 d ; in cer- 
tain phrases witb the signification of a 
piece of, ibid., R. Two genitives to 
one substantive, 52. Possessive gen. 
governed by a pron. or ev, or by an 
entire sentence (something in, on the 
part of somebody), 53; gen. in the 
signification of (nepi), 53, R. Gen. 
with eipai (dv8pos dyadov), 54 a ; de- 
scriptive, 50 b witb R. ; of tbe origin 
and material, with eivai, TTotelv, 54 c ; 
witb prepositions and analogous words 
and combinations, 55 ; as object to 
verbs, 56 witb R. (to verbs of attach- 
ing and adhering to, 57 a; of the part 
laid hold hj, R.; of separation and 
privation, 57 b ; Avith some, inter- 
changeably with cTrd and e^, R. ; of 
caring for and remembering, 58 a ; of 
ruling, 58 b ; witb verbs compounded 
with Kara, 59 a; with irpo, virep, b). 
Gen. in the sense from {Trapd), 60 a 
(with passives, especially participles, 
poet., 60, R. 3 ; of the place from 
which, poet., 60, R. 4). Gen. with 
verba accusandi, &c., 161 a (of the 
punishment, davdrov, R. ) ; with verbs 
of praising, lamenting, &c. on account 
of, 61 b witb R. 1 {evdaipav with 
gen.) ; in exclamations, 61 b, R. 2. 



Index II. 



269 



Possess, gen. with adjectives (oi/cctos), 
62. Objective gen. with adjectives, 
63 a — e. Gen. with the compara- 
tive and with comparative verbs (ttXco- 
viKTiiv, &c.), 64. Gen. of the price, 
65 a (of the object of the price, b). 
Gen. in specifications of time, 66 a 
with E. ; doiihle-c/enitive or gen. ab- 
solute, QQ b and 181. Gen. with the 
comparative, where usuah 90; put less 
accurately, R. 1. The gen. attracted 
into the relative clause, 101 b. Gen. 
of the infinitive, see infin. Gen. or 
accus. with the infin. to a gen. as sub- 
ject, 158 b. Gen. governed by a par- 
ticiple as substantive; 180 b, R. 2. 
Position of the gen., 10 (of personal, 
demonstr., and reflex, pronouns, ibid., 
R. 3), 218 a. 
Gerundive as adjective, 84 a ; of in- 
transitive verbs impersonally with eo-- 
TLv, ibid, b ; also of transitive verbs 
impersonally, ibid. c. Gerundive cor- 
responding to the active and med., 
ibid., R. Gerundive impersonally, 
with the dat. or the accus. of the 
acting person, 85. 

I. 

Imperative (present and aor.), 141 a and 
b; interrogatively, ibid, a, R. 1; other 
foiTus of speech used instead of it, 141, 
R. 3 ; imperative and accus. c. infin. 
in same sense, 168 a, 1. 

Imperfect, 113 ; of that which was about 
to happen, ibid., R. 1 ; approximating 
to the signification of the aor., R. 2 ; 
with av, 117 ; for the aor., 117 a, 
E. 1 ; without av in hypothetical sen- 
tences, 118. Imperfect in depend, 
questions, and declarative object-sen- 
tences after a prteterite instead of the 
present in oraiio recta, 130 b ; like- 
wise in depend, sentences of oratio 
obliqua, 132 b and d. 

Impersonal expression, 7 a and b ; of 
adjectives, 7 b, R. 2; in the gen. absol., 
181 a, R. 4, c and d ; impersonal ex- 
pressions passing into personal, see 
Personal Expression. 

Indefinite pronoun, see Pronoun. 



Indicative, 108 ; in sentences where in 
other languages a different mood, 140 ; 
retained instead of the optat. in de- 
pend, questions and declarative object- 
sentences after a prajterite, 130 b (in- 
die, and optat. alternating and com- 
bined, R. 1 ; iudic. with av does not 
pass into the optat., ibid., R. 3). In- 
die, retained instead of optat. in de- 
pend, sentences in oratio ohliqiia, 132 
a, R. 1, and b and d. 

Infinitive, 143 with R : as subject with 
and without article, 144 ; as comple- 
ment to verbs, 145 (more harshly, and 
in particular phrases, with a substant. 
which might have a gen., R. 1) ; with 
verbs denoting an influence, 146 (with 
certain verbs because of a special and 
derived signification, R. 1) ; after verbs 
of declaring and opining, 147 ; infin. 
to denote the purpose, 148 a, b, c 
(the object of the principal verb, sub- 
ject of the infin. or object of the same, 
or denoting means and material) ; 
infin. with adjective of ability, capa- 
bility, &c., a|toy, 149 ; with adjectives 
(and phrases, R. 2), to denote the 
reference in which the quality is as- 
cribed to its subject, 150 a and b ; 
with 1) after a comparative, 150 c. 
Infin. with ws, wy ye limiting and re- 
stricting, 151; with cosre, o\o%, e(f) a re, 
Tvpiv, 152 (see Accus. c. infin.). Infin. 
suppletory and extra structuram, 153; 
Infin. for the imperative, 141, R. 2. 
Active infin., where other languages 
have the passive, 148 b (rarely passive, 
R.) and c, 149, R., 150 a (passive 
rare, R. 1). Infin. with the article in 
the nominative, 144 ; in the other 
cases, 154 a ; in the accus., b, c (in- 
stead of the simple infin., b, R.) ; in 
the dative, 155 ; in the gen., 156 (in- 
terchangeably with the simple infin., 
R. 1 and 2 ; with verbs of negative 
meaning, with fxr] and without yt,!], R. 3); 
accus. of the infin. with /X17 and ^ir] ov 
(to yiT], TO firj oil) after verbs of with- 
holding, &c., 156, R. 4. Gen. of the 
infin. in signif. in order to, 170 c, R. 
Infin. in apposition, with the article 



2/0 



Index II. 



and without it, 157. Case of the pre- 
dicate-noun or apposition with an infin. 
referred to a preceding subject, 158. 
Infin. in exclamations (accus.), 168 a, 
3. Infin. after 7, or else, where in 
Engl, indie, fut., 186, E. 

Infinitive, accus. with, after verha decla- 
randi et opinandi, 159 (with some, 
by reason of a pregnant signification, 
K. 2 ; relation to on and a)s, R. 1 and 
3) ; accus. or nominat. with the infin., 
160 and 161 ; instead of it, the simple 
mfin. attaching itself to the preceding 
case, 162, Accus. c. infin. not imme- 
diately governed by a verb, and re- 
ferred to an indirect intimation of a 
declaration or opinion, 163 a and b. 
Accus. c. infin. with verbs of willing 
and effecting, 164 {xaiptiv Xtyw rivi 
and Tiva, R. 3) ; with judgments ex- 
pressed impersonally, 165 a ; as appo- 
sition to a demonstrative pron., ibid. b. 
Accus. c. infin. after cosrf, e^' w re, olos, 
166 a, b, c ; with irplv, 167 (Tvp\v rj, 
TTpoTfpov, vcrrepov rj, R.). Accus. C. 
infin. without governing verb, in com- 
mands, entreaties, exclamations, with 
w?, 00-01', and without cos restrictively, 
168 a and b. Accus. c. infin. in rela- 
tive and other depend, sentences, 169 
a and b. Accus. c. infin. or partcp. 
after certain verbs, 178 a, R. 6. Accus. 
c. infin. with the article in the nomi- 
native and accus., 170 a ; in the dat., 
b; in the gen., c (with the significa- 
tion of eVfKa, R.). 

Infinitive, nominative with, 160, 161 ; 
after olp.ai heiv, and the like, 160, R. 

, tenses of the, 171, 172. See 

Present, Perfect, Future, Aorist. In- 
fin. with av (pres., aor., rarely perf.), 173. 

Interrogative particles in simple ques- 
tions, 199 b ; in disjunctive, ibid. c. 

pronoun, see Pronoun, in- 

terrog. 

—— sentences, of that which is 

to be, in the subjunctive, 121 (indie, 
fut., ibid. R. 1). Indie, present first 
person, R. 2 ; depend, in indie, 108. 
130 ; in the optat. after a prseterite, 
130 a (in the indie, or subjunctive. 



ibid, b) ; in the dubitative optat. with 
av, 137 ; questions in the optat. with 
av, denoting a wish, 129, R. 1. In- 
terrog. sentences in the participial 
form, 176 a, 181 a ; with the interrog. 
pronoun in the accessory sentence, or 
in a circumloc. with the article, 198 a. 
Direct questions M'ithout particle, 
199 a ; attached to the preceding 
sentence by fj, ibid. 
Intransitive verbs, used transitively, 22 
b with R. 2. 

M. 

Middle, signification, 82 (action in refer- 
ence to the subject itself, a ; intransi- 
tively and reflexively, b ; more special 
active signification with reference to 
the subject, c ; difference between the 
act. and midd. evanescent, d). Act. 
and midd. form in intransitive verbs, 
82 d, R. 2 ; midd. form in compound 
verbs, 82 a, R. ; midd. and passive 
form alternating in deponents, 82 b, 
R. 1. Fut. midd. (rarely aor. 2) 
in passive signification, 83 a ; perfect 
midd. of transitive deponents, 83 b. 

Moods in Greek, in general, 107. 

N. 

Negation referring to two members con- 
nected, 189 a, note, and R. 1. A 
simple negation cancelled by a preced- 
ing neg., 209 a (exception, R. 1) ; a 
composite neg. continuing and con- 
firming the preceding neg., 209 b. 
Redundant neg. with infin., 210 ; can- 
celled neg. with infin. (/xj) ov), 211 a. 
An affirmative to be understood from 
the neg., 213. See the particulars 
under ov, ovbe, ovrt, [xt], fiT]8e, firjTe, &C. 

Neuter plur. with verb singular, 1 a 
(exceptions, R. 1) ; neut. (sing.) of 
the predicate to a subject masc. or 
fem., 1 b, R. 3. Neut. plur. in im- 
personal expressions {abvvaTa rjv), 1 b, 
R. 4. Neut. sing, and plur. of adjee-. 
tives put substantively, 87 a. 

Nominative preceded by a>s, asTrep, KaOa- 
TTfp, with verb understood, 20, R. 3 ; 
after the comparative in a different 



bidex 11. 



271 



case, 89 ; nominative with iufin., see 
Infinitive. 

0. 

Object-sentences with ort, wy in the 
indie, 108 and 130 b ; in the optat., 
130 a; in the optat. with av, 137; 
the subject attracted to the principal 
sentence, 191. Object-sentences with 
OTTO)?, oTTcoy ^lr], p], in the subjunctive 
(fut. indie), 123, 124 131 b ; in the 
optat., 131 a ; the subject attracted to 
the principal sentence, 191, R. 2. 

Optative, 119 with R. ; in wishes, 129 ; 
with ort, <uf, and in depend, questions 
after a prseterite, 130 a (indie, b) ; in 
the continuation of such sentences 
with ovv, &sre, yap, 130 b, R. 4 ; in 
final and object-sentences with ottos 
after a prasterite, 131 a (subjunctive, 
b) ; (optat., indie, subjunct. in final 
and object-sentences depend, on a sen- 
tence of the same kind, 131 b, R. 4) ; 
optat. in depend, sentences of oratio 
obliqua after a principal verb in the 
prseterite, 132 a and d (indie or sub- 
junct., ibid, b) ; optat. put less accu- 
rately in a depend, sentence to an 
infin. after a present, 132, note ; optat. 
in relative sentences, and after tem- 
poral particles, denoting frequent re- 
currence, 133 ; in conditional sen- 
tences, 135 ; optat. and indie in de- 
pend, sentences to the optat. with av, 
138. Tenses of the optat., 134. (See 
Perfect, Aorist,Futm'e.) Optat. with 
av (present, aorist, sometimes perfect), 
135 ; as potential and dubitative mood, 
136 ; also in depend, sentences, 137. 

Oratio obliqua continued in the optat., 
130 b, 4 ; in the infin., 163 a ; de- 
pend, sentences in oratio obliqua in the 
indie, 14<} ; in the optat. (indie or 
subjunct.), 132 a — d. Oratio obliqua 
suddenly passing into the oratio recta, 
192 b. 



Participle, 174 ; denoting the relation of 
time, manner, &e., 174 b ; its relation 
to the principal action indicated by 



various particles, 175 {rore, tira, &c.) ; 
of intention, with verbs of motion, 

175 d, R. 1 ; governing a relative or 
interrog. pronoun, 176 a ; partcp. in 
Greek, where other languages would 
employ a principal sentence, 176 b. 
The partcp. serving to annex a cha- 
racterizing remark, 176 c ; certain 
participles used adverbially, ibid., R. 
Partcp. annexed to another partcp., 

176 d ; not in strict agreement with 
subject of principal verb, 176 e; (ana- 
coluth. of case, ibid., R. and 216, note.) 
Passing by anacoluth. into a verbum 

finitum, 216, R. 1. Partcp. in apposi- 
tion to the subject serving to complete 
the predicate, mostly with intransitive 
verbs (StareXw ttoicov), 177 a and b 
(with (i^eivov ia-ri, and the like, b, 
R. 5) ; in apposition to the object 
(subject in the passive) with transitive 
verbs, 178 a and b (to the subject, 
when this is at the same time object : 
dfiKWfii TTOICOV, sometimes ifiavrbv ttoi- 
ovvra, a and R. 1) ; alternating in 
certain verbs with on, us, 178 a, R. 5, 
or with accus. e infin., ibid., R. 6. 
Partcp. attached to exco, 179. Partcp. 
as attributive, 180 a ; substantively, 
ibid, b (rarely anarthrous, R. 1 ; 6 
TToL^acov, one that shall, can, &c. do, 
ibid.) ; with a gen., poet., 180 b, R. 2; 
in the neuter instead of an abstract 
substantive, ibid. Some few present 
participles used as adjectives with elvai, 
180 c ; present or aor. of the partcp. 
with elfil, yiyvofiai, in periphrasis, 
180 d. Partcp. in the gen. absol., 
181 ; particles therewith, relation to 
the simple partcp., ibid., R. 1 — 3. 
Subject of the gen. absol. omitted, 
ibid., R. 4 a and b. Gen. absolute 
formed from impersonal phrases, ibid., 
R. 4, c ; from a passive with a sentence 
beginning -nath ort, ibid., R. 4, d; with 
ovTos omitted, ibid., R. 5 ; gen. absol. 
instead of a simple partcp., ibid., R. 6. 
Partcp. with a substant. governed by 
a preiwsition instead of the gen. absol., 
ibid., R. 7. Partcp. in the accus. 
absol. from impersonal phrases, and 



2/2 



Index II. 



after ws, asnep, 182 with R. (wt/ 
omitted, E. 3.) Tenses of the par- 
ticiple, 183. (See Present, Aorist.) 
Partcp. with av, 184 (not the future, 
R.). Position of the partcp. with the 
article, 9 a, and E. 1. Partcp. of 
certain impersonal verbs used per- 
sonally with the infin., 165 a, E. 

Particles which cannot begin a sentence, 
219 b. 

Passive used impersonally, 7 b, and E. ; 
formed in a certain connexion from 
verbs not transitive, 26 a, and 27 a 
{6^€^i(xip,ivos(Toi^los,Ta aot, TrfTrpeajBev- 
fiiva) ; predicated of the object of 
reference, 35 b, E. 3 ; formed from 
verbs which govern the dat., 36 a, 
E. 4; from verbs which govern the 
gen., 56, E. 2 : passive, where some- 
times in English, and oftener in Ger- 
man, the reflexive expression is used 
{T]6poi(T6r]v), 82 b; as deponent, 82 b, 
E. 1, c, E. 2. 

Perfect, in the indie, 112; of certain 
verbs as present, 112, E, 2 ; subjunc- 
tive, 128 b with E. ; optative, 134 ; 
with av, 135, 136 ; perfect infin. of 
the entirely finished action or state 
effected, 171, E. 1. 

Period, structure of, 220. 

Person, first plural instead of singular, 
1 a, E. 3 ; third plural without de- 
finite subject, 6 b ; singular of certain 
verbs impersonally, 7 a ; second per- 
son of an indefinite subject, 6 b. En- 
aUage of person, by transition from 
oraiio ohliqua into oratio recta, 192 b. 

Personal expression in Greek, where in 
other languages impersonal, 7 b, E. 3, 
165 a, E. (StKaios), 177 b (S^Xoy, 
<f)avep6s), ibid., E. 4 {apKa, fifXricov 
flui), 191, E. 1. 

Plural of the verb in speaking of two, 
1 a, E. 2 ; of the substantive, 1 a, 
E. 2 ; of the first person in speaking 
of one individual, ibid., E. 3 ; of ad- 
jectives in the neuter instead of the 
singular, 1 b, E. 4. Plural of the 
verb to a singular collective, 3a; to 
a singular subject with fierd, (tvv, 3 c. 
Sudden transition from the plural into 



the singular, 6 a, E. Plural of certain 
substantives, where in English the 
singular, 18 a and b. 

Plusquamperfectum (simple and compo- 
site), 114 ; plusquamperf. and (more 
frequently) aor. with eVet, &c., 114 c ; 
of certain verbs in the signification of 
the imperfect, 112, E. 2 ; with av, 117. 

Position of the adjective and the gen. to 
substantives with the article, 9, 10 ; 
position with the partitive gen., 50, 
E. 1 ; with the prepositions, 80 ; the 
ordinary position of words in the sen- 
tence, 217 a; rhetorically modified, 
ibid, b ; special remarks (on indefinite 
pronouns, particles, (f^^p-i), 219. 

Possessive pronoun, see Pron. Poss. 

Predicate to several connected subjects, 
2 with EE. ; conforming itself to the 
natural quality of the subject, 3 ; after 
an inserted apposition, 5 ; after a clause 
appended by rj, 5, E. ; the verb con- 
forming to the predicate noun, 4. The 
predicate noun to a partcp., taking its 
case from the partcp., 20, E. 2. A 
demonstrative pronoun instead of the 
predicate noun, 1 b, E. 5, and 24 b, 
E. 1. 

Prepositions ; their constructions and 
significations, 60 sqq. Prepositions to 
denote the acting person with the 
passive {vm, irapd, npes, i^, cltto), 
78 a. Prepositions of rest with verbs 
of motion, and conversely, 79 a. The 
prepositions separated from their case, 
80 a with E., by p.h and fie, 188, E. 1 ; 
put after their case, 80 b ; other posi- 
tions, ibid., c. and d ; repetition, ibid., 
d, E. Position, in a comparison by 
wy, asnep, ibid. The preposition of 
the demonstrative inaccurately re- 
peated with the relative, 103, E. 2, 
note ; omitted with the relative, 103, 
E. 4; breviloquentia and attraction 
{ctcji Tjs a)/xt'(Tare rjp.fpas), 103, E. 2, 
note. 

Present, indie, of that which is still going 
on, 110 a, E. 1 ; of certain verbs in- 
stead of perfect, ibid., E. 2 ; present 
for future, ibid., E. 3 ; historical pre- 
sent, 110 b with EE. ; present indie. 



Index II. 



^71 



in deliberative questions, 121, R. 2 ; 
pi-esent and imperfect indie, instead of 
present optat. after a praeterite, 130 b, 
132 b, d. Present infin. instead of 
future, 171 a, R. 2 ; of a more remote 
past after tbe imperfect {((prjv), 171 b, 
E. 1 ; as imperfect even after a prin- 
cipal verb in the present or future, 
ibid., R. 2. Partcp. of tbe present as 
imperfect even after a principal verb 
in the present or future, 183, E. 1. 

Principal sentence, wanting in expres- 
sions such as 6 8e jxiyia-rov, on, 197 
with R. ; by anacoluth. after a remark 
with 0)9, 2i6, R. 3. 

Pronoun in the neuter instead of a pre- 
dicate noun, 1 b, R. 5, and 24 b, R. 1; 
accus. of a pronoun in the neuter, 
where no accus. of a substantive, 25 b, 
R. 2, 27 a and R. Gender of tbe 
relative and demonstrative pronoun, 
where there are several substantives, 
97 a ; pronoun in the neuter plural, 
97 b. The pronouns referring to a 
substantive not expressed, but implied, 
99 b. 

, demonstrative, together with 

the article, 11 and R. 1 ; position in 
the gen. with the article, 10, R. 3. 
Pron., demonstr., attracted in gender 
to the following substant., 98 a (ex- 
ception, R.) ; in the neuter after 
masc. or femin. substant., 99 a; in the 
plural after et tis, 99 d; as object 
with an adjective in apposition {ravra 
aKt]6r] \iya, herein, &c.), KX) a ; with 
an interrog. pron., ibid, b; as object 
omitted, ibid, d ; redundant, ibid, e ; 
before the relative omitted, 102, 103 
(its place supplied by the attraction, 
102 a, R.). Pron., demonstr., ex- 
plained by a sentence in apposition, 
190 ; by a sentence with yap, 196 a. 

Pronoun, indefinite, with ^(ttiv before 
the relative omitted, 102 b ; before re- 
lative adverbs of place and time, ibid., 
R. 2 ; never stands first in the sen- 
tence, 219 a ; understood from an 
infin., 144, R. 2. 

, interrogative, in apposition to 

a demonstrative, 100 b ; governed by 



a partcp., 176 a, 181 a; in a depend, 
sentence, or in a periphrasis with the 
article, 198 a; two in one sentence, 
198 a, R. 1 ; direct (rls) for indirect, 
198 b (ttoZos for ot^oIq^, &c.). 

-, personal, as subject, omitted, 



6 a ; position of the gen., 10, R. 3 ; 
in the gen. = a possessive pronoun, 
67 a. 

-, possessive, with a gen. in ap- 



position, 67 a; instead of an objective 
gen., 67 b. 

-, relative, after 7 (with compa- 



rative), used or omitted, 91, R. 1 ; in 
the neuter to several substantives ot 
a different gender, 97 a ; in the plural 
to a substant. in the dual, 97 a, R ; 
in the plural to a substant. in the 
singular, 99 c; mascul. or fem. to a 
neuter term denoting a person, 99 e. 
The antecedent drawn into the relat. 
clause, 101 a and b (so a gen. or an 
adjective, ibid, b) ; draws the fore- 
going substant. to itself, in case, 101 a, 
R. The accus. of the relative after a 
dat. or gen. passes into the same case 
(by attraction), 103 (exceptions, R.) ; 
relative in the nominative neuter at- 
tracted to the dat. or gen., 103, R. 2. 
Attracted relative in the signification 
of ort, 103, R. 3. Rare and anomalous 
cases of attraction, 103, R., note. The 
relative with a preposition as conjunc- 
tion, 103, R. 3. A relative in the 
nominat. or accus. in the second mem- 
ber, to be understood from a different 
case preceding, 104 a; for the rela- 
tive in the second member a demon- 
strative, ibid. b. The relative attached 
to a person not expressly named, 195 c. 
A more specific statement attached to 
the relative in the infin. or in a depend, 
sentence, 195 d. The relative pro- 
noun attaching itself to a sentence 
dependent on the sentence which it 
connects, or to a partcp., 195 e. 
Relative in the neuter, in the sense 
as regards the circumstance that (or, 
the thing which &c.), 195 a. 
Proper names, use of the article with, 
13. 



274 



Index II. 



E. 

Relative sentences in the accus. c. infin., 
169 a. 

S. 

Sentences, connexion of, peculiarities of 
the, 185 sqq. 

Shall; this notion not expressed, but 
involved in the construction of accus. 
c. infin. in certain connexions, 164, 
166 b, 170 c. 

Singular of the verb (ecrnv, rjv, ylyverai) 
to a (following) subject in the plural 
(mascul. or femin.), 1 b, R. 2, note; 
of certain substantives, where a multi- 
tude is denoted, 18 c. 

Subject, suddenly changed without no- 
tice, 6 a, R. ; omitted in the gen. 
absol., 181 a, R. 4 a and b. The sub- 
ject of the depend, sentence attracted 
as object into the primary sentence, 
191. 

Subjunctive and optative in general, 119 
with R. Subjunct. in exhortation and 
demand, 120 a; with y.r] in prohibi- 
tion, 120 b, and 142 (the first person, 
in entreaty, 120, R.) ; in questions, 
ivhat is one to — ? 121 ; in sentences 
of intention (final), 122; in object- 
sentences with OTTO)? and oVcos /xij, 123; 
with ixT] after 8e8oiKa, &c., 124 a; with 
eav, 125 ; with relative words with 
av, 126 (without (iv, R. 2) ; with 
temporal conjunctions with civ, 127 
(without civ, R. 2). Tenses of the sub- 
junc, 128 (see Aorist, Perfect). Sub- 
junct. retained instead of optat. after a 
primary sentence of past time, 131. b. < 

Substantives poetically put for adjec- 
tives, 87 b, R. 2. 

Superlative, as predicate, without article, 
8, R. 3. Superl. of a very high de- 
gree, 95 ; with a partitive gen., not 
referring to the subject of the superb, 
95, R. 1 ; with avToi, 95, R. 2 ; with 



TToXXw, fxaKpa, as tvvarov, &C., wr, on, 
&C.,96 [^i^j'- 307 d]; ndXicTTa dvorjTO- 
TOTos, ibid., R. 1 ; superl. with olos, 
ibid. ; with eV toIs, ibid., R. 2 ; with 
a redundant ctXXmv to the partitive 
gen., and in some sort instead of the 
comparative, 96, R. 3, and note. 

T. 

Temporal adverbs, with a partitive gen., 
50 b. 

conjunctions with and without 

•. civ, 127 and R. 1. 

Tenses of the indie, 109 sqq. ; of the 
subjunctive, 128; of the optative, 134; 
of the infinitive, 172 ; of the participle, 
183. The tenses in prseterito not de- 
noted in oratio ohUqua after a prsete- 
i-ite, when the indie, is retained, 130 b, 
R. 1. 

Time, specifications of, in the accus., 30 ; 
in the dat., 45 a ; in the gen., 66. 

Transitive verbs in Greek, where the 
English verbs are intransitive, 22 a ; 
by composition with a preposition, 
23 a. 



Verb, the, understood from a co-ordinate 
sentence, 214 with R. 1 ; from the 
principal or accessory sentence, ibid., 
R. 2 ; from a sentence not grammati- 
cally connected, R. 3. The verb ellip- 
ticaliy omitted, 215 a {eljxi) and b (other 
verbs). The verb and its kinds, 82 
sqq. The verb {dvai, yiyvfo-dai) con- 
forming to the predicate noun, 4. 

W. 

Wishes, different forms, 129 with R. 1 
and 2. 



Zeugma, 214, R. 4. 



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